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研究生:黃政卿
研究生(外文):cheng-ching Huang
論文名稱:營運環境對大陸銀行經營績效影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of the effects on the performance of Chinese banks incorporating the external operating environment.
指導教授:邱永和邱永和引用關係李揚李揚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yung - Ho ChiuYang Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:技術效率資料包絡分析法外部操作環境
外文關鍵詞:Data Envelopment Analysisexternal operating enviromenttechnical efficiency
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未來五年中,中國金融改革和對外開放的速度都將進一步加快,利率市場化將取得重大進展,混業經營會展露頭角,銀行業結構會多元化,金融體系更加開放,當局對銀行業的監管日益強化,導致大陸銀行已進入高度競爭的時代,銀行經營者必須因應經營環境的嚴峻考驗,增進銀行經濟效率與經營績效,以反映銀行對其資源的有效配置、銀行市場競爭能力、投入產出能力和可持續發展的能力。但是由於中國大陸銀行體系隨著中國整體經濟的發展與體制變革而改變,其運行狀況、發展趨勢及其對經濟運行的效應都受到很多外部因素的影響。因此,準確測量中國銀行經營者的管理效率必須將外部環境因素剔除才能了解之。
本文利用1996-2003年間存續的18家中國大陸銀行,藉由Fried et al. (1999)提出之調整DEA方法的四階段模式來進行分析,以中介法決定投入與產出變數,投入變數為固定資產淨值、存款和員工人數,產出變數為投資、貸款和其他收入。第一階段使用DEA模式來衡量此七年期各家銀行生產效率值,利用線性規劃求出Farrell技術效率值及各投入項之投入差額。第二階段以投入的差額變數為被解釋變數,及所有權結構、性質別、上市與否、全國或地區性等外在環境為解釋變數,採取Tobit模型之應用,判斷外在環境對各投入差額的關係及影響,第三階段預期個別銀行各項投入差額值,依據此預期值調整投入資料使所有銀行皆處於相同之作業環境。第四階段利用調整後的數據資料重新估計銀行效率值。
實證結果發現,政策性銀行業務來源、資金籌措有政府強力支援,相對於專業性銀行與股份制商業銀行處於較有利於經營的環境;官股比重高需配合政府政策目標為導向,經營方式不自主和保守,相對於部分官股與純民營的銀行處於較差的經營環境。考慮外在因素之後,無效率來源主要源自於不同規模報酬之營運。控制環境前後,技術效率、純粹技術效率和規模效率平均排序變動分別為6.111名、5.556名和7.556名,技術效率差異十名以上的銀行有中國銀行、中國工商銀行、中國建設銀行、中國農業銀行、中國農業發展銀行、中國進出口銀行,可知樣本銀行管理效率受到外在環境影響顯著。全國性銀行管理監督不易、要素投入閒置,經營環境相對上較地區性銀行不利,而兩類銀行差異主源自於規模效率。上市銀行集資便利、財務會計和監理制度透明化,相對於未上市銀行擁有優勢的經營環境,而兩類銀行差異同樣多來自於規模效率。
In the coming five years, Chinese finance reform and opening up to foreign countries will all further speed up; interest rate market will make a significant progress; assorted industry management will show talents, construction of banking industry will be more multiplicated; financial system will be more opened; banking authorities will strengthen in supervising and governing the banking industry day by day, leading mainland Chinese banks into a fiercely competing era. Bank operators will have to act in accordance to the stern tests of the managing environment in order to stimulate bank economic efficiency and management achievement. It will reflect that the banks are dispositioning effectively to its resources. This will also reflect the bank’s ability in competence, production, and sustainable development. On the other hand because the bank system of mainland China transforms along with the Chinese overall economy development, its operating condition and development tendency will all receive various influences from many external factors as to the economical movement. Therefore, to accurately calculate the Bank of China operator’s management efficiency, is to dismiss the external environmental elements to fully understand it.
This article uses audits of 18 mainland Chinese banks during 1996-2003 and applies Fried’s four-step model for adjusting the DEA for analysis (Fried et al 1999). By using the intermediary method to determine the input and output variables, the input variable as the fixed asset net worth, financial deposit and the staff population, the output variable as investment, loan and other forms of income. The first stage uses the DEA pattern to weigh various bank production efficiency value in these seven years and extracts the Farrell technology efficiency value and each investment input differences using the linear programming. The second stage uses the input differential variable as the passive explained variable. Property holding rights structure, characteristic nature differences, marketing opportunity, and the environment of national or regional areas is the active explained variable by applying the Tobit model in judging the external environment to each input difference relations and influences. The third stage anticipates the investment input difference of each individual bank. According to the above estimation to adjust the required investment material values so that all will be in the same working surroundings. The fourth stage uses adjusted data material to re-estimate the bank efficiency value.
The proven end result revealed that clientele acquisition policy and government support in funding are more favorable towards governed banks in operational environment compare to the specialized banks and the joint stock system commercial banks; the high rate of official stock proportion coordinates the government policy goal is the guidance. The operating way is constrained, conservative and is opposite with the worse management environment to the partial official stock with total privately operated bank. After considering the external factor, the inefficiency mainly originates from different approaches towards profit gained. Prior to and after having controlled the environment, the technical efficiency, dedicating technical efficiency and the scale efficiency, their average arrangements change respectively in 6.111, 5.556 and 7.556. The banks whose efficiency differences that is ranked above ten are: the Bank of China, the Chinese Industry and Commerce Bank, the Chinese Construction Bank, the Agriculture Bank of China, the China Agricultural Development Bank, and the China Import Export Bank. It can be recognized that the managing efficiency within the sample banks is significantly related to the external environment. Nationwide banks are not effortless to manage and supervise. Other factors aside, therefore they are at a more disadvantage operating condition. But these two kinds of bank can be differentiated from their scaling efficiency. This is quite advantageous for established banks to gather capital, and also to make the process of financial inventory accounting and supervising policy transparent; in contrast of un-established banks with superior managing environment. And these two kinds of bank are once again can be distinguished through their managing policy and efficiency.
目 錄
第一章 緒論............................................................. 1
第一節 研究背景......................................................... 1
第二節 研究目的與限制................................................... 2
第一項 研究目的......................................................... 2
第二項 研究限制......................................................... 3
第三節 本文架構與研究流程............................................... 4

第二章 文獻回顧......................................................... 6
第一節 中國銀行業改革之歷史與背景....................................... 6
第二節 國內外銀行業相關文獻探討......................................... 10
第一項 國外以DEA法衡量銀行經營績效之相關文獻............................ 12
第二項 國內以DEA法衡量銀行經營績效之相關文獻............................ 14
第三項 中國大陸以DEA法衡量銀行經營績效之相關文獻........................ 15

第三章 實證模型......................................................... 25
第一節 DEA效率評估模式.................................................. 25
第二節 DEA四階段分析法.................................................. 31

第四章 實證結果與分析................................................... 37
第一節 資料蒐集與變數定義............................................... 37
第一項 樣本銀行......................................................... 37
第二項 變數定義與資料處理............................................... 37
第二節 實證分析......................................................... 42
第三節 效率相關性分析與差異性檢定....................................... 61

第五章 結論與建議....................................................... 65

參考文獻.................................................................69
附錄.................................................................... 73
一、中文部分
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二、英文部分
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University of New England (2004), “A Guide to DEAP Version 2.1: A Data Envelopment Analysis (Computer) Program”, http://www.une.edu.au/ econometrics/ cepa.htm.
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