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研究生:許弘宜
研究生(外文):Hong-yi Hsu
論文名稱:認真對待正義-羅爾斯論公民不服從
論文名稱(外文):Taking justice seriously-Rawls on civil disobedience
指導教授:莊文瑞莊文瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Ruey Chuang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:哲學系
學門:人文學門
學類:哲學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:認真對待正義具有道德地位之人穩定性正義感正義理論羅爾斯金恩梭羅蘇格拉底公民不服從
外文關鍵詞:Taking Justice SeriouslyMoral PersonStabilityA Sense of JusticeA Theory of JusticeCivil DisobedienceSocratesThoreauKingRawls
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「公民不服從」是民主政治發展中相當特殊的實踐,作為現今民主社會經常出現的意見表達方式,尤以60年代的美國最為蓬勃,如:黑人民權運動、反越戰等等。我們擬從當代政治哲學家羅爾斯正義理論,探究「公民不服從」對民主憲政有什麼樣的意義與作用。本論文主要分為兩部分。第一,考察公民不服從的思想源頭與發展。其中,蘇格拉底的審判、梭羅的違法抗稅、金恩的非暴力抵抗,是主要的歷史案例;同時也是公民不服從思想發展的三個轉折點。然而,前兩者僅呈現「公民不服從」的部分意涵,對有些學者和哲學家來說並不完整,一直要到金恩的實踐,「公民不服從」的思想才算發展成熟。其次,具體的不服從實踐僅是一種行動,它們對民主政治發展所呈現意義與作用,還必須靠理論來解釋與指導,因此,本文的第二個部分即是探討羅爾斯如何建構出系統性的「公民不服從理論」,以及它在羅爾斯整個正義理論裡扮演著什麼角色。
本論文的主要目的,不僅關懷羅爾斯是如何理解作為特殊政治、社會實踐的公民不服從,更重要的是,在一「接近正義」的民主社會中,人們要如何應用「公民不服從理論」追求「理想的正義社會」,致使「公民不服從理論」成為「正義理論」的補充理論。當民主國家中的人們將公民不服從作為意見表達的最後手段時,無異表示政治參與的實踐程序出現了重大的瑕疵。由此,反思公民不服從對於民主政治發展的意義與影響,自有其必要性。藉由羅爾斯的正義理論,可以了解「正義感」對於身處於自由民主社會中的我們,究竟有何重要性與價值。沒有「正義感」作為公民間紐帶,社會就不具有穩定性。無論是「理想的正義理論」或者「公民不服從理論」,「正義感」其實都具有關鍵的地位與作用。僅當「正義感」在理論中得到有效的說明,才能澄清我們心中業已接受的正義理念,因而,我們也才能說我們是民主社會中「具有道德地位之人」(moral person),享有法治社會的道德尊重。透過「公民不服從」的研究可以彰顯羅爾斯正義理論的真正論旨;同時,也能夠了解當法律不正義或不公平地對待我們時,為何我們會採取行動要求當局「認真對待正義」。
“Civil disobedience” is a development from the democratic politics, which unfolds a rather special practice and often occur a way of expression in the democracy society now, is especially most vigorous by the 60’s America, for example: black civil rights, anti-Vietnam War movement and so on. I intend to study what significance and role “Civil disobedience” play in the democratic constitution from the view of Rawls’ a theory of justice. For the most part this essay has two parts. First I inquired into the thought source and development of civil disobedience. Among them, Socrates’ trial, Thoreau’s refusal to pay poll tax and King’s nonviolent resistance, are the main history case;With they also are three transitional points of civil disobedience. However, Socrates and Thoreau merely present the partial significance of civil disobedience, it is not incomplete from some scholar and philosopher’s opinion. Until King’s practice civil disobedience only then calculated as mature. Next, the practice of the concrete disobedience justly is a kind of action, must depend on a theory to explain and direction, therefore, this essay second part is to survey how Rawls constructs a systematic theory of civil disobedience, and what role it act in Rawls’s a theory of justice.
The main purposes of this essay not only concerns how Rawls understands civil disobedience as special political and social practice, but, more importantly, how people apply “a theory of civil disobedience” to pursue “the ideal just society” in a “near-just” democracy society, making “a theory of civil disobedience” the supplemental theory of “a theory of justice”. When people make civil disobedience last resort of expression, to show the practice procedure of political participation have the significant slight defect. From this, the reconsidering civil disobedience has its necessity. By Rawls’s a theory of justice, may understands the “sense of justice” to have what actually importance and value for us in the liberal democracy. There is no “sense of justice” between a bond of citizen, a society doesn’t have stability. No matter what is “the ideal theory of justice” or “civil disobedience”, the “sense of justice” actually plays a key role and status. Only if the “sense of justice” is explained in a theory, it clarifies the idea of justice accepted in our heart, thus, we may say we are moral persons in a democracy society, having a moral respect by the rule of law society.
認真對待正義-羅爾斯論公民不服從

目錄

第一章  導論
 
公民不服從與守法的義務………………………………………….1

第二章  公民不服從的傳統與創新………………………….8

第一節 蘇格拉底的審判…………………………………………..10
第二節 梭羅的違法抗稅…………………………………………..18
第三節 金恩的非暴力抵抗………………………………………..27

第三章  認真對待正義………………………………………..36

第一節 社會合作與正義分配……………………………………..38
第二節 正義觀的推導理路………………………………………..59
第三節 正義憲法與公民不服從…………………………………..77

第四章 結論..........................................96
參考文獻

西文資料

西文書目
1.Aristotles , Nicomachean Ethics , (tran. and ed.) by Roger Crisp , New York:Cambridge , 2000.
2.Hannah Arendt , Crises of the Republic:Lying in Politics , Civil Disobedience , On Violence , Thoughts on Politics and Revolution , San Diego , New York , London:Harcourt Brace & Company , 1972.
3.Christian Bay , ‘Civil Disobedience’ , in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , (ed.) by David L. Sills , Vol. II , New York:The Macmillan Company and The Free Press , 1968.
4.Harry Beran , The Consent Theory of Political Obligation , London , New York:Croom Helm ,1987.
5.Isaiah Berin , ‘Two Concept of Liberty ’ , in Contemporary Political Philosophy:An Anthology , (ed.) by Robert. E. Goodin and Philip Pettit , Cambridge , Mass.:Blackwell Publishers , 1997 , pp.391-417.
6.Hugo Adam Bedau (ed.) , Civil Disobedience , New York:Pegasus , 1969.
7.Hugo Adam Bedau (ed.) , Civil Disobedience in Focus , London:Routledge , 1991.
8.David Boucher and Paul Kelly (ed) , The Social Contract from Hobbes to Rawls , New York:Routledge , 1994.
9.Carl Cohen , Civil Disobedience: Conscience , Tactics , and the Law , New York:Columbia University Press , 1971.
10.Edward Craig (ed.) , Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Vol.3 , London , New York:Routledge , 1988.
11.Tom Campbell , Justice , 2nd ed , rev. and upd. , Houndmills , Basingstoke , Hampshire:Macmillan , 2001.
12.Ronald Dworkin , Taking Right Seriously, Cambridge , Mass:Harvard University Press , 1977.
13.Joel Feinberg , ‘Duty and Obligation in the Non-Ideal World’ , in Opponents and Implications of A Theory of Justice , (ed.) by Henry S. Richardson , New York , London:Garland Publishing , 1999.
14.Abe Fortas , Concerning Dissent and Civil Disobedience , New York:New American Library , 1968.
15.Robert H. Frank , Ben S. Bernanke , Principles of Economics , international edition , New York:McGraw-Hill/Irwin , 2001.
16.David Gauthier , Morals by Agreement , Oxford:Clarendon Press , 1987.
17.H. L. Hart , ‘Are there any Natural rights?’ , in Contemporary Political Philosophy:An Anthology , (ed.) by Robert. E. Goodin and Philip Pettit , Cambridge , Mass.:Blackwell Publishers , 1997 , pp.320-327.
18.H. L. Hart , ‘Rawls on liberty and its priority ,’ in John Rawls:Critical Assessments of Leading Political Philosophers , Vol. II:Principle of Justice I , (ed.) by Chandran Kukathas , London , New York:Routledge , 2003.
19.John Horton , Political Obligation , Atlantic Highlands , NJ:Humanities Press International , 1992.
20.Paul Harris (ed.) , Civil Disobedience , Lanham:University Press of America , 1989.
21.Paul Harris , ‘The Moral Obligation to Obey the Law’ , in On Political Obligation , (ed.) by Paul Harris , London , New York:Routledge , 1990.
22.Thomas Hobbes , ‘War , Peace and Sovereignty ,’ in Social Contract Theory , (ed.) by Michael Lessnoff , Washington Square , New York:New York University Press , 1990 , pp.50-67.
23.Vinit Haksar , Civil Disobedience , Threats , and Offers : Gandhi and Rawls , Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1986.
24.Chandran Kukathas and Philip Pettit , Rawls:A Theory of Justice and its Critic , Cambridge:Polity Press , 1990.
25.Martin Luther King , Jr. , Stride Toward Freedom , The Montgomery Story , New York:Harper and Row , 1958.
26.Martin Luther King , Jr. , ‘The Social Organization of Nonviolence’ , in A Testament of Hope:The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King , Jr. , (ed.) by James Melvin Washington , San Francisco:HarperSanFrancisco , 1986.
27.Richard Kraut , Socrates and the State , Princeton , New York:Princeton University Press , 1984.
28.John Locke , Two Treatises of Government , (ed.) with an introduction and notes by P. Laslett , London:Cambridge University Press , 1988.
29.Michael Lessnoff , Social Contract , Atlantic Highland , NJ:Humanities Press International , 1986.
30.Plato , Plato:five great dialogues , ed. and intro. by Louise Ropes Loomis , New York , Avenel:Gramercy Book , 1942.
31.Thomas W. Pogge , Realizing Rawls , Ithaca:Cornell University Press , 1989.
32.D.D. Raphael , Problems of Political Philosophy , 2nd ed , rev. and enl. , Atlantic Highland , NJ:Humanities Press International , 1990.
33.John Rawls , A Theory of Justice , Cambridge , Mass.:Belknap Press of Harvard University Press , 1971.
34.John Rawls , A Theory of Justice , revised edition , New York , Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1999.
35.John Rawls , ‘Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play’ , in Law and Philosophy , (ed.) by Sidney Hook , New York:New York University , 1964.
36.John Rawls , ‘Social Unity and Primary Good,’ in Utilitarianism and Beyond , (ed.) by Amartya Sen and Bernard Williams , Cambridge , New York:Cambridge University Press , 1982 , pp.159-186.
37.John Rawls , ‘The Basic Liberties and Their Priority,’ in Political Liberalism , New York:Columbia University Press , 1993.
38.M. B. E. Smith , ‘The duty to Obey the Law’ , in A Companion to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory , (ed.) by Dennis Patterson , Cambridge , Mass.:Blackwell Pub. , 1996 , pp.465-487.
39.Peter Singer , Democracy and Disobedience , Oxford:Clarendon Press , 1973.
40.A. John , Simmons , ‘Civil Disobedience and the Duty to Obey the Law’ , in A Companion to Applied Ethics , R.G. Frey and Christopher Heath Wellman (ed.) , Malden , MA:Blackwell Pub., 2003 , p50-61.
41.A. John , Simmons , Moral Principles and Political obligation , Princeton , N.J.:Princeton University Press , 1979.
42.Gerasimos Xenophon Santas , Socrates , London , New York:Routledge , 1979.
43.Henry D. Thoreau , Walden and Civil Disobedience , (ed.) by O. Thomas , New York:W.W. Norton and Company Inc., 1992.
44.Mark Tebbit , Philosophy of Law:An Introduction , London , New York:Routledge , 2000.
45.Michael Walzer , Obligations:Essays on Disobedience , War , and Citizenship , Cambridge , Massachusetts , London , England:Harvard University Press , 1970.
46.Howard Zinn , Disobedience and Democracy:nine fallacies on Law and Order , New York:Random House , 1968.

西文期刊
1.Hugo Adam Bedau , ‘On Civil Disobedience’ , in The Journal of Philosophy , Vol.58 , No.21 , Oct. 1961 , pp.653-665.
2.J. Angelo, Corlett, ‘What is Civil Disobedience?,’ Philosophical Papers , Vol.26 , No.3 , Nov.1997 , pp.241-259.
3.Marshall Cohen , ‘Liberalism and Disobedience’ , in Philosophy and Public Affair, Vol.1 , No.3 , 1972
4.Marshall Cohen , ‘Civil Disobedience in Constitutional Democracy’ , in The Massachusetts Review , Vol.10 , Spr. 1969.
5.Chrsopher. D. Herrera , ‘Civil Disobedience and Plato's "Crito"’ , in Southern Journal of Philosophy , Vol.33 , No.1 , Spr 1995 , pp39-55.
6.Edward A. Harris , ‘From Social Contract to Hypothetical Agreement:Consent and the Obligation to Obey the Law’ , in Columbia Law Review , Vol.92 , No.3 , 1992.
7.David Lyons , ‘Morality Judgment , Historical Reality , and Civil Obedience’ , in Philosophy and Public Affairs , Vol.27 , No.1 , winter 1998 , pp.31-49.
8.Harry Prosch , ‘Limits to the Moral Claim in Civil Disobedience’ , in Ethics , 75 , No.2 , Jan. 1965.
9.Brian Smart , ‘Defining Civil Disobedience’ , in Inquiry , 21 , 1978 , pp.249-69.
.
中文資料

中文書目:專著部分
1.石元康著,〈從原初的境況到公正的社會〉,收錄在《當代自由主義理論》,聯經,1995,頁105-134。
2.戴華著,〈個人與社會正義:探討羅爾斯正義理論中的「道德人」〉,收錄在《正義及其相關問題》,戴華、鄭曉時主編,中央研究院中山人文社會科學研究所專書(28),民80,頁257-280。
3.謝世民著,〈論德我肯的資源平等〉,收錄在《人文及社會科學集刊》,第十一卷第一期,民88,頁123-153。
4.蘇文流著,〈《克力圖》中正義與服從的關係:一個初步的分析〉,收錄在《正義及其相關問題》,戴華、鄭曉時主編,中央研究院中山人文社會科學研究所專書(28),民80,頁31-49。
5.蘇文流著,〈服從與政治社群:《克力圖》與《辯護》中蘇格拉底的論點初探〉,收錄在《政治社群》,江宜樺、陳秀容主編,中央研究院中山人文社會科學研究所專書(38),民84,頁1-22。
6.蘇文流著,〈蘇格拉底與民主政治〉,收錄在《民主理論:古典與現代》,張福建、蘇文流主編,中央研究院中山人文社會科學研究所專書(35),民84,頁1-20。
7.許漢著,〈自由民主社會中的容忍問題〉,收錄在《人文及社會科學集刊》,第十三卷第三期,民國90年9月,頁345-381。
8.錢永詳著,〈社會整合與羅爾斯自由主義的政治性格〉,收錄在《縱欲與虛無之上-現代情境裡的政治倫理》,台北:聯經,2001年,頁273-274。
9.許志雄、陳銘祥等合著,《現代憲法論》,台北:元照,1999。
10.陳新民著,〈國民抵抗權的制度與概念〉,收錄在《憲法基本權利之基本理論》,下冊,作者自版,民國80年,頁1-56。
11.許宗力著,〈試論民主法治國家的公民不服從〉,收錄在《法與國家權力》,台北:月旦出版,1993,頁73-166。
12.張清溪、許嘉棟等合著,《經濟學-理論與實際》,三版˙上冊,台灣,台北:翰蘆圖書,1995年8月。
13.羅豪才、吳擷英著,《憲法與政治制度》,洛克出版社,1997。

中文書目:譯著部分
1.Arthur Kaufmann著,劉幸義主譯,《法律哲學》(Rechtsphilosophie),台北:五南,2000,頁157。
2.George H. Sabine著《西方政治哲學思想史》(A History of Political Theory),,李少軍、尚新建譯,桂冠,1991。
3.Herbert M.Levine著,《最新政治學爭辯的議題》(Political Issues Debated An Introduction to Politics),王業立、林佳龍、郭應哲 譯,韋伯文化,2003。
4.Thomas Hobbes著,《利維坦》,朱敏章譯,台灣商務,2002。
5.Will Kymlicka著《當代政治哲學導論》(Contemporary Political Philosophy),,劉莘譯,聯經,2001。
6.Gordon Graham著,黃藿譯,《當代社會哲學》,台北市:桂冠,1995。
7.Gerald C. MacCallum著,李少軍、尚新建譯,《政治哲學》,台北:桂冠,1994。

中文期刊
1.徐振雄,〈服從法律的義務與不服從的權利〉,載於《萬能學報》,台灣,桃園縣:萬能科技大學,第二十三期,民90.08,頁335-351。
2.徐振雄,〈市民不服從與交疊共識〉,《月旦法學》,79期,民90.12 頁126-141。

碩士論文
1.林明裕,《公民不服從及其政治理據的問題》,清華大學哲學研究所,碩士論文。2001。
2.陳彥穎,《由契約論角度論民主政治下之公民不服從》,中央大學哲學研究所,碩士論文,2000。
3.楊士奇,《德沃金論公民不服從》,政治大學哲學研究所,碩士論文,2001
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