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研究生:馬炘沂
研究生(外文):Sin-ye Ma
論文名稱:異質性電腦兵棋系統整合之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research of Integration of Heterogeneity War-game Simulation
指導教授:葛煥昭葛煥昭引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:高階架構執行基礎模擬演訓物件模版同步時間步長事件驅動
外文關鍵詞:HLARTIFOMSynchronizationTime StepEvent Driven
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隨訓練場地日減、高科技武器裝備日趨昂貴,再加以聯合作戰訓練內容亦日漸複雜,因之運用電腦模擬輔助部隊戰技與戰術訓練工作、部隊兵力部署分析規劃以及國家戰略制定,已為當前國際軍事技術發展之潮流,而其中應用最普遍者當為「電腦兵棋系統」。
然則所謂電腦兵棋系統其實仍可歸為訓練用途之「推演性模擬系統」以及作戰分析用之「分析性模式」等兩大類。惟不論是分析性模式或是推演性模式,均為針對特殊目的而建立,其模擬時間、人機互動及方法論等,亦各依其所需而各有所長;然因異質環境間無法溝通,致各模式僅能針對特定議題提供服務,而無法因應日益複雜之軍事事務,諸如聯合作戰模擬及兵力結構分析等重大國防建軍備戰議題。
在電腦軟硬體技術快速進步與網路系統迅速發展的當下,電腦兵棋系統之功能亦被期望能從各自獨立之模擬系統,發展為可以結合高速寬頻網路及分散式之模擬技術,以便成為可以同時進行聯合作戰演訓以及議題分析的整合性互動式電腦兵棋系統。
因此,本論文的研究目標即為探討如何將這些異質性的推演性與分析性電腦兵棋系統整合在一致之模擬環境內,共同進行演訓。試圖建構出一個嶄新之模式模擬架構,以提昇整體模擬效益與品質,並作為整合模擬演訓的依據與架構標準。
本論文將以「高階模擬架構(High Level Architecture, HLA)」規格設計分散式運算環境,以為連結異質性兵棋系統之主要架構,除了提升聯模演訓的設計便利性之外,由於HLA具有的模組化與可重複使用(Reusable)之特性,亦可作為未來建構聯合作戰分析模擬系統之基石。
The cost of weapon system is more and more expensive, and the range for training as well as the exercise is less and less possible in this Island-like country. In addition to that, the joint operations’ training is becoming more complicated than the ever before, the resolution for that is to use the computer simulation in the training instead of the traditional field training. The use of computer war game systems is an inevitable trend in the western countries.
The computer war game systems, in general, can be divided into two parts: the war game simulation system that is training oriented; the analytical simulation model that is operation analysis oriented. There are still differences between these two simulations, such as the run time, man machine interactions and methodologies, etc. Therefore, it is uneasy to make them interoperable and they perform as ad-hoc system for a specific purpose. Without the integration of these systems, it is impossible to handle the complex warfare issues well, such as joint warfare simulation and training, force structure analysis and the important defense issues.
In order to perform the interactive joint warfare trainings and some analyses simultaneously, with the advanced computer technologies and network systems, it is possible to integrate the existed stand-alone simulation systems as the distributed simulation.
The objective of this thesis is to do the research of the integrating these heterogeneity war game simulation systems and analytical simulation systems into a common simulation environment in order for the multilateral trainings or exercises. In doing so, it is a necessary intension to establish a new modeling and simulation structure for being the foundation and structure standard of the integrated simulation in trainings and exercises, that would benefit the effectiveness and quality of integral simulation.
High Level Architecture, HLA, will be the basis of designing the distribution operating environment and the major structure of linking heterogeneity war game systems. Because HLA has the characteristics of modulization and reusability, it can not only improve the convenience of designing joint simulated trainings and exercises but also be the basis of constructing joint warfare analytical simulation systems.
第一章 研究目的 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究動機與背景 1
1.3研究目的與研究重點 3
1.4研究方法與步驟 5
1.5研究目標 6
第二章 模式模擬與電腦兵棋之軍事應用 9
2.1定義 9
2.2模式、模擬與兵棋之關係 10
2.3模式模擬分類 11
2.4聯合作戰模擬 16
第三章 整合技術探討 20
3.1高階模擬架構(HLA)簡介 20
3.2 RTI架構 23
3.2.1聯模演訓管理(Federation Management) 26
3.2.2時間管理(Time Management) 30
3.3時間的角色 33
3.3.1時間管理基礎介紹 33
3.3.2 Requlating and Constrained 34
3.3.3 Regulating 35
3.3.4 Lookahead 35
3.3.5 TSO事件 36
3.3.6 Constrained 36
3.3.7 Lower Bound Time Stamp(LBTS) 36
3.4時間的前進 (ADVANCING TIME) 37
3.4.1 LBTS的限制 39
3.4.2 Late Arriving Federate 41
3.5接收順序(RECEIVE ORDER, RO)事件與TSO事件 41
第四章 異質系統之時間管理機制及其策略分析 44
4.1 HLA時間管理機制 44
4.1.1 Time-Stepped Federate 44
4.1.2 Event-Driven Federate 46
4.1.3 Independent Time Advance Federate 48
4.1.4 Optimistic Time Management Services 50
4.1.5 結語 54
4.2時間管理策略分析 55
4.2.1 Event Driven 55
4.2.2 Time Stepped 56
4.2.3 Optimistic 59
4.2.4 小結 62
第五章 運用HLA整合分析性模式與推演性兵棋模擬系統 63
5.1 聯合作戰戰區模擬系統(JTWS)簡介 63
5.2 戰術層級分析模式(TCAAM)簡介 68
5.3 JTWS-TCAAM 之HLA聯模架構 70
5.4 HLA聯模整合介面分析 73
5.5 聯模想定(SCENARIO)之研析 77
5.5.1 戰場差異 77
5.5.2 模擬物件屬性控制權的轉移 79
5.5.3 交戰(Combat Engagements) 80
5.6 時間驅動與事件驅動的整合 85
5.7 時間同步問題探討 86
5.8 多解析度模型(MULTI-RESOLUTION MODELING) 88
5.8.1 Aggregation and Disaggregation 88
5.8.2 地形環境的解析度差異 93
5.9 結語 94
第六章 結論 95
第七章 參考文獻 99
圖次
圖2-1、模式模擬及電腦兵棋的分類 12
圖3-1、HLA之基本架構 23
圖3-2、DMSO RTI 1.3NG 系統架構 25
圖3-3、DMSO RTI 1.3NG系統資料流 26
圖3-4、Federation的Life Cycle 27
圖3-5、Federation Management的同步機制 28
圖3-6、Federation Management的演訓資料儲存 29
圖3-7、Federation Management的演訓資料復原 30
圖3-8、HLA Federate的內部時間管理機制 32
圖3-9、HLA時間機制的兩個時間軸 35
圖3-10、HLA federation時間機制示意圖– 晚加入者範例 38
圖3-11、HLA federation時間機制示意圖–以LBTS來限制推進 40
圖3-12、HLA federation時間機制示意圖– 晚加入者的起始時間 41
圖3-13、每個Federate的內部佇列(Queues) 42
Algorithm 4-1、Time-stepped federate 45
圖4-1、HLA規格之Time-stepped federate的模擬流程 46
Algorithm 4-2、Event-driven federate 47
圖4-2、HLA規格之Even-driven federate的模擬流程 48
Algorithm 4-3、Independent time advance federate 49
圖4-3、HLA規格之獨立時間運作federate的模擬流程 49
Algorithm 4-4、Opministic federate 53
圖4-4、HLA規格之optimistic(time warp) federate的模擬流程 54
圖4-5、Event-driven federate的事件處理流程 56
Algorithm 4-5、Event-driven federate的事件處理演算法 56
圖4-6、Time-stepped federate的事件處理流程 57
Algorithm 4-6、Time-stepped federate的事件處理演算法 57
圖4-7、範例說明 58
Algorithm 4-7、Optimistic(time-warp)federate的演算法 60
圖4-8、anti-messages 61
圖5-1、JTWS系統架構示意圖 64
圖5-2、TCAAM系統架構 69
圖5-3、JTWS-TCAAM之HLA聯模演訓架構 72
圖5-4、HLA聯模演訓整合介面分析 75
圖5-6、JTWS與TCAAM之戰場差異 78
圖5-7、TCAAM戰場只涵蓋了JTWS戰場的部分區域 79
圖5-8、Agregate-Level模擬物件與Entity-Level模擬物件 83
圖5-9、HLA時間驅動與時間管理 86
圖5-10、時間同步問題 87
圖5-11、MRM範例 92
圖5-12、模擬物件戰損單位的差異 93
圖6-1、Box-in-Box的模擬演訓功能 98
圖6-2、不同解析度的模式模擬系統整合 98
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