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研究生:林智溢
研究生(外文):Chin-Yi Lin
論文名稱:無線射頻辨識技術隱私與安全之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of RFID Security and Privacy Issues
指導教授:施東河施東河引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dong-Her Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:資訊管理系碩士班
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:橢圓曲線加密技術隱私問題無線射頻辨識技術Kerberos認證協定無線安全
外文關鍵詞:PrivacyElliptic Curves CryptographyKerberos V5RFIDSecurity
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無線射頻辨識被認為是一項重要的科技,且在往後的世界將隨處可見到這項技術的使用。然而大量地使用RFID標籤可能會導致一些新的威脅。目前的RFID標籤大多只能散發出固定的辨識碼,因此很容易遭受到不法人將辨識碼予以複製。而且攜帶這類的標籤很容易變成被追蹤的對象。因此,RFID所引發的安全議題不僅是個人隱私權的侵害,更有可能導致企業的商業資料被竊取而蒙受損失。本研究有鑑於於此,本研究除了簡單描述RFID技術的相關元件之外,亦針對RFID所引發的安全議題進行探討。雖然目前已有許多學者針對RFID安全問題以及其解決之道提出相當多的研究,但尚未有學者針對這些議題與解決方法進行整理比較,因此本研究希望以分類歸納的方式將這些安全議題與解決方法作比較,以方便往後的研究學者或實務界相關人員更容易瞭解RFID的相關資訊。除此之外,本研究亦提出一套安全的RFID溝通機制,希望能保護Tag與Reader之間的溝通訊息,以提供RFID的安全保障。
This research presents a formal mechanism called Lightweight-ECC of a cryptographic authentication protocol for RFID - Radio Frequency Identification smart tags. These smart tags are nowadays embedded in the many items and may come soon into our daily life. The main goal of RFID systems is to identify objects remotely by embedding smart tags, tiny devices capable of transmitting data, into these objects. Goods in stores can be tagged in order to prevent shoplifting, or to speed up the goods registration process by using wireless scanning instead of human or optical scanning. However, these wireless devices have raised public concern regarding violation of privacy and information security like individual information leakage, behavioral traceability, spoofing and industrial sabotage. It is necessary to provide security for those objects. Many solutions have been proposed but almost as many ways have been found to break them. And existing protocols almost don’t include symmetric or asymmetric cryptosystem authentication mechanisms. They couldn’t solve RFID security problems efficiently. Therefore, a new mechanism for authentication is proposed in this research. We present the concept of lightweight-ECC model that provides a high degree of security assurance. This research also analyzes my protocol from both security and privacy points of view and explains how to overcome above-mentioned security problems.
一、 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 3
1.3 研究目的 3
1.4 研究流程 4
二、 文獻探討 6
2.1 無線射頻辨識技術 6
2.1.1卡片╱標籤(Tag) 6
2.1.2讀取器╱讀卡機(Reader) 8
2.1.3 後端資料庫(Back-End Database) 8
2.1.4 EPC(Electronic Product Code) 9
2.2 安全與隱私性之議題 9
2.2.1 竊聽(Eavesdropping) 10
2.2.2 追蹤(Traceability) 12
2.2.3 欺騙(Spoofing) 13
2.2.4 商業破壞(Industrial Sabotage) 15
2.3 安全議題的解決方法 16
2.3.1被動式Tag解決方法 17
2.3.1.1 Kill Tag Approach 17
2.3.1.2 Selective Blocker Tag 17
2.3.1.3 Physical ID Separation 23
2.3.1.4 Hash-Based Access Control 24
2.3.2主動式Tag解決方法 25
2.3.2.1 Rewritable Memory 25
2.3.2.2 Randomized Access Control 26
2.3.2.3 Hash Chain 29
2.3.2.4 XOR based One-Time Pad Scheme 30
2.4 橢圓曲線密碼學(Elliptic Curves Cryptography, ECC) 36
2.5 Kerberos認證協定與系統 37
2.6 本章小節 43
三、 橢圓曲線加解密 44
3.1橢圓曲線 (Elliptic Curves) 44
3.2 橢圓曲線上的乘法律 45
3.3 將明文轉換成橢圓曲線上的點 46
3.4 橢圓曲線的加解密 47
3.5 橢圓曲線加解密應用於RFID技術 49
四、 研究問題描述與系統架構 51
4.1 研究問題描述 51
4.2 系統考量 52
4.3 系統架構 53
4.3.1 被動式標籤(Passive Tag) 54
4.3.1.1 Tag記憶體配置 55
4.3.1.2 前端架構 58
4.3.1.3 後端架構 64
4.3.2 主動式標籤(Active Tag) 73
4.4 系統安全分析 75
4.4.1 資訊安全層面 76
4.4.2 RFID安全層面 79
五、 案例研究 85
5.1 RFID在航空產業行李運送的應用 85
5.2 RFID在航空產業行李追蹤的應用 89
六、 結論與未來研究 92
6.1 研究結論 92
6.2 研究限制 93
6.3 未來研究 93
參考文獻 96
英文文獻:
1.Auto-ID Center, 2002, “860MHz-930MHz Class1 Radio Frequency Identification Tag Radio Frequency & Logical Communication Interface Specification Candidate Recommendation, Version 1.0.1”, November.
http://www.autoidlabs.org/whitepapers/mit-autoid-tr007.pdf
2.Auto-ID Center, 2003, “13.56 MHz ISM Band Class 1Radio Frequency Identification Tag Interface Specification: Recommended Standard, Version 1.0.0”, Feburary.
http://www.autoidlabs.org/whitepapers/mit-autoid-tr011.pdf
3.Auto-ID Center, 2003, “Auto-ID Reader Protocol 1.0”, Working Draft Version of 5, September.
4.Auto-ID Center, 2003, “Draft Protocol Specification for a Class 0 Radio Frequency Identification Tag”, February.
5.Auto-ID Center, 2003, “PML Core Specification 1.0”, September.
6.Auto-ID Center, 2003, “The Object Name Service Version 0.5 (Beta)”, August.
7.Auto-ID Center, 2003, “The Savant Version 0.1 (Alpha)”, September.
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中文文獻:
40.周利欽,2000,“Kerberos系統密碼認證之改進”,元智大學電機與資訊工程研究所,碩士論文。
41.林文儀,2003,“橢圓曲線版的ElGamal數位簽署及其變形”,東海大學,應用數學研究所碩士論文。
42.高增英,2005,“無線射頻辨識技術在機場之應用”,中國航空太空學會會刊,53卷,第1期,四月。
http://www.cast.itri.org.tw/aasrc/society_journal/35_1/1-3.htm
43.陳儒恩,2004,”RFID不飛則已 一飛沖天”,網路通訊,151期,頁44-49,資訊與電腦出版社,2月。
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