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研究生:李宜甄
研究生(外文):I-chen Lee
論文名稱:台灣學生中文及英文寫作過程之比較-以熟練英文寫作者為例
論文名稱(外文):Comparing EFL Experienced Writers'' L1 and L2 Writing Processes
指導教授:周碩貴周碩貴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-guey Joe
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:209
中文關鍵詞:母語寫作過程英文寫作過程寫作策略英語學習者
外文關鍵詞:L1 writing processEFL writerswriting strategiesL2 writing process
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本研究藉由有聲思考(think-aloud)以及事後訪談(semi-structured retrospective interview)調查台灣學生熟練英文寫作者之中文及英文寫作過程。目前文獻上廣為人知的寫作模式,皆經由觀察以英語為母語者的寫作過程所建立(Flower & Hayes, 1981; Hayes, 1996; Scandamalia & Bereiter, 1987)。然而,在進行英文寫作時,英語學習者必須克服英語能力不足、不熟悉英文寫作慣用修辭及結構等困難,其英文寫作過程應較以英語為母語者更為複雜(e.g. Leki, 1992; Liou, 1999; Zamel, 1983)。因此,本論文以熟練英文寫作者為對象,探究其使用母語及英語創作同一寫作題目時的寫作過程。研究目的為探究熟練英文寫作者中文及英文的寫作過程,觀察其中文及英文寫作過程中寫作策略運用的雷同及差異,並了解受試者對於中文及英文寫作的認知。
本研究針對三位以英語教學為主修之研究生分別進行兩次的中、英文寫作實驗。受試者先以英文寫作一篇議論性質的文章,間隔至少一個月後,再以中文就同一題目進行寫作。研究對象的中文及英文寫作的有聲思考過程以及其寫作後的事後訪談內容,皆予以錄影及錄音以進行事後的分析與研究。研究結果發現,首先,無論是中文寫作或者是英文寫作,熟練英文寫作者不斷重覆著計劃、寫作及修改的過程。再者,熟練英文寫作者英文寫作策略與中文寫作策略的運用情形相似,皆專注於計劃寫作的內容,專注於確認文章整體的組織架構和語意的傳達勝於文章中片面的語法及修辭,並且於中文及英文寫作上皆使用相同的寫作策略。然而,中文寫作在寫作策略的應用及表現上,仍有別於英文寫作。英文寫作較中文寫作更似「訊息轉換橂式」的寫作過程(Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1987),且英文寫作也較中文寫作困難。另外,研究結果也發現中文寫作的一大特色為頻繁地藉由重讀已寫下的句子來刺激其思考,而英文寫作的特色在於仰賴母語構思及外語能力表達思維。此外,研究對象在中文及英文寫作慣例、與寫作時應著重的事項上有不同的認知。藉由研究結果,本研究希望能進一步提供建立英語學習者英文寫作模式的基礎,突顯影響英文寫作的因素,以及強調英文寫作教學的重要性。
This study investigated the EFL mature writers’ composing processes in both L1 and L2 by means of think-aloud method and retrospective interview. The existed well-known writing models were established upon the observation of native English speakers’ composing processes (Flower & Hayes, 1981; Hayes, 1996; Scandamalia & Bereiter, 1987). However, the writing processes undergone by L2 writers are argued to be more complicated than those depicted in the models (e.g. Leki, 1992; Liu, 1999; Zamel, 1983). L2 writers needed to face more challenges such as the deficiency of linguistic competence and rhetoric conventions (e.g. Hinds, 1990; Kaplan, 1966, 1971; Odlin, 1989). This study, hence, examined the EFL mature writers’ composing processes when they write on the same topic in both L1 and L2. The purposes are to explore L1 and L2 writing processes undergone by EFL mature writers, detect the similarities and differences of strategy use in L1 and L2 writing, and to realize the participants’ perceptions of L1 and L2 writing.
Three graduate students majoring in Teaching English as a Foreign Language participated in the current study. They were required to compose an expository essay in English and Mandarin at an interval of at least one month. The subjects’ think-aloud writing process and the retrospective interview following each writing task were videotaped and audio-taped for further analysis. The results revealed that firstly, EFL experienced writers are found to undergo a recursive writing process while composing in English and Mandarin. Secondly, EFL experienced writers seem to perform the strategies similarly in both L1 and L2 writing processes. They seem to focus more on planning for the writing task, focus more on global concerns than local concerns and apply the same writing approaches to accomplish the writing tasks. They also appear to activate the same strategies in L1 and L2 writing. On the other hand, L1 writing appears to be different from L2 writing. L2 writing is more like knowledge-transforming than L1 writing. L2 writing is more demanding than L1 writing. Thirdly, L1 writing is characterized by relying frequently on reviewing what has been written to generate more ideas. L2 writing is characterized by using L1 to develop ideas and depending on L2 to transform ideas into words. Finally, the participants hold different perceptions of L1 writing and L2 writing in terms of writing conventions and task emphasis. This study, thus, attempts to provide further insight to the development of EFL writers’ L2 writing models, highlight the potentially influential factors on L2 writing, and pinpoint the importance of writing instruction.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS i
LIST OF TABLES iv
LIST OF FIGURES v
Chinese Abstract vi
English Abstract viii
ONE INTRODUCTIOON 1
Background of the Study 1
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Question 6
Definition of Terms 6
Significance of the Study 8
TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
Models of Writing Process 10
Scardamalia and Bereiter’s Writing Model 11
The Knowledge-Telling Model 12
The Knowledge-Transforming Model 14
The Comparison of Two Models 16
Flower and Hayes’ Writing Model 17
Grabe and Kaplan’s Writing Model 24
Summary 27
Characteristics of ESL/EFL Writers 28
Writing Strategies Employed in L2 Writing 28
L2 Writing Product of ESL/EFL Writers 34
L1 Writing Process and Product of ESL/EFL Writers 35
Summary 37 Language Transfer in Language Learning 39
Theoretical Perspectives of Language Transfer 39
L1 Impacts on L2 Writing 41
Developmental Factors 45
Summary 47
THREE METHODOLOGY 49
Subjects 49
Instruments 51
Think-aloud Method 52
Semi-structure Retrospective Interview 53
Writing task 54
Data Collection Procedures 56
Data Analysis 57
The Coding Scheme 57
Data Analysis Procedures 67
FOUR RESULTS 72
Sequences of Strategy Use among Subjects in L1 and L2 Writing 73
Strategy Use by the Subjects in L2 Writing 73
Strategy Use by the Subjects in L1 Writing 74
Total Composing Time in Both Writing Tasks 75
Time Distribution of Strategy Use among Subjects 77
Strategy Use in the English Writing Task 77
Strategy Use in the Mandarin Writing Task 79
English Composing Process vs. Mandarin Composing Process 81
Analysis of the Semi-structured Retrospective Interview 83
The Interview Results after the English Writing Task 84
English Writing Conventions 84
Preparation for Starting to Write 86
Emphasis for Selecting Lexical Expressions 86
Solutions for Running Out of Ideas 87
Solutions for Having Difficulties Figuring Out Lexicons 88
Emphasis While Reviewing the Written Text 88
The Interview Results after the Mandarin Writing Task 89
Mandarin Writing Conventions 89
Preparation for Starting to Write 91
Factors Concerned When Writing Each Paragraph 91
Factors Concerned When Selecting Lexical Expressions 92
Solutions for Running Out of Ideas 93
Emphasis While Reviewing the Written Text 93
FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 95
Summary of Findings 95
EFL Experienced Writers’ English and Mandarin Writing Processes 96
Similarities and Differences between English and Mandarin Writing 98
Perception of L1 and L2 Writing 99
Discussions 99
Undergoing a Recursive Writing Process 99
Performing the Strategies Similarly in L1 and L2 Writing 102
Focusing More on Planning for the Writing Task 102
Paying More Attention on Global Concerns than Local Concerns
104
Adopting Different Writing Approaches 105
Employing the Same Strategies in L1 and L2 Writing 108
Differences between L1 and L2 Writing 109
L2 Writing is More like Knowledge-transforming than L1 Writing
109
L2 Writing is More Demanding than L1 Writing 112
Unique Feature of L1 Writing---Relying More on Generating Ideas by Reviewing 113
Unique Feature of L2 Writing---Role of L1 and L2 114
Perceptions of L1 and L2 Writing 117
The Impacts of Developmental Factors on L2 Writing 118
Pedagogical Implications 121
Delimitation of the Study 124
Suggestions for Future Study 126
Conclusions 127
REFERENCE 129
APPENDIXES 138
Appendix A Timelines of Strategy Use by Subject A in L1 and L2 Writing
138
Appendix B Timelines of Strategy Use by Subject B in L1 and L2 Writing
145
Appendix C Timelines of Strategy Use by Subject C in L1 and L2 Writing
152
Appendix D Sample of Coding Results of the English Writing Task 160
Appendix E Sample of Coding Results of the Mandarin Writing Task 182
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