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研究生:王志高
研究生(外文):Chih-Kao Wang
論文名稱:結合環場與PTZ之視訊監控系統
論文名稱(外文):Video Surveillance System Based on Omni-directional and PTZ Cameras
指導教授:吳先晃
指導教授(外文):Hsien-Huang Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:視訊監控全景追蹤多層次成長法前景分割
外文關鍵詞:Video SurveillanceMRVTTracking on Omni-directional CameraForeground Segmentation
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目前社會的治安每況愈下,世界各地犯罪與暴力事件層出不窮,慶幸的是犯罪場景被監視錄影系統拍攝下來,最後得以破案的案例時有所聞,這也讓如何利用監視錄影系統,來防止犯罪的發生之重要性與需求性日愈提高。目前現有監視系統的功能略顯不足,大部份的監視系統,都僅能對場景作單純的錄影,無法有效地對人多的室內封閉或開放性場景並做自動分析。
有鑑於此,專家學者提出結合了全景相機和PTZ相機的新式智慧型監控系統,不但能藉助全景相機的廣角視野優點掌握監視場所內的各個角落,以改善定點攝影機的觀察死角;更能透過 PTZ 相機的放大追蹤功能提供較多重要的資訊。
而本文中將針對此類型的系統進行探討,包括全景影像的形成、全景影像中物體的定位方式,及如何以全景相機控制PTZ相機進行放大追蹤等技術。
此外,為了能適應全景影像解析度較低的缺點,文中將以多層次成長法進行物體偵測以取得較完整的物體區塊。而在物體追蹤的部份,我們則提出一藉由樣版比對搭配移動軌跡協助的物體辨識演算法,並結合移動預測技術,以加強PTZ相機在實際應用時的追蹤效能,而在以 Borland C++ 實現此監控系統後,也證實了演算法的可行性。
The deterioration of social order, which causes vandalism and terrorism around the world, has increased the importance of security and raised the demand on surveillance system. Therefore, the improvement on the capability of surveillance system is currently attracting a great deal of attention.
Although intelligent multi-camera surveillance systems have been developed for some time, most of the systems can not effectively achieve the goal of tracking and positioning in an indoor environment. A functional analysis found that the reason is due to mutual occlusion under multiple people condition. Moreover, given wide surveillance area, the limitation on the image resolution can not offer the effective recognition and understanding.
In order to overcome difficulties mentioned above, recent researches proposed intelligent surveillance systems composed of multiple cameras. Among them, some systems use the Pan-Tilt-Zoom camera to trace moving objects and try to zoom in the scene to acquire a higher resolution image. In addition, some systems even combined with omni-directional camera hanged on the ceiling, instead of ordinary flat camera, to obtain an overview of the surveillance region.
In this thesis, we will investigate functionalities of one intelligent surveillance system composed of single omni-directional camera and two Pan-Tilt-Zoom cameras. Three key issues will be discussed in respective chapters, they are: (1) the imaging technique of the omni-directional image, (2) the localization of moving objects in the omni-directional image, and (3) the method of using the omni-directional camera to guide the PTZ camera for zooming and tracing the moving objects.
Since the resolution of omni-directional images is much lower than that of the regular camera, we adopt a multi-resolution technique which uses thresholding-with-hysteresis to obtain a more complete object in omni-directional images. Furthermore, we not only develop an algorithm which combines template matching and motion history for object recognition, but also employ the motion estimation to improve the object tracking using PTZ camera.
This surveillance system has been implemented by Borland C++ in PC, and experimental results show its feasibility of working in the real-time environment.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
第一章 序論 1
1.1 相關文獻與研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的與方法概述 2
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 基礎原理介紹 4
2.1全景相機的來由及類型比較 4
2.2 全景相機的成像及定位原理 7
2.3 PTZ 相機功能介紹 15
2.4監控系統架構及相關研究 22
2.5結論 25
第三章 全景影像中的移動物體偵測 26
3.1多層解析度成長法 26
3.2 柱狀投影及局部視角轉換 32
3.3多物體追蹤法則 40
3.3.1預測已知物體移動後的位置 43
3.3.2移動後物體與移動前的物體比對 44
3.3.3搜尋其他新物體並更新背景 47
3.4 結論 48
第四章 結合全景相機與PTZ 相機之監控系統 49
4.1 緒論 49
4.2 物體追蹤策略 51
4.3 全景相機和 PTZ 相機的定位 56
4.4 結論 62
第五章 系統實現及測試 63
5.1 實驗結果 63
5.1.1 材料與設備 63
5.1.2 全景相機的定位測試 63
5.1.3 全景相機搭配 PTZ 相機的定位與放大測試 65
5.1.4全景引導式 PTZ 追蹤系統 68
5.2 結論 80
5.3 未來展望 80
參考文獻 81
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