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研究生:陳宏祈
研究生(外文):Hung-Chi Chen
論文名稱:消防人員暴露多環芳香烴化合物之健康危害評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of health hazards of airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among fire-fighters
指導教授:吳佩芬吳佩芬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pei-Fen Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大仁科技大學
系所名稱:環境管理研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:尿液多環芳香烴煙塵消防人員1-hydroxypyrene
外文關鍵詞:polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonssmoke and soot1-hydroxypyrenefire-fighterurine
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消防人員因為工作上需經常進出火場中,因此暴露於物體燃燒所產生之煙塵(smoke and soot)是十分普遍的,火場的煙塵中除了最常產生CO、CO2、NOx與SO2等化合物之外,亦包含多環芳香烴化合物(Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,PAHs)。本研究主要分為問卷、肺功能檢測、環境採樣和個人尿液採樣四個部份,以南區消防人員為研究對象。問卷和肺功能檢測主要為評估消防人員的肺健康狀況、個人習慣(例如抽菸、喝酒與家族疾病史等)、救火出勤次數、擔任工作類別、火災種類…等方面的資料,進而統計分析各變數之間的相關性。環境採樣是採取火場中煙塵的空氣樣本,再分析空氣樣本中PAHs的濃度。個人尿液採樣是以採取消防人員出勤前後的尿液檢體,並分析其尿液中代謝物1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)的含量,以瞭解消防人員個人之PAHs暴露濃度,期能提供消防人員長期暴露於煙塵下之健康風險評估。
研究結果顯示,有關火場空氣中PAHs的平均總量為5.9 μg/m3,其中B(a)P之平均濃度為0.2 μg/m3,而pyrene之平均濃度為0.6 μg/m3。將消防人員依年資分組,結果發現年資越高,其咳嗽、咳痰、有咳嗽並且有咳痰、喘鳴及支氣管炎等之呼吸道症狀比率上進行比較,結果發現兩組間具有顯著差異(p<0.05)。另外將暴露組與非暴露組在罹患呼吸道症狀之比率上進行比較,結果發現兩組間具有顯著差異(p<0.05),暴露組比非暴露組較易罹患呼吸道疾病。本研究亦發現消防救火員出勤後尿液中1-OHP濃度為出勤前的16.5倍(p<0.05)。本研究證實消防人員在長期暴露在含有致癌物的煙塵下,確實會對肺部功能健康造成危害,未來研究重點應著重在消防人員健康危害的控制及改善,例如配戴防護器具以降低煙塵暴露量。
Fire-fighters are frequently exposed to smoke and soot from fireplaces. Smoke from a fire is a very complex mixture of gaseous compounds and particulate matter. Examples of compounds in fire smoke are carbon monoxide (CO); corbon dioxide (CO2); oxides of nitrogen (NOx) or sulfur dioxide (SO2); partially oxygenated hydrocarbons like aldehydes; and aliphatic and simple aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter (soot) containing a wide range of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Long-term exposure to smoke and soot containing human carcinogens would cause health hazards. The evaluation of lung function is undertaken before and after fire-fighters finish the fire-fighting duty. The data including physical examination, job categories were collected for statistical correlation analysis. The results of this study contain the analysis of carcinogens in smoke and soot from fireplace and risk assessment of short- and long-term health hazards in fire-fighters.
The exposure of Fire-fighting to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed by personal air sampling. Uptake of PAH was determined by biological monitoring, measuring a metabolite of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), in urine. In the results, the total-PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene concentrations were 5.9 μg/m3, 0.2μg/m3 and 0.6μg/m3, respectively. Because of seniority was higher so respiratory symptoms by fire-fighters were increased (p<0.05). There is high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among fire-fighters (p<0.05). We find that urinary excretion of 1-OHP in fire-fighters after fighting fire is significantly higher than that in fire-fighters before fighting fire is 16.5 (p<0.05). In summary, the results of this study find that the exposure of PAHs is significantly high among fire-fighters, which suggest the needs on taking protection measurements in the future.
摘要………………………………………………………………..…… I
Abstract……………..……………………………………………..……Ⅱ
目錄…………………………………………………………….…...…..Ⅳ
表錄………………………………………………………………..……Ⅶ
圖錄…………………………………………………………………..…Ⅷ
壹、前言………………………………………….……………..…....….1
貳、文獻回顧……………………………………………………….…...3
一、多環芳香烴化合物之物化特性………………………….……...3
二、多環芳香烴化合物之暴露來源………………………………....4
三、多環芳香烴化合物對人體之健康危害……..………………..…6
四、多環芳香烴化合物與Pyrene之關係……………….…..…………7
五、Pyrene與1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP)之關係…………….…………8
六、多環芳香烴化合物之生物偵測技術……………………..….…..8
七、1-hydroxypyrene代謝半衰期之研究…………………..….….….10
參、材料與方法…………………………………………...………..…...11
一、研究架構………..………………………………………….....….11
二、研究對象………………………………………………...…….…11
三、問卷…………………………….………………………...…….11
四、肺功能測定………………………………………………..…...12
五、環境採樣……………………………………………………….14
六、尿液採樣………………………………………..………….…. 16
七、尿液1-hydroxypyrene測定與分析……………………..……....16
(一)儀器設備……………………………………………………...17
(二)尿液前處理…………………………………………….…..…18
(三)高效率液相層析儀及螢光偵測器(HPLC/FLD)測定.…....19
八、尿液中肌酐酸(Creatinine)之測定…………………….……......22
九、尿液中1-OHP分析之品質保證與品質管制…………….……..24
十、資料處理與統計分析方法……………………………………..27
肆、結果與討論………………………………………..….…….……..29
ㄧ、結果………………………………..…………………………....29
(一)受測人員之基本資料描述………………………………...…29
(二)暴露組呼吸道疾病與工作年資之比較………………….…..30
(三)暴露組與非暴露組之呼吸道疾病之比較………………...…33
(四)消防人員尿液中1-OHP濃度……………………………...….35
(五)環境中多環芳香烴化合物之濃度………………………...…36
二、討論………………………………..…………………………...37
伍、結論…………………………………………………..……….…...41
參考文獻………………………………………………..………….…...42
附錄一………………………………………………..…………….…...51
附錄二………………………………………………..…………….…...52
附錄三………………………………………………..…………….…...54
附錄四………………………………………………..…………….…...56
附錄五………………………………………………..…………….…...58
附錄六………………………………………………..…………….…...62
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