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研究生:吳純如
研究生(外文):Tsun-ju Wu
論文名稱:道路環境誘發性疲倦對駕駛者駕駛行為與認知工作績效的比較性研究
論文名稱(外文):A Comparison Study of Fatigue Effects of Complex and Monotonous Roadway Environments upon Drivers’ Driving Behavior and Task Performance
指導教授:柳永青柳永青引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yung-ching Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理研究所碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:駕駛模擬器疲倦效果複雜道路單調道路
外文關鍵詞:Driving simulatorFatigue effectComplex road
相關次數:
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駕駛者疲倦形成可能導因於道路環境誘發壓力或是單調之影響,本研究以駕駛模擬器進行疲倦駕駛行為之研究,旨在探索環境因素及環境環境間疲倦駕駛之行為差異。本研究針對道路環境誘發性疲倦設計疲倦駕駛實驗,實驗設計為2(道路型態:複雜/單調道路)*3(疲倦狀態:未疲倦/疲倦/轉換疲倦)之組內設計。參與實驗之受測者共24人(男女各半),進行駕駛中認知工作測試,包括:交通標誌距離判定、聲源辨位、數學運算、文字語意邏輯判定及分割注意力測試,問卷填答於實驗前、中、後進行。資料收集疲倦包括駕駛績效、認知工作之反應時間與錯誤個數及主觀評量。研究結果發現:(1)複雜道路環境誘發疲倦駕駛行為耗用了單一注意力資源,使於次要工作表現不佳,以資訊處理能力影響最大。(2)單調疲倦駕駛行為則影響反應機制,危險反應能力降低,同時減少疲倦防制動作,維持車輛邊界位置能力受其影響最深。(3)道路環境轉換時,複雜轉入單調道路之各種駕駛績效及深度感知、聽聲辨位、語意理解、資訊處理能力及警覺性都顯著有負面影響,是最為危險的狀態。綜合以上疲倦駕駛之行為及認知能力受損情況,於本研究中清楚地呈現出,應用本研究結果能有益於智慧型交通系統之先進安全車輛駕駛者疲倦對抗裝置設計及安全道路設計,並提供予疲倦駕駛之交通執法認定依據,以維護道路交通安全。
Fatigue experienced by drivers may be due to both pressure from an unfamiliar highway environment and its inherent monotony. However; (1) is there a difference between these two factors? And (2) does drivers'' fatigue arising from the previous stretch of highway transfer to the next? This study explored these two questions.
The study utilized a driving simulator and involved 24 participants (gender balanced) in a within-subject factorial design experiment of 2 (highway environment: crowded urban vs monotonous rural) x 3 (fatigue level: non-fatigued vs. fatigued vs. fatigue transfer). Participants were requested to drive normally, whilst carrying out relevant cognitive tasks including; sound locating, traffic signs’ distance estimation and basic arithmetic, whilst simultaneously performing a divided attention task of discerning and responding to unexpected events. The participants completed a fatigue questionnaire before, during and after the experiment. Data collected included driving behaviour, reaction times, accuracy rates and subjective ratings.
The findings showed that: (1) driver with fatigue caused by complex highways environment expended more attention resources on driving, and peformed worse on the secondary task, such as information process ability.(2) fatigue caused by monotonous highways had most impact on drivers reactive function, such as the ability of maintain the lateral position of car, and (3) both driving behaviour and performance of fatigued drivers were significantly worse when complex highways became monotonous than those of vice versa. From the above result, worse driving behavior, and cognitive ability of fatigue driver showed clearly in this study. The result of this study can be apply to develop a fatigue counteract device of ASV system, and be good for the design of safe road. Using the result of this study can offer an basis of enforcing the law, and can improve the road traffice safety.
目錄
目錄 I
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1. 研究背景 1
1.2. 研究動機 3
1.3. 觀念性架構 5
1.4. 研究流程 6
1.5. 研究目的 7
1.6. 研究範圍和限制 7
第二章 文獻探討 8
2.1 疲倦定義及種類 8
2.1.1 疲倦(Fatigue)的定義 8
2.1.2 疲倦的種類 9
2.1.3 與駕駛有關的疲倦(Driver-related fatigue) 10
2.2 意外事故類型與潛在疲倦因子 10
2.2.1駕駛者類別 10
2.2.2駕駛時刻(Time of day) 11
2.2.3道路型態 11
2.2.4駕駛時間(driving hours) 12
2.3 道路環境誘發性疲倦 13
2.3.1工作因素與駕駛者疲倦 13
2.3.2複雜道路環境誘發性疲倦 14
2.3.3單調道路環境誘發性疲倦 14
2.4 疲倦駕駛之行為變化 16
2.5 疲倦量測指標 17
2.5.1生理性量測指標 17
2.5.2駕駛行為指標 19
2.5.3主觀評量問卷 20
2.6 總結 21
第三章 方法 22
3.1 受測者 22
3.2 實驗設備 22
3.2.1 STI駕駛模擬器 22
3.2.2 抬頭顯示器(Head Up Display;HUD) 23
3.2.3 DataLab 2000生理測量儀 24
3.3 受測者工作 26
3.4 實驗設計 30
3.5 劇本設計 31
3.6 實驗程序 34
3.7 資料收集 34
3.8 資料分析 36
第四章 實驗結果 37
4.1 基本及背景資料分析 37
4.2 問卷結果分析 37
4.3.1 實驗後主觀疲倦值及心智負荷量之比較 38
4.3.2 心智負荷及主觀疲倦構面總分分析 41
4.3 駕駛績效分析 46
4.3.1 單調與複雜產生疲倦路段之績效比較 46
4.3.2 測試工作路段駕駛績效之比較 51
4.4 反應時間與錯誤個數 63
4.3.1 交通標誌距離判定工作 63
4.3.2 聲源辨位工作 65
4.3.3 短期記憶及數學運算工作 67
4.3.4 文字語意邏輯判定工作 70
4.3.5 分割注意力工作 72
4.5 皮膚電位 74
第五章 討論與建議 77
附錄一、九十二年道路交通事故受傷致死率肇事原因分析前十五名 83
附錄二、主觀評量構面組成題項 84
附錄三、認知工作績效彙總 85
附錄四、全路段駕駛績效統計結果彙總 86
附錄五、駕駛績效之各種效果統計結果彙總 87
附錄六、認知工作之各種效果統計結果彙總 88
附錄七、實驗同意書 89
附錄八、實驗說明書 90
附錄九、評量記錄表 92
參考文獻 94
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