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研究生:陳俊福
研究生(外文):Chun-Fu Chen
論文名稱:GM模型在未飽和土壤保水曲線預測之應用研究
論文名稱(外文):Using Gray Model for Predicting Unsatureated Soil’s Water Retention curve
指導教授:溫志超溫志超引用關係張維欽張維欽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jet-Chau WenWei-Chin Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:環境與安全工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:灰色理論保水曲線土壤張壓水力傳導係數
外文關鍵詞:retention curveGrey methodhydraulic coefficientcapillary pressure
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土壤的水力特性可藉由土壤含水量與土壤張力之間的關係曲線和土壤張力與水力傳導係數K之間的關係曲線來表示。本文藉由未飽和土壤滲透儀,配合自動壓力調節器產生的的負壓,獲得未飽和土壤的排出水量與其張壓,只需四至五天的時間即可完成實驗。在各場址的保水曲線上,其砂質黏壤土(林內鄉、西螺鎮與溪州鄉)的相對水力傳導係數與土壤含水量之曲線斜率變化比砂質壤土(二崙鄉、源泉村、九隆里、湳子里與二水鄉)的要小,可知水在砂質壤土入滲情形比砂質黏壤土要快,保水性較差。
對於灰色模型應用於保水曲線上,GM(1,3)模型之灰參數分析,與未飽和土壤相對水力傳導係數相關性最大者為本身未飽和土壤相對水力傳導係數變化趨勢;其次為土壤張壓;相關性最小者為土壤含水量。符合Gardner(1985)所定義之保水曲線之水力傳導係數經驗公式。對模式的適用性,結果顯示GM(1,2)模型和GM(1,3)模型有共通性,為砂質壤土(二崙、二水、源泉村、九隆與湳子場址)比砂質黏壤土(林內、西螺與溪州場址)更易到達合格值(90%)。且在相同實驗數據下,GM(1,2)模型比GM(1,3)模型較容易達到精度90%,因此GM(1,2)模型比GM(1,3)模型適用於預測水力傳導係數。
The hydraulic properties of soil are represented by the relationship between the soil capillary pressure and the relationship between the hydraulic conductivity and capillary pressure. The study measured water content of soil and capillary pressure by unsatureated permeameter and auto pressure controller. The experiment spent about four or five days. In the rention curve of every fields, the retention curve’s slop of the sand clay loam (Rinnai, Silo, Hsichouhr) larger than the retention curve’s slop of the sand loam (Esjh,Erlun, Jiulong, Nazi, Yuanquan). Therefore, the water flow in the sand cloam fast than sandy caly cloam. .
Gray method used for retention curve, analysis the GM(1,3) model’s gray parameter find out that unsaturated relative hydraulic coefficient have great relation first is itself, second is capillary pressure, third is water content. The GM(1,3) model’s result have a coincidence with Gardner(1985)’s hydraulic coefficient formula of the retention curve. The modle’s appropriate, GM(1,2) and GM(1,3) modle have same aspect, it is sand cloam reached the stand value (90%) easiler than sandy clay cloam, and used same experiment data, GM(1,2) model reached the precision 90% easiler than GM(1,3) model, and GM(1,2) is more suitable for hydraulic coincidence.
摘要 ...........................................................I
ABSTRACT ...........................................................II
誌謝................................................................III
目錄 ...........................................................IV
表目錄 ...........................................................VI
圖目錄 ...........................................................VII
第一章 序論 ...................................................1
1.1 前言 ............................................................1
1.2 文獻回顧 ...................................................1
1.2.1 未飽和土壤入滲相關研究 .................................1
1.2.2未飽和土壤保水曲線之相關研究 .................................3
1.2.3 灰色理論應用於水文地質研究 .................................5
第二章 研究方法與理論分析 ..........................................10
2.1 未飽和土壤水力傳導係數 ..........................................10
2.2 灰色系統原則 ...................................................15
2.2.1 灰建模 ...................................................15
2.2.2 預測模型平均精度檢驗 ..........................................20
第三章 研究場址介紹 ..........................................22
3.1 林內鄉 ...................................................22
3.2 二崙鄉 ...................................................24
3.3 二水鄉 ...................................................25
3.4 二水鄉源泉村 ...................................................26
3.5 湳子里 ...................................................27
3.6 九隆里 ...................................................28
3.7 西螺鎮 ...................................................30
3.8 溪州鄉 ...................................................31
第四章 實驗與數值分析結果與討論 .................................34
4.1 前言 ............................................................34
4.2 分析方法 ...................................................34
4.3 成果分析討論 ...................................................36
4.3.1 各場址保水曲線的建立 ..........................................36
4.3.2 各場址保水曲線結果與討論 .................................44
第五章 灰色預測分析結果與討論 .................................45
5.1 前言 ............................................................45
5.2 未飽和土壤張壓與相對水力傳導係數分析 ........................45
5.2.1分析方法 ...................................................45
5.2.2土壤張壓與相對水力傳導係數預測模擬結果與討論 ...............51
5.3 未飽和土壤含水量、土壤張壓與相對水力傳導係數分析 ...............61
5.3.1分析方法 ...................................................61
5.3.2未飽和土壤含水量、張壓與相對水力傳導係數預測結果與討論 .....67
第六章 結論與建議 ...................................................84
6.1 結論 ............................................................84
6.2 建議 ............................................................85
參考文獻 ............................................................86
附錄A 高斯消去法與GM(1,N)模型數值分析程式 .......................91
附錄B 未飽和土壤滲透儀器操作步驟 ................................108
附錄C 各場址之保水曲線實驗資料 ................................124
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