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研究生:吳宗霖
研究生(外文):Tsung-lin Wu
論文名稱:晶圓製程薄膜材料之奈米級磨潤物理現象及機械性質之探討
論文名稱(外文):Nanotribology behavior andMechanical Property of Thin Films forWafers
指導教授:鄭友仁
指導教授(外文):Y.R. Jeng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:機械工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:奈米材料奈米壓痕儀機械性質摩擦行為
外文關鍵詞:nano-material、nanoindentation、mechanical prope
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奈米材料的機械性質是設計、製造上的重要依據,當所探討的材
料尺寸範圍由毫米縮小至微米或奈米尺度之下,材料的機械物理特性
與摩擦行為,如材料的硬度、彈性系數、摩擦係數、抗磨耗性等,因
表面效應、小尺度效應及量子效應影響,使用傳統巨觀理論無法完美
解釋材料在奈米尺寸的行為模式,需要重新深入探討。
本研究使用奈米壓痕儀探討材料在奈米尺度下之機械性質與摩
擦行為,我們選用幾種半導體製程上常用的材料,矽為晶圓材料、鋁
為導線材料、氮化鉭與鉭則是晶圓製程中的障壁材料,以三角錐探針
進行奈米壓痕實驗,量測材料之硬度與楊氏係數;以圓錐形探針進行
奈米刮痕實驗,量測材料之摩擦係數與摩擦力。
研究結果顯示,當外力對試片造成彈性變形範圍為內摩擦係數為
定值,摩擦力與負載成線性關係;在塑性變形範圍為內摩擦係數隨負
載而上升,摩擦力與負載成線性關係,其斜率較彈性變形來的大;彈
性變形與塑性變形的分界力量稱為臨界力(critical load),並與材料硬
度值成正比。移動速度會影響摩擦係數的大小,刮痕速度小於臨界速
度時,摩擦係數為定值,刮痕速度大於臨界速度後摩擦係數開始隨速
度上升,其臨界速度會因材料的不同在0.20~0.33μm/s 之間。
越尖銳的探針測量到的摩擦係數與摩擦力較高,臨界力較小。以
探針與試片之周邊接觸面積研究其摩擦行為,其摩擦力與周邊接觸面
積成線性關係,斜率與探針曲率半徑成反比,不受彈性變形與塑性變
形的影響,此外斜率大小剛好與材料之硬度值成正比,較適合切入探
討奈米尺度下之摩擦行為。
The mechanical property of nano-scale is central for the development
of nano science and technology. The mechanical property at the
nano-scale can be different from that of bulk material due to effects such
as surface effect, size effect and quantum effect. This study investigates
the mechanical property and tribological performance of various material
used in wafer with nano-scale interconnect including aluminium, nickel,
silicon, tantalum and tantalum nitride.
In the study, we used nanoindentation to study material property and
tribological performance at nano-scale.We measure hardness and
Young’s Modulus of material by Berkovich tips and friction coefficient
and friction force by conical tips.
Our results show that the nano-hardness increases as the indentation
depths decreases into the nano range. The friction coefficient is constant
in the elastic deformation regime. The friction coefficient increases with
increasing load in the plastic deformation regime. The load between
elastic and plastic deformation is called critical load. Our testing indicates
that material with higher hardness generally lead to higher critical load.
The friction coefficient is constant if velocity less than critical velocity.
The friction coefficient increases with increasing velocity if velocity is
larger than critical velocity. The critical velocity is between
0.20~0.33μm/s for different material.
The critical load and friction coefficient will be different when using
different tips. Larger radius of the tip results in smaller friction coefficient
and larger critical load. The friction force is proportional to the peripheral
contact area regardless the deformation is elastic or plastic.
摘要……………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
目錄……………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
表目錄…………………………………………………………… Ⅵ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………… Ⅶ
符號表…………………………………………………………… Ⅹ
第一章諸論…………………………………………………….. 1
1-1 研究背景······················································································1 ···
1-2 研究動機與目的································································ 5
第二章壓痕理論……………………………………………….. 6
2-1 奈米壓痕硬度與楊氏係數······················································6········
2-2 彈性接觸分析·········································································9········
2-3 彈-塑性接觸分析································································ 13
2-4 奈米壓痕儀之壓痕接觸力學················································1··5········
2-5 實驗誤差19
2-5-1 表面粗糙度···········································································1··9········
2-5-2 基底效應···············································································2··0········
2-5-3 薄膜與基材的複合響應························································2··1······
2-5-4 壓痕尺寸效應·······································································2··3········
第三章摩擦理論……………………………………………….. 24
3-1 摩擦的分類···········································································2··4········
3-2 摩擦原理···············································································2··6········
3-2-1 機械嚙合理論··············································································27 ···
3-2-2 分子吸引理論·······································································2··8········
3-2-3 分子機械理論·······································································2··9········
3-2-4 粘著理論···············································································3··0········
3-3 犁削作用與摩擦力································································31
3-3-1 圓錐型壓痕器·······································································3··1········
3-3-2 半圓型壓痕器·······································································3··2········
第四章實驗設備及實驗程序………………………………….. 33
4-1 實驗流程···············································································3··3········
4-2 薄膜鍍製程序·······································································3··5········
4-2-1 基材的備製···········································································3··5········
4-2-2 薄膜的製作···········································································3··5········
4-2-3 膜厚測量···············································································3··5········
4-3 奈米壓痕量測·······································································3··6········
4-3-1 工作原理···············································································3··6········
4-3-2 操作程序···············································································3··7········
4-4 奈米刮痕量測·······································································3··9········
4-4-1 工作原理···············································································3··9········
4-4-1 操作程序···············································································4··0········
4-5 奈米磨耗量測·······································································4··1········
4-6 黏附力量測···········································································4··2········
第五章結果分析與討論……………………………………….. 43
5-1 奈米尺度下的機械物理性質················································4··3········
5-2 負載與摩擦力關係································································45
5-3 速度與摩擦係數關係·····························································4·9··
5-4 奈米磨耗性質·······································································5··1········
5-5 摩擦力與周邊接觸面積關係················································5··2········
第六章結論················································································· 56
第七章未來研究方向·································································· 58
參考文獻······················································································· 109
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Council, Committee on Technology, Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science,
Engineering and Technology, (2000)
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