(3.239.56.184) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/13 12:35
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:孫肇駿
研究生(外文):Zhao-jun Sun
論文名稱:運用草地生態系統復育遭受鎘污染土地之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research of Using Grassland Ecosystem to Remediatethe Polluted land by Cadmium
指導教授:袁又罡袁又罡引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:環境與安全工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:植生復育禾本科多重化學藥劑連續萃取法植物根系促生菌
外文關鍵詞:PhytoremediationGramineaePlant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.Sequential chemical extractions
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:200
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究宗旨為解決鎘污染農田土壤之問題,運用植生復育技術並於污染土壤與植物根系添加微生物的方式,透過改善根圈營養狀況來促進植物的生長發育,提高微生物移除人為污染物之速率,以探討如何降低土壤中鎘之有效性,以評估此法用來改善或污染整治土壤之成效,促進土地資源循環之使用。
研究場址選自雲林縣虎尾鎮廉使里遭受鎘污染之農田土壤,並從中選擇生長在此污染場址裡之禾本科優勢種植物以及採集其根部土壤並從中萃取微生物來進行植物吸收累積鎘之試驗,而當中分別以土壤滅菌之有無、土壤及植物根系添加微生物之有無等方法,並自校園採集與污染場址土壤性質相近且未受污染之土壤進行試驗,而後各別於土壤中添加不同的鎘濃度(對照組、10mg/kg與20mg/kg),以三重覆分析的方式,進行植物與根系微生物在吸收累積重金屬鎘之濃度變化與探討。本研究是以多重化學藥劑連續萃取技術(sequential chemical extractions, SCE)來測定污染土壤中鎘之濃度及其型態的轉變,並利用API菌相鑑定分析方法,檢測於試驗土壤中微生物添加前與添加後其菌種的改變情形,以評估本研究方法對遭受鎘污染土壤之效果。
研究結果顯示,以土壤未進行滅菌且有添加微生物的情形下,對鎘之去除效率最好(10mg/kg濃度的鎘去除效率為98%,20mg/kg濃度的鎘去除效率為63%),而土壤有進行滅菌及有添加微生物的情形下對鎘的去除效果次之,以土壤有進行滅菌且未添加微生物的效果最差(10mg/kg濃度的鎘去除效率為69%, 20mg/kg濃度的鎘去除效率為44%)。而鎘在土壤中型態之轉變上,初期是以可交換性型態(生物可利用性型態)為主,而後則轉化為鐵-錳氧化物聯結型態(非生物有效性型態)。試驗初期與結束,土壤與根系皆有植物根系促生菌Pseudomonas fluorescens(螢光假單胞菌)的存在,其可以增加植物對重金屬的吸收與累積能力。
This research aims to solve the problem of cadmium pollution in farms. To remove cadmium in soil, phytoremediation has been used. In addition, microorganism were added to soil and roots of a plant, initially, to help plants'' growing and effectiveness of removing cadmium.
Cadmium-polluted soil and grown-gramineae plants were chosen from Liarn Shyy Neighborhood, Huwei Town in Yulin County, and microorganism were extracted from roots of a plant to add to soil of pot experiments. For comparison, four groups, soil with/without eliminating bacteria, soil and roots of a plant with/without microorganism added, were classified and were added cadmium with different density, check,10,and 20mg/kg. Then sequential chemical extractions(SCE) was used to analyze cadmium’s density in soil and cadmium’s changing. Moreover, the transformation of the microorganism in soil w as analyzed by API analyze.
The results show that, the best effect was found in soil without eliminating bacteria and added by microorganism. When the density of cadmium was 10mg/kg, 98% of cadmium could be removed from the soil; when the density of cadmium was 20mg/kg, 63% of cadmium could be removed. Besides, the median effect was shown in soil with eliminating bacteria and added by microorganism. And the least effect was shown in Soil with eliminating bacteria and added no microorganism, when the density of cadmium was 10mg/kg, only 69% of cadmium was removed; when the density of cadmium was 20mg/kg, only 44% cadmium was removed.The transformation of cadmium was mainly exchangeable at first;then, most of them transform into Fe-Mn oxide bound. Besides, during the experiment, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which can enhance plants'' ability to remove heavy metal, were found in soil.
中文摘要 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- i
英文摘要 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii
誌謝 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- v
目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- vi
表目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii
圖目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ix
一、 前言--------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 研究緣起--------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.2 研究內容及架構流程------------------------------------------------ 2
二、 文獻回顧--------------------------------------------------------------- 2
2.1 土壤中重金屬鎘的毒害與污染之來源--------------------------- 5
2.2 土壤中重金屬污染之防治與復育技術--------------------------- 7
2.3 草地生態系統復育機制--------------------------------------------- 8
2.4 土壤中重金屬之型態分佈與分析方法--------------------------- 9
2.4.1 重金屬型態分佈與有效性------------------------------------------ 9
2.4.2 多重化學藥劑連續萃取法------------------------------------------ 11
2.5 重金屬對植物之影響------------------------------------------------ 12
2.5.1 鎘對植物之影響------------------------------------------------------ 12
2.5.2 植物吸收重金屬途徑與步驟--------------------------------------- 12
2.5.3 植物的解毒機制------------------------------------------------------ 13
2.6 土壤與微生物之關係------------------------------------------------ 13
2.7 微生物處理重金屬之機制------------------------------------------ 16
2.7.1 生物轉換--------------------------------------------------------------- 16
2.7.2 菌體外累積與沈澱--------------------------------------------------- 16
2.7.3 菌體表面的積聚------------------------------------------------------ 16
2.7.4 細胞體內之累積------------------------------------------------------ 17
2.8 微生物和植物間的相互作用--------------------------------------- 17
2.8.1 互惠關係--------------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.8.2 共生關係--------------------------------------------------------------- 19
2.8.3 拮抗作用--------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2.8.4 寄生現象--------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2.8.5 根圈微生物對植物的影響------------------------------------------ 21
三、 研究方法與實驗設備------------------------------------------------ 23
3.1 虎尾農地鎘污染情況------------------------------------------------ 23
3.1.1 現地土壤之採樣與描述--------------------------------------------- 24
3.1.2 土壤基本性質及重金屬含量分析方法--------------------------- 26
3.2 微生物的萃取與培養------------------------------------------------ 30
3.3 微生物之菌種鑑定--------------------------------------------------- 31
3.3.1 革蘭氏染色------------------------------------------------------------ 31
3.3.2 氧化酶試驗------------------------------------------------------------ 31
3.3.3 過氧化酶試驗--------------------------------------------------------- 32
3.3.4 API菌相鑑定---------------------------------------------------------- 32
3.4 預備試驗與土壤孵育------------------------------------------------ 37
3.5 植物吸收累積重金屬試驗(盆栽試驗)------------------------ 37
3.6 重金屬鎘的濃度與各型態分佈之分析--------------------------- 38
3.6.1 重金屬鎘之各型態劃分--------------------------------------------- 38
3.6.2 多重化學藥劑連續萃取法之步驟--------------------------------- 38
四、 結果與討論------------------------------------------------------------ 40
4.1 土壤基本性質分析--------------------------------------------------- 40
4.2 預備試驗植物生長狀態觀察--------------------------------------- 42
4.3 植物吸收累積重金屬試驗結果分析------------------------------ 46
4.3.1 土壤中鎘濃度去除率效之分析與植物生長性狀觀察--------- 46
4.3.2 根系微生物對污染土壤中鎘型態的轉化------------------------ 57
4.4 土壤與根系微生物相之演變--------------------------------------- 66
五、 結論與建議------------------------------------------------------------ 70
5.1 結論--------------------------------------------------------------------- 70
5.2 建議--------------------------------------------------------------------- 71
參考文獻 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72
中英簡歷 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 附錄-1
1、王一雄,1997,土壤環境污染與農藥,國立編譯館 明文書局印。
2、王銀波、李國欽、陳尊賢、黃裕銘、劉黔蘭,1994,土壤污染評估與改善示範計畫期終報告,行政院環保署委託計畫(EPA-83-H105-09-04),台北市。
3、王銀波、劉黔蘭、吳論、林晏夙,1986,銅、鋅、鎘及鉻對土壤微生物與作物生長之影響,農林學報。35:頁97-110。
4、田世平、范青,2000,控制果蔬採後病害的生物學技術,植物學通報,17(3):頁211~217。
5、申建波、張福鎖,1999,根分泌物的生態效應,中國農業科技導報,4︰頁21-27。
6、行政院環保署,1991,土壤中水份及砷、鉻、銅、汞、鎘、鎳、鉛、鋅檢驗方法,19918.12.(80)環署檢字第27038號公告,台北市。
7、何念祖、孟賜福,1987,植物營養原理,上海科學技術出版社。
8、李芳胤、廖秋榮,1993,銅污染土壤之性質及整治試驗,污染土地之整治與永續利用研討會論文集。
9、李耿肇,1996,受鎘鉛污染土壤施以化學處理法之復育技術評估,國立台灣大學,碩士論文。
10、林志儒,1998,鎘污染地復育草種之研究,國立中興大學,碩士論文。
11、柯勇(2003),現代微生物學 藝軒出版社
12、洪如江,1995,土力學試驗,科技圖書股份有限公司。
13、袁又罡、張銘仁,2003,生物膜處理重金屬銅之研究,工業污染,第88期,頁58-78。
14、張家修,1994,重金屬污染的生物處理技術,化工,第四十一卷,第三期,頁52-59。
15、張尊國,2002,台灣地區土壤污染現況與整治政策分析,財團法人國家政策研究基金會,永續(析)091-021號。
16、張福鎖,2004,http://www.cau.edu.cn/psi/research/rhizosphere/root%20exudate.htm
17、許東榮、張怡怡、陳美玉、王豐惠,1982,新竹貝類養殖區重金屬及有機物牡蠣污染之調查,中華營養學會月刊。
18、陳大照,1989,淺談共生關係,1989年第三期中學生物學。
19、陳尊賢,1994,鎘與鉛污染土壤之性質及整治復育試驗,污染土地之整治與永續性利用研討會論文集,頁3-1~3-17,台北市。
20、陳尊賢,1994,鎘與鉛污染土壤之性質及整治復育試驗,污染土地之整治與永續性利用研討會論文集,頁3-1-3-17。
21、陳尊賢、李達源、林禎坤、王銀波,1992,篩選適宜種植於台灣北部鎘污染區之觀賞植物,第三屆土壤污染防治研討會論文集,頁247-259。
22、陳尊賢、黃如宏、張仲民,1989,重金屬在台灣農業土壤中之分佈:1.鎘、鋅在土壤四個組成部分之分佈 ,中國農業化學會誌,27:頁331-335。
23、陳懷滿,2002,土壤中化學物質的行為與環境質量,科學出版社,頁521。
24、童翔新 1996,土壤中重金屬污染物分析研究方法,逢甲學報,第29卷,頁87-96
25、童翔新、歐育憲,1999,土壤中重金屬污染之生物有效性意義研究,私立逢甲大學,碩士論文。
26、雲林縣環保局,1999,雲林縣八十七年度推動土壤污染防治工作計畫,雲林縣環保局,雲林縣。
27、鄭双福,1996,利用土壤改良劑改善重金屬污染農田之研究-鉻、鋅、銅,農委會,85科技-1.10-糧-21(1)計畫報告書。
28、賴盈瑋,2004,草地生態系統復育過程之生物資源研究,國立雲林科技大學,碩士論文。
29、賴鴻裕、陳尊賢,2004,等量EDTA但不同施用方式對五彩石竹植生萃取多種重金屬污染土壤的影響,第二屆土壤及地下水研討會論文集。
30、駱尙廉、闕蓓德,1994,土壤重金屬污染復育技術應用之可行性評估,污染土地之整治與永續性利用研討會論文集,頁6-1~6-21,台北市。
31、韓立瑞,1993,生物學教學 1993年第12期。
32、顏正平,1996,水土保持應用草類耐污染性之研究,農委會林業特刊第五十一號 行政院農委會編印。
33、颺如思,2004,被遺落的一環:土壤生態系中的生物多樣性,台灣環境資訊協會。
34、顧宗濂,2004,環境微生物工程,南京大學出版社。
35、Abdul R., A. M. M, M. B. Bouché, 1997, Heavy metal linkages with mineral, organic and ling soil compartments., Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29(3/4):pp.649-655.
36、Allen M. F., 1992, Mycorrhizal functioning: An integrative plant- fungal process., Chapman and Hall, New York. 65-101, pp.301-332.
37、Alloway B. J., 1990, Heavy metals in soils., Blackie, Glasson, UK. 100-121: pp.177-194.
38、Alloway B. J., 1995, Cadmium. In B.J. Alloway(ed.) Heavy metals in soils., John Wiley&Sons, New York, pp.122-147.
39、Anderson T. A., E. A. Guthrie, B. T. Walton., 1993, Bioremediation in the Rhizosphere. Environmental., Science and Technology 27: pp.2630-2636.
40、Atlas R. M., R. Barha, 1987, Microbial Ecology. The Benjamin/ Cumming Publishing Company. pp.294, Inc. USA.
41、Beckett P. H. T., 1989, The use of extractants in studies on trace metals in soils, sewage sludge, and sludge-treated soils., Advances in Soil Sci., 9:pp.143-175.
42、Blaylock M. J., D. E. Salt, S. Dushenkov, O. Zakharova, C. Gussman, Y. Kapulnik, B. D. Ensley, I. Raskin, 1997, Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian Mustard by soil- applied chelating agents. Environ. Sci. Tec., 31:pp.860-865.
43、Blaylock M. J., J. W. Huang, 2000, Phytoextraction of Metals. In: Raskin I,Ensley B (eds) Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals., Wiley, New York,NY, p.53.
44、Calmano W., U. Forsther, M. Kersten, 1986, Metal associations in anoxic sediments and changes following upland disposal., Toxicol. and Environ. Chem., 12:pp.313-321.
45、Clarkson D. T., U. Luttge, 1989, III. Mineral nutrition: Divalent cations, transport and compartmentalization. progress Botany. 51:pp.93-112.
46、Czupyrna G., R. D. Levy, A. I. Maclean, H. Gold., 1989, In situ immobilization of heavy-metal-contaminated soils., Noyes Data Corp. Park Ridge. NJ.
47、Daavis R. D., C. Calton-Smith., 1980, Crops as Indicators of the Singificance of Contamination of Soil by Heavy Metals., WRC, Stevenage TR, pp.140.
48、Dushenkov V., N. P. Kumar, H. Motto, I. Raskin, 1995, Environ Sci Technol 29:pp.1239.
49、Fassett D. W., 1980, Metals in the Environment ed. Waldron, H.A. Academic Press., London, pp.61-110.
50、Fu G., H. E. Allen, C. E. Cowan, 1991, Adsorption of cadmium and copper by manganese oxide. Soil Sci., 152:pp.72-81.
51、Giller K. E., E. Witter, S. P. Mcgrath, 1998, Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: a review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30(10/11): pp.1389-1414.
52、Gruebel K. A., J. A. Davis, J. O. Leckie, 1988, The feasibility of using sequential extraction techniques for arsenic and selenium in soil and sediments., Soil Sci. Soc. Am.52:pp.390-397.
53、Gworek B., 1992, Lead inactivation in soils by zeolites., Plant Soil 143:pp.71-74.
54、Hiltner L., 1904, Arbeiten der Deutschen. Zandwirtsh. Ges. 98:59-78. Hodgson, J. F., W. L. Lindsay and J. F. Trierweiler 1966 Micronutrient cation complexing in soil solution. II. Complexing of zinc and copper in displacing solution from calcareous soils., Soil Sci. Amer. Proc. 3:pp723-726.
55、Impens et al., 1991
56、Irene M., C. L. Yang, 1998, .-Y. Removal and redistribution of metals from contaminated soils by a sequential extraction method., Waste Management, pp.1-7.
57、Janisiewicz W. J., L. Yourman, J. Roitman, N. Mahoney, 1991, Postharvest control of blue mold and gray mold of apples and pears by dip treatment with pyrrolnitrin, a metabolite of Pseudomonas cepacea., Plant Disease, 75:pp.490-494.
58、John M. K., 1972, Uptake of soil-applied cadmium and its distribution in radishes., Can. J. Plant Science. 52(5):pp.715-719.
59、Kabata-Pendias A., H. Pendias, 1984, Trace elements in soil and plants., CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
60、Kabata-Pendias, A., H. Pendias, 1986, Trace elements in soil and plants., CRC press. Boca Raton, Florida.
61、Khattak R. A., A. L. Page, 1992, Mechanism of manganese adsorption on soil constituents., pp.383-400. In D. C. Adriano(ed.) Biogeochemistry of trace metals. Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, FL.
62、Kim Y. H., Y. J. Yoo, H. Y. Lee, 1995, Biotechnol Letters 17:pp.345.
63、Kumar P. B. A. N., V. Dushenkov, H. Motto, and I. Raskin, 1995, Phytoexteraction: The use of plant to remove heavy metals from soils., Environ. Sci. Technol.29:pp1232-1238
64、Lee D. Y., Z. S. Chen, 1994, Plants for Cadmium polluted soils in northern Taiwan., pp.161-170. In D. C. Adriano, Z. S. Chen, and S. S. Yang(eds.). Biogeochemistry of trace elements, A special issue of Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol 16. Science and Technology Letters, Northwood.
65、McKenize R. M., 1980, The adsorption of lead and other heavy metals on oxides of manganese and iron., Aust. J. Soil Res. 18:pp.61-73.
66、Mench M. J., V. L. Didier, M. Loffler, A. Gomez, P. Masson, 1994, A mimicked Insitu remediation study of metal-contaminated soils with emphasis on cadmium and lead., J. Environ. Qual., 23:pp.58-63.
67、Miller W. P., D. C. Martens, L. W. Zelazny, 1986, Effect of sequence in extraction of trace metals from soils., Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:pp.598-601.
68、Nelson D. W., L. E. Sommer, 1982, Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter., In Page, A. L. et al.(ed.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd ed. Agronomy monograph 9:pp.539-577.
69、Obrador A., M. I. Rico, J. I. Mingot, J. M. AlvareZ, 1997, Metal mobility and potential bioavailability in organic matter-rich soil-sludge mixtures:effect of soil type and contact time., The Science of the Total Environment 206:pp.117-1267
70、Page A. L., 1981 Cadmium, In: Effect of heavy metal pollution on plants., Vol. 1. Effects of Trace metals on plant function, N. W. Lepp.(eds), Applied Science Publishers, London and New Jersey, pp.77-109.
71、Prudent P., M. Domeizel, C. Massiani, 1996, Chemical sequential extraction as decision tool: application to municipal solid waste and its individual constituents., The Science of the Total Environment 178:pp.55-61.
72、Ralph P. J., M. D. Burchett, 1998, Photosynthetic response of Halaphila ovalis to heavy metal stress., Environmental Pollution 103:pp.91-101.
73、Ramos L., L. M. Hernandez, M. J. Gonzalez, 1994, Sequential fractionation of Copper,Lead,Cadmium and Zunc in soils from or near Donana National Park. , J.Environ.Qual.23:pp.50-57.
74、Salt D. E., M. Blaylock, N. P. B. A. Kumer, V. Dushenkov, B. D. Ensley, I. Chet, I. Raskin, 1995, Phytoremediation: A novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plant., Biotechnology 13:pp.468-474.
75、Saxena P., 2001, Unpublished Manuscript on the Establishment of a Network of Centres of Excellence on Phytoremediation in Canada., University of Guelph, Ontario,Canada.
76、Shumate S. E. II, G. W. Strandberg, 1985, Accumlation of Metals by Microbial Cell in Comprehensive Biotechnology Moo-Young, M, (ed.) Pergamon Press, N.Y.pp.235-247.
77、Shumate S. E., G. W. II and Standberg, 1985, Accumlation of Metals by Microbial Cell in Comprehensive Biotechnology Moo-Young, M, (ed.) Pergamon Press., N.Y. pp.235-247.
78、Siegel M. R., 1993, Acremonium endophytes: our current state of knowledge and future direction for search., Agric. Ecosystems Environ., 44:pp.301-321.
79、Starc A., 1942, Arch. Mikrobiol.,. 12:pp.329-352.
80、Terry M., 2003, Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals from Soils. In: Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology., Vol. 78:pp.97-123.
81、Tessier A., P. G. C. Campbell, M. Bisson, 1979, Sequential extraction procdure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal.Chem. 51:pp.844-851.
82、Ton S., 1993, Lead cycling through a hazardous waste-impacted wetland. phD Dissertation,University of Florida,Gainesville,Florida,USA.
83、Tracy J. E., J. D. Oster, R. J. Beaver, 1990, Selenium in the southern coast range of california : Well waters, mapped geological units, and related element.J. Environ.Qual. 19:pp.46-50.
84、Tsai L.J., K. C. Yu, J. S. Chang, S. T. Ho, 1998, Fractionation of heavy metals in sediment cores from the ELL-REN RIVER.Taiwan, Wat.Sci.Tech., 37:pp217-224.
85、Vangronsveld J., F. Van Assche, H. Clijsters, 1990, Immobilization of heavy metals in polluted soils by application of a modified alumino-silicate: Biological evaluation., pp.283-285. In J. Barcelo(ed.) Environmental contamination, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Barcelona. CEP-Consultants, Edinburgh, UK.
86、Wang T. C., J. C. Weissman, G. Ramesh, R. Varadarajan Benemann, 1995, Bioremoval ofToxic Elements with Aquatic Plants and Algae. In:Hinchee RE,Anderson DB, Hoeppel RE (eds) Bioremediation of Recalcitrant Organics, Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, p 65
87、Wehrheim B,Weltern M (1994) Appl Microbial Biotechnol 41:pp.725.
88、Welson C. L., M. E. Wisniewski, 1994, Biological Control of Postharvest Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables-Theory and Practice., Booa Raton, Florida, USA CRC Press, pp.182.
89、Wilson M. W., R. G. Edyvean, 1995, Biosorption for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewaters. In: Bousher A, Chandra M (eds) Biodeterioration and Biodegrada
90、Wisniewski M. E., C. L. Welson, 1992, Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables recent advance., HortScience, 27:pp.94-98.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔