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研究生:蔡金田
研究生(外文):Chin-tien Tsai
論文名稱:國民中小學校長能力指標建構與實證分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research on the construction of competence and empirical analysis of principals in elementary and junior high school
指導教授:張鈿富張鈿富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dian-fu Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:271
中文關鍵詞:實證分析德懷術指標建構能力指標校長能力
外文關鍵詞:Delphi techniqueindicator cnstructioncompetence indicatorempirical analysisprincipal's competence
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面對二十一世紀知識經濟的新紀元,迎接全球化教育競爭的年代,校長所具備之能力深深影響學校教育之永續生存與發展。本論文主要在建構國民中小學校長重要能力指標及探討當前校長所具備指標能力之現況,全文計分為兩個部分,第一部分為理論建構,從國內外校長能力內涵之文獻中進行內容分析並歸納出國民中小學校長能力指標構念,共分為四個層面、十二個向度、九十三項能力指標。接著經由三次德懷術之專家諮詢修訂,最後形成四個層面(行政管理、課程與教學、資源管理與運用、專業涵養)、十二個向度(校務行政、知識管理、事務決定、政策執行、教學領導、課程領導、學生學習與成就、教育經費與資源、校內人力資源、學校外部資源、專業能力、一般學養)、七十二項重要能力指標。
第二部分為實證分析,共寄出「國民中小學校長能力指標問卷」計333份,回收有效問卷302份,進行資料彙整與統計分析,以描述統計、相關分析、變異數分析與事後比較、t考驗、迴歸分析來詮釋所發現之研究現象。
研究結論如下︰
一、 校長能力內涵之內容分析
(一) 國內外學者在有關校長能力向度之陳述上共同重視的是校務行政、校內人力資源、學校外部資源、專業能力等向度。
(二) 國內外教育機構在有關校長能力向度之陳述上共同重視的是校務行政、校內人力資源、學校外部資源、教學領導、專業能力等向度。
(三) 國內外校長能力相關研究能力向度之比較分析可知,在有關校長能力向度之陳述上共同重視的是校務行政、校內人力資源、學校外部資源、專業能力、教育經費與資源等向度。
(四) 由國內外學者、教育機構對於校長能力內涵向度之綜合分析發現,校務行政、校內人力資源、學校外部資源、專業能力、教學領導所佔百分比較高,均超過70﹪以上。
二、 德懷述所建構之國民中小學校長能力指標重要排序中位居首要者,並非當前校長所具備能力得分之最高者,顯示校長在首要能力指標項目所具備之能力相對不足。
三、 校長具備能力現況之實證分析
(一) 當前國民中小學校長在能力指標各層面之得分介於4.24至4.44分之間;在能力指標各向度之得分則介於4.12至4.53之間。
(二) 不同區域、學歷、學校所在地之校長其所具備之能力在校長能力指標向度之得分上達顯著差異。
(三) 不同性別、年資及國中小校長別其所具備之能力,在校長能力指標向度之得分上並無顯著差異。

四、校長能力關聯與解釋模式
(一) 國民中小學校長所具備之四個層面,兩兩間均達顯著相關,其相關
係數介於 .771至 .830;另在十二個向度方面,彼此間亦達顯著相關,其相關係數介於 .519至 .774。
(二)政策執行、學生學習與成就、教學領導、知識管理、學校外部資源、班級數等能力向度能有效解釋校長能力指標之課程領導向度,總解釋力為63.9﹪。
(三)政策執行、專業能力、校務行政、課程領導、區域性、事務決定、學生學習與成就等可有效解釋校長能力指標之知識管理向度,總解釋力達63.70﹪。
(四)政策執行、校務行政、校內人力資源、專業能力、知識管理等可有效解釋校長能力指標之課程領導向度,總解釋力達66.4﹪。
(五)政策執行、校內人力資源、課程領導、一般學養、教育經費與資源、學校外部資源等可有效解釋校長能力指標之學生學習與成就向度,總解釋力達69.3﹪。
(六)校務行政、課程領導、事務決定、學生學習與成就、一般學養等可有效解釋校長能力指標之政策執行向度,總解釋力達75.6﹪。
(七)課程領導、校務行政、一般學養、學校所在地、學歷、事務決定等可有效解釋校長能力指標之教學領導向度,總解釋力達49.2﹪。
(八)政策執行、事務決定、教育經費與資源、知識管理等可有效解釋校長能力指標之校務行政向度,總解釋力達70.5﹪。
相關建議如下︰
一、對當前國民中小學校長培育、評鑑與證照制度規劃之建議
(一) 根據本研究所建構之校長重要能力指標及當前校長所具備能力概況,做為國民中小學校長培育之內容依據。
(二) 將校長能力指標做為校長評鑑之依據。
(三) 參考校長能力指標,建構適宜的校長證照標準。
(四) 對於校長之儲訓、評鑑、證照之規劃,應重視校長能力養成之完整性。
二、對於校長專業發展與成長規劃之建議
(一) 參照校長能力指標及當前所具備之能力現況建置校長專業能力資源網。
(二) 了解當前校長具備能力之現況,作為規劃校長專業成長之依據。
(三) 校長專業發展學術論壇,應以校長能力差異及甚少被論及之議題做為論述焦點。
三、對校長專業能力自我更新取向之建議
(一) 將校長能力指標及能力差異做為校長本身專業能力發展之依據。
(二) 擬定校長能力檢核表,進行自我反省、更新與發展。
(三) 透過網路資訊平台,建立校長網路學習社群。
四、 進一步研究的建議
(一) 因應教育趨勢適時彈性調整指標內涵。
(二) 可逐年檢證校長所具備之能力現況進行比較。
(三) 可進一步進行公私立國民中小校長能力之比較探討。
(四) 可採行不同指標建構方法相互驗證。
The purpose of this study was to develop professional indicators of elementary and junior high school principals and to investigate the current status of principals’ competence. The study included two stages—theory construction and empirical analysis. At the first stage, the study analyzed contents of principal’s competence in native and foreign countries through literature reviews. It included 4 sections, 12 categories and 93 competence indicators. After three times of Delphi technique were used to survey experts’ opinions on these indicators, it finally generalized 4 sections, 12categories, and 72 competence indicators. At the second stage, 333 questionnaires of “Competence Indicators of Elementary and Junior High School Principals” were responded by 302 elementary and junior high school principals. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, one-way ANOVA, t-test, and stepwise multivariate regression.

The results were as follows:
A. Analysis of principal’s professional competence included four parts.
1. The categories of principal’s professional competence which native and foreign experts all emphasized were school administration, campus human resource, school’s external resource and professional competence.
2. The categories of principal’s professional competence which were stressed by Native and foreign educational organizations were school administration, campus human resource, school’s external resource, instruction leadership and professional competence.
3. Depending on the comparative researches of principal’s professional competence, it focused on school administration, campus human resource, school’s external resource, professional competence, educational budgets and resource.
4. According to the general analysis of principal’s professional competence by native and foreign experts and educational organizations, school administration, campus human resource, school’s external resource, professional competence and instruction leadership accounted for over 70%.

B. The most important indicator of elementary and junior high school principal’s professional competence constructed by Delphi technique was not as same as the


highest scores of professional competence possessed by current principals. It accounted for the principal’s lack of professional competence in the most important indicator.

C. The empirical analysis of principal’s current professional competence
1. The scores on the sections of current elementary and junior high school principal’s competence indicators were between 4.24 and 4.44. The scores on the categories were between 4.12 and 4.53.
2. The professional competence of the principals with different areas, educational backgrounds, and school locations was remarkably diverse on the categories of principal’s competence indicators.
3. The professional competence of the principals with different genders and seniority didn’t have obviously difference on the categories of principal’s competence indicators.

D. The correlation of principal’s professional competence and interpretation
1. The four sections of principal’s professional competence had highly relation to each other. Its correlation coefficient was between 0.771 and 0.830. Besides, the twelve categories also had high relation to each other. Its correlation coefficient was between 0.519 and 0.774.
2. Competence categories of policy implementation, students’ learning and achievement, instruction leadership, knowledge management, school’s external resource and class size made an efficient description of categories of curriculum leadership on principal’s competence indicator. Total explanatory capability was 63.9%.
3. Policy implementation, professional competence, school administration, curriculum leadership, regions, decision-making on administrative affairs, and students’ learning and achievement made an efficient description of categories of knowledge management on principal’s competence indicator. Total explanatory capability was 63.70%.
4. Policy implementation, school administration, campus human resource, professional competence, and knowledge management made an efficient description of categories of curriculum leadership on principal’s competence indicator. Total explanatory capability was 66.4%.
5. Policy implementation, campus human resource, curriculum leadership, general accomplishment, educational budgets and resource, and school’s external resource


made an efficient description of categories of students’ learning and achievement on principal’s competence indicator. Total explanatory capability was 69.3%.
6. School administration, curriculum leadership, decision-making on administrative affairs, students’ learning and achievement, and general accomplishment made an efficient description of categories of policy implementation on principal’s competence indicator. Total explanatory capability was 75.6%.
7. Curriculum leadership, school administration, general accomplishment, school’s location, education background, and decision-making on administrative affairs made an efficient description of categories of instruction leadership on principal’s competence indicator. Total explanatory capability was 49.2%.
8. Policy implementation, decision-making on administrative affairs, educational budgets and resource and knowledge management made an efficient description of categories of school administration on principal’s competence indicator. Total explanatory capability was 70.5%.

The suggestions are as follows:
A. The suggestions of principal’s training, evaluation and certification system
1. Principal’s professional competence indicators constructed by the research and the description of current principals’ competence can be a basis for elementary and junior high school principal’s training.
2. Principal’s competence indicators can be a basis for principal’s evaluation.
3. Criterion of principal’s certification can be constructed from the indicators of principal’s professional competence.
4. The arrangement for principal’s training, evaluation and certification system should emphasize the completeness of principal’s competence training.

B. The suggestions of principal’s professional development and growth plan
1. Resource network of principal’s professional competence can be built on the principal’s competence indicators and the current principal’s competence situation.
2. Realizing current principal’s competence situation can be a basis for principal’s professional development by.
3. Academic deliberation of principal’s professional development can be focused on difference of principal’s competence and subjects that are neglected.




C. The suggestions of principal’s professional renovation
1. Principal’s competence indicators and different competence can be a basis for development of principal’s professional competence.
2. Principal’s competence checklist can be framed as principal’s self-criticism, renovation and development.
3. Principal’s learning community web can be set up by network information platform.

The suggestions of further study are as follows:
1. The contents of the indicators should be adjusted according to educational trend.
2. The condition of principal’s competence could be tested and compared every year.
3. Competence of principals in private and public elementary and junior high schools could be compared and discussed.
4. Principal’s competence could be verified by different indicator’s construction.
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………….1
第一節 研究背景與動機………………………………………………….1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題…………………………………………….4
第三節 名詞釋義………………………………………………………….4
第四節 研究範圍與限制………………………………………………….6
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………………….7
第一節 能力內涵與研究………………………………………………….7
第二節 指標內涵與研究………………………………………………….18
第三節 校長能力研究-學者論述…………………….………………....24
第四節 校長能力研究-教育機構論述………………………………….40
第五節 校長能力研究-相關研究論述……………….…………………79
第六節 校長能力指標構念………………………….……………………90
第七節 校長能力指標建構……………………………………………….100
第三章 研究設計與實施……………………………………………………….125
第一節 研究架構…………………………………………………………..125
第二節 研究對象與實施…………………………………………………..128
第三節 研究方法與工具…………………………………………………..131
第四節 資料處理與統計分析……………………………………………..133
第四章 研究結果與討論………………………………………………………..135
第一節 校長能力指標篩選………………………………………………..135
第二節 校長能力調查結果………………………………………………..156
第三節 校長能力指標排序與實際得分情形之比較分析………………..162
第四節 不同背景變項校長所具備能力之差異性分析…………………..170
第五節 校長能力關聯與解釋模式………………………………………..187
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………………………..195
第一節 結論………………………………………………………………..195

第二節 建議……………………………………………………………..199
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………..207
中文部分……………………………………………………………………..207
英文部分……………………………………………………………………..210
附錄……………………………………………………………………………..216
附錄一 國民中小學校長能力指標建構問卷(德懷術第一次)………..216
附錄二 國民中小學校長能力指標建構問卷(德懷術第二次)………..232
附錄三 第二次德懷術指標保留與刪除對照表…………………………..239
附錄四 國民中小學校長能力指標建構問卷(德懷術第三次)………..245
附錄五 第三次德懷術指標保留與刪除對照表…………………………..253
附錄六 國民中小學校長能力指標問卷(預試)………………………..260
附錄七 國民中小學校長能力指標問卷…………………………………..266
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