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研究生:張家銘
研究生(外文):Chia-Ming Chang
論文名稱:油電混合式全數位控制系統設計與實現
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of a Fully Digital Hybrid Hydraulic and Electric Controller
指導教授:王明賢王明賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Shyan Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:146
中文關鍵詞:塑膠射出成型機油電混合式系統自動增益調整慣量估測適應性模糊控制交錯並聯式訊號取樣架構解析度切換點液壓式成型機正確性
外文關鍵詞:Injection modeling machinehybrid hydraulic and electric control systemauto-tuningload inertia estimationadaptive fuzzy controlin-parallel interlaced sampling
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本論文提出油電混合式全數位控制系統設計與實現,主要針對電氣式系統以及液壓式系統進行整合,達到油電混合式的架構,並且以DSP TMS320F2407晶片實現全數位控制器的研製。油電混合式系統主要應用於塑膠射出成型機,其中電氣式系統以永磁同步馬達帶動滾珠螺台,液壓式系統以伺服閥控制液壓缸實現,包含成型製程中所需的速度與壓力控制,因此本論文提出之控制器架構可應用於電氣式或液壓式的塑膠成型機中。
本論文於油電混合式控制系統中,提出三項重要的學理為研究目標,使整體系統趨於完善,包含1. 自動增益調整與慣量估測、2. 適應性模糊控制速度與壓力切換點補償、3. 交錯並聯式訊號取樣架構。本論文之所提可使電氣式系統中馬達控制有負載慣量估測的能力,並且依慣量估測結果,以適當的增益初值進行自動增益調整;適應性模糊控制於成型製程中,使速度與壓力控制切換點的壓力下降問題可獲得解決;交錯並聯式訊號取樣架構,於數位脈波訊號或類比訊號取樣之回授系統中,可獲得更高的速度估測回授頻寬,或更高的解析度。本論文提出之油電混合式全數位控制器,可應用於電氣式或液壓式塑膠成型機,並可解決國內相關產業中常見的問題與瓶頸,使其獲得有效地改善。
最後以實驗結果驗證本論文之混合式控制系統,由實驗結果可顯示速度與壓力控制壓力下降問題已解決、速度估測回授頻寬獲得改善、負載慣量估測與自動增益調整有很好且快速收斂的效果,由此可證得本論文之正確性與架構完整性。
The design and implementation of a DSP-based fully digital hybrid hydraulic and electric controller is proposed in the thesis. The controller is applied to the injection modeling machines in which ball screws are driven by permanent-magnet synchronous motors or hydraulic cylinders driven by servo valves.
To improve the system performance, three topics are studied in the hybrid control system, auto-tuning design and load inertia estimation, adaptive fuzzy control at transfer point of velocity and pressure control, and in-parallel interlaced sampling. According to the estimation of the motor load, appropriately initial values of proportional and integral gains are set. During the switching between velocity and pressure control, the adaptive fuzzy control is employed to resolve the phenomenon of pressure drop.
The architecture of in-parallel interlaced sampling may have larger speed-loop bandwidth and higher resolution. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed algorithms implemental in the DSP-based controller.
摘 要 I
Abstract II
誌 謝 III
目 錄 IV
圖 目 錄 VII
表 目 錄 XIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 2
1-2 論文章節介紹 3
第二章 塑膠射出成型機介紹 5
2-1 成型製程之速度/壓力控制介紹 5
2-2 速度與壓力控制切換方式 9
2-3 物料成型之保壓軌跡追蹤控制 10
第三章 DSP TMS320F2407簡介 11
3-1 DSP ( Digital Signal Processor ) 11
3-2 中央處理單元(CPU) 14
3-3 記憶體架構與輸出輸入空間 14
3-4 類比/數位轉換 (ADC) 16
3-5方形編碼器脈波電路 (QEP) 18
第四章 永磁同步馬達介紹 19
4-1 三相交流電動機之電路方程式 19
4-2 座標轉換 21
4-3 二相交流電動機之電路方程式 23
4-4 D-q座標表示之電路方程式 26
4-5 電動機之轉矩 28
第五章 液壓式系統與伺服閥介紹 29
5-1 液壓系統介紹 29
5-2 伺服閥介紹 31
第六章 電氣式馬達控制系統設計 34
6-1 電流控制系統設計 34
6-2 速度控制系統設計 36
第七章 空間向量脈波寬度調變 39
7-1 弦波式空間向量設計 40
7-2 SVPWM之合成與推導 41
第八章 自動增益調整與慣量估測 59
8-1 依據相位與增益裕度設定增益值介紹 60
8-2 負載觀測器作自動增益調整介紹 62
8-3 二自由度參數自動增益調整 63
8-4 最佳增益初值與二自由度範圍定義法 71
8-5 負載慣量估測法 75
第九章 適應性模糊控制速度與壓力切換補償 80
9-1 適應性模糊邏輯控制 81
9-2 積分器初值補償控制 84
第十章 交錯並聯式訊號取樣速度估測法 87
10-1 交錯並聯式架構設計與實現方法 88
10-2 直接型式FIR濾波器設計 93
10-3 交錯並聯取樣器與降取樣器之分析比較 94
第十一章 系統實驗結果與分析 100
11-1 電氣式系統實驗平台介紹 100
11-2 液壓式系統實驗平台介紹 103
11-3 自動增益調整與負載慣量估測驗證 107
11-4 適應性模糊控制速度與壓力切換補償之驗證 112
11-5 交錯並聯式訊號取樣法之分析與驗證 117
11-6 液壓式射出成型機之機械響應分析 121
第十二章 結論與未來展望 124
參考文獻 125
作者簡介 131
數位控制:
[1] L .H. Hoang, “Microprocessors and digital IC’s for motion control,” Proceedings of IEEE, vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 1140-1163, Aug. 1994.
[2] P. Pillay and J. W. Schilleci, “DSP controller for a permanent megnet synchronous motor drive,” Creative Technology Transfer - A Global Affair., Proceedings of IEEE, pp. 413-417, April 1994.
[3] Y. S. Kung, C. W. Chen and Y. S. Hsu, “Implementation of a DSP-based servo motion controller for X-Y table,” The 22nd Symposium on Electric Power Eng., pp. 1011-1015, Nov. 2001.
[4] J. P. Karunadasa, “Design and implementation of microprocessor based sliding mode controller for brushless servomotor,” Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings B, vol. 138﹐No. 6﹐pp. 345-363, 1991.

伺服控制系統:
[5] P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, “Modeling, simulation, and analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives. I. The permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive,” IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, vol. 25﹐no. 2﹐pp. 265-273﹐March-April 1989.
[6] B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and AC Drivers, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1989.
[7] 劉昌煥主編,電機機械,東華書局,台北,1999。
[8] 劉昌煥,交流電機控制-向量控制與直接轉矩控制原理,東華書局,2001。
[9] 劉昌煥校訂,許溢适譯著,AC伺服系統的理論與設計實務,文笙書局,台北, 1995。
自動增益調整:
[10] 三菱汎用AC servo MELSER VO-J2-A 使用手冊,Mitsubishi Co., Japan, 1997.
[11] Digital AC Servo System-EODA 操作手冊,日本信濃電氣株式會社。
[12] Q. Guo, L. Wang, and R. Luo, “Completely digital PMSM servosystem based on new self-tuning PID algorithm and DSP,” Proc. ICIT, pp. 71-75, 1996.
[13] W. K. Ho., C. C. Hang, and L. S. Gao, “Tuning of PI controllers based on gain and phase margin specifications,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol. 2, pp. 879-883, May 1992.
[14] P. J. Gawthrop, “Self-tuning PID controllers: An algorithms and implementation,” IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 201-209, 1986.
[15] P. J. Gawthrop and P. E. Nomikos, “Automatic tuning of commercial PID Controllers for single-loop and multiloop applications,” IEEE Control systems Magazine, pp.34-42, Jan. 1990.
[16] K. J. Astrom and K. J. Hagglund, PID Control: Theory, Design, and Tuning, 2nd ed., Reasearch Triangle Park, NC: ISA, 1995.
[17] E. Grassi and K. Tsakalis, “PID controller tuning by frequency loop-shaping: application to diffusion furnace temperature control,” IEEE Trans. Control Systems Tech., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 840-847, 2000.
[18] K. Y. Cheng, S. Y. Lin, and Y. Y. Tzou, “On-line auto-tuning of a DSP-controlled BLDC servo drive,” IEEE 32nd Annual Specialists Conference on Power Electronics, PESC., vol. 3, no. 17-21, pp. 1683-1688, June 2001.
[19] M. B. Naumovic, “Experience with self-tuning Control design in high-precision positioning systems,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol. 2, pp.712-717, July 1995.
[20] A. Jankumas, “Optimal adaptive control for estimation of parameters of ARX models,” IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 964-968, May 2000.
[21] W. Liu; G. Wang, “Auto-tuning procedure for model-based predictive controller,” IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 5, pp. 3421-3426, 2000.
[22] C. H. Tsai; C. H. Wang and W. S. Lin, “Robust fuzzy model-following control of robot manipulators,” IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 8, pp. 462-469, Aug. 2000.
[23] T. Sugie and T. Yoshikawa, “General solution of robust tracking problem in two-degree-of-freedom control systems,” IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, vol. 31, pp. 552-554, June 1986.
[24] N. Hur, K. Nam, and S. Won, “A two-degrees-of-freedom current control scheme for deadtime compensation,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, June 2000.
[25] Y. Y. Tzou and Y. F. Lin, “Auto-tuning control of self-commissioning electric drives Industrial Electronics,” IECON. 23rd International Conference on Control and Instrumentation, vol. 2, no. 9-14, pp. 483-487, Nov. 1997.
[26] Y. Y. Tzou, H. Wu, S. Y. Lin and J. Y. Lin, “Auto-tuning self-commissioning control of a universal drive,” 29th Annual IEEE Specialists Conference on Power Electronics, vo. 1, no. 17-22, pp. 287-293, May 1998.

負載慣量估測:
[27] K. B. Lee, J. Y. Yoo, J. H. Song, and I. Choy, “Improvement of low speed operation of electric machine with an inertia identification using ROELO,” IEE Proceedings on Electric Power Applications, vol. 151, no. 9, pp. 116-120, Jan. 2004.
[28] K. B. Lee, J. H. Song, I. Choy and J. Y. Yoo, “An inertia identification using ROELO for low speed control of electric machine,” 18th Annual IEEE Conference and Exposition on Applied Power Electronics, vol. 2, no. 9-13, pp. 1052-1055, Feb. 2003.
[29] X. Feng and B. Chen, “Fuzzy-controlled DC drive system with load observer,” 4th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control, vol. 1, no. 18-21, pp. 354-358, March 1996.
[30] N. J. Kim, H. S. Moon, D. M. Lee and D. S. Hyun, “Inertia identification for the speed observer of the low speed control of induction machines,” 13th Annual IEEE on Industry Applications Conference, vol. 3, no. 8-12, pp. 1938-1943, Oct. 1995.
[31] C. S. Tsai and P. M. Chen, “Investigation on real-time estimation of rotor inertia,” Taiwan Power Electronics Conference, TPEC, 2002.

速度壓力控制:
[32] Z. Wang, Z. Hua, and Y. Lu, “Research for process control of switching over from injection to holding and holding based on cavity pressure,” IEEE Conference on Ind. , vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 514-518, Dec. 1994.
[33] J. Xinming and Z. Xuefeng, “Process parameter setting using case-based and fuzzy reasoning for injection molding,” Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, vol. 1, pp.335-340, 2000.
[34] J. H. Yang, “Nonlinear adaptive control for injection molding machines,” IECON, IEEE 28th Annual Conference, vol. 2, pp. 1663-1668, 2002.
[35] N. Akasaka, “A synchronous position control method at pressure control between multi-AC servomotors driven in injection molding machine,” SICE Annual Conference. , vol. 3, pp. 2712-2719, 2003.
[36] R. C. Luo, Y. S. Chen, C. C. Hua and H. C. Chen, “On-line self-tuning using embedded pressure sensors in the injection molding process,” IECON, 26th Annual IEEE Conference, vol. 2, pp. 1068-1073, 2000.

適應性模糊控制(壓力補償):
[37] K. K. Tan, S. N. Huang, and X. Jiang, “Adaptive control of ram velocity for the injection molding machine,” IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 663-671, 2001.
[38] Z. Kovacic, S. Bodan, and M. Puncec, “Adaptive fuzzy logic control based on integral criterion,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, pp. 55-60, 2000.
[39] H. Kang and G. Vachtsevanos, “Adaptive fuzzy logic control,” IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, pp. 407-414, 1992.
[40] Y. C. Chang, “Adaptive fuzzy-based tracking control for nonlinear SISO systems via VSS and H∞ approaches,” IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 278-292, 2001.
[41] M. Hojati, and S. Gazor, “Hybrid adaptive fuzzy identification and control of nonlinear systems,” IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 198-210, 2002.

數位訊號處理:
[42] Mitra, K., Digital Signal Processing, 2nd Ed., McGRAW-HILL, 2002.
[43] M. Bellanger, G. Bonnerot and M. Coudreuse, “Digital filtering by polyphase network: Application to sample rate alteration and filter banks,” IEEE Trans. Acoustics on Speech and Signal Processing, vol. 24, pp. 109-114, April 1976.

液壓系統:
[44] H. E. Merritt, Hydraulic Control Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1967.
[45] M. B. Histand and D. G. Alciatore, Introduetion to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems, McGRAW-HILL, 1999.
[46] K. Ogata, System Dynamics, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall International, 1998.
[47] R. N. Bateson, Introduction to Control System Technology, Prentice Hall, 1993.
[48] 陳靖編著,液氣壓學,文京圖書公司。
[49] 賴耿陽譯著,實用油壓技術-回路篇,復漢出版社。

資料手冊:
[50] The User Manual of SPR2-VLRC, BOSH Inc.
[51] The User Manual of DVP, MOOG Inc.
[52] The User Manual of SPR2-VLRC, PART Inc.
[53] The User Manual of TMS320F2407, TI Inc.
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