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研究生:溫照成
研究生(外文):Chao-Cheng Wen
論文名稱:適合即時性應用具部分可靠性與因果次序之新型傳輸服務
論文名稱(外文):A Novel Transport Service Model with Partial Reliability and Causal Ordering for Real-Time Applications
指導教授:陳景章陳景章引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kim-Joan Chen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:電機工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:142
中文關鍵詞:可靠性即時應用傳輸服務因果次序
外文關鍵詞:ReliabilityReal-time applicationsTransport serviceCausal ordering
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  • 下載下載:17
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最近二三十年間,網路平台的廣泛建置,尤其是網際網路,促使使用者快速增加,人們的生活有了些釭漣幭隉C人們的社會活動與溝通模式,漸漸地透過網路達成,使得網路應用也有所改變。有別於以往網路應用主要在於檔案或信件的往來,一些更即時的應用逐漸為人們接受,其中不少的應用是以多點群組完成,如網格運算、Web Service、視訊會議、即時訊息服務。

在此同時,網路平台的技術也在演進,雖然如今看來是網際網路的天下,但實際情形是,不同的網路服務供應者可能採用不同的網路架構,達到自身對控制與管理的需求,如ATM、MPLS網路等等。換言之,網際網路與二、三十年前的情形不同了。

儘管應用軟體的通訊模型與需求變得更多樣,網路品質特性易於以往,但負責終端至終端、銜接網路層與應用層的傳輸層,卻還沿用過往的TCP或UTP傳輸協定,使得新的應用常常無法發揮該有的效能、甚至新應用需要的新傳輸弁鄐]無法達到。因此,在本文中,我們試圖提出一全新的傳輸服務模型,整合未來應用的傳輸需求,將主要傳輸弁鉧膃X在所提的傳輸模型當中,如因果次序、即時性、與部分可靠傳輸。提出的新模型同時考量異質網路可能帶來的傳送品質差異,如終端至終端的延遲變化,使得傳輸層能夠兼顧今日應用層與網路層的差異。

我們相信,未來的應用除了即時性外,釵h應用將採用多點通訊模型,所謂多點通訊就是每一終端同時都具備傳送與接收者的角色,並且傳送的資料與接收的資料有次序上的相依性,也與其他終端傳傳送接收的資料有次序相依性。此外,未來的應用將是全球性的多點應用,除了可能造成延遲變化劇烈外,遺失訊息的可能性仍必須納入設計考量,但不再如以往TCP保證所有訊息完整傳送的方式,而是以部分可靠性的方式,兼顧效能、即時性和訊息可靠性。

在本文所提的模型當中,將次序弁鄍H因果次序達成,並同時兼顧即時需求與可靠需求。換言之,透過本模型,應用層所收到的資料都有這三項特徵或保證。除了提出服務模型外,我們也說明如何實作這樣一個服務模型所需要的弁遄C並且實際實作一雛形系統,測試這樣的傳輸服務效能如何,以及觀察三項需求彼此間的取捨。

根據我們的研究成果,提出的新型傳輸服務可以提供一個更彈性、整合必要傳輸 弁?,且符合今日與未來即時應用的需求。
In the past twenty or thirty years, the network users increase exponentially due to the widely deployed networks, especially the Internet, which changes the human life in many ways. Many social activities in people life change to the computer networks, which motivates more emerging applications to be created. Unlike the traditional Internet applications, that are mainly file transfer and email transferfootnote{From the viewpoint of the transport layer, Email can be viewed as small file transfer application.}, these emerging applications are real-time interactive and usually group-based, multipoint communications, for example, Grid Computing, Web Service, P2P tchnology, messenger service, and video conferencing. The communication model of the applications have changed, and the transport requirements of the application nowadays are also different from that several-tens years before.

In the meantime, the evolution of the networking technology stimulates the changes of the Internet. Although the Internet is the universal network platform in today networks, however, different network service providers use different internetworking technology, e.g., ATM networks, MPLS networks, to support their special demands for control and management purposes. Therefore, the transfer capability and quality of the Internet are different than before, and it is a heterogeneous networks now.

The quality of the network platform changes, too. However, the transport service, which is layered between the applications and the networks and responsible for the adaption of the network transfer capability and the application requirements, doesn't change as its upper- and lower layers change. Many real-time applications still use the traditional TCP and UDP transport protocols, which doesn't provide new transport functionalities that the applications need, so that, the performance of the real-time applications may be poor and the transport service model is impertinent regarding these applications.

In this dissertation, we propose a novel transport service for the future applications, which integrates the most important transport functionalities into one transport service, including the guarantees of message causality, timely and reliable delivery. The proposed transport service model, called Multipoint Integrated Transport Service Model (MITSM), considers the quality variance of the network transfers, e.g., ene-to-end delays, such that the novel transport service can adapt the quality variance of the network transfers to the requirements of the applications.

In the MITSM, we believe, the applications will adopt multipoint communications model, which means that, every end process play both of sender and receiver roles. The sent messages and the received messages in one process are correlated in order, which also have order dependence on the messages sent from the other to another. Besides, these multipoint applications usually requires real-time delivery, which means that the application entities wish to get the messages from the others in time. Furthermore, the applications are often deployed over the global networks sparsely, in which the reliability of the sent messages is an important issue. In general, the applications require the transport layer to support partial reliability, not total reliability as the traditional traditional transport protocol provides. Traditional transport protocol, such as TCP, use complicated retransmission mechanism to protect and recover the lost messages, which may degrade the throughput performance of the real-time applications. Therefore, the concept of partial reliability is popular in modern transport services, which can get the balance between real-time and reliable delivery.

The MITSM uses causal ordering to protect the message causality, meanwhile, it concerns about the three requirements of real-time and reliable delivery with respect to the applications. In other words, the applications get the transport guarantees of the three features. In this dissertation, we also explain how to realize the functionalities, mentioned in the MITSM, for the three transport requirements. Furthermore, we implement a prototype of such transport service, called Real-Time Transport Service for Multipoint Applications (RTSM), and take experiments in the Internet for performance analysis as well as the insight observations of the transport service, including the trade-off between the three requirements.

We believe that our works can provide a more flexible and sophisticated transport service to the real-time applications.
contentsline {chapter}{中文摘要}{ii}{section*.1}
contentsline {chapter}{Abstract in English}{iv}{chapter*.2}
contentsline {chapter}{Table of Contents}{xi}{chapter*.4}
contentsline {chapter}{List of Figures}{xiv}{chapter*.5}
contentsline {chapter}{List of Tables}{xv}{chapter*.6}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {1}Introduction}{1}{chapter.1}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {1.1}Background}{2}{section.1.1}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {1.2}Motivation}{4}{section.1.2}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {1.3}Objectives of this dissertation}{5}{section.1.3}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {1.4}Related Works}{5}{section.1.4}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {1.5}Dissertation Organization}{6}{section.1.5}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {2}Transport Service Model for Multipoint Applications}{8}{chapter.2}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {2.1}Application Requirements}{9}{section.2.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.1.1}Application models}{10}{subsection.2.1.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.1.2}Developers' Considerations}{12}{subsection.2.1.2}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {2.2}Network Transfer Capability and Characteristics}{14}{section.2.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.2.1}Circuit Switching Networks}{14}{subsection.2.2.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.2.2}Best-Effort Internet}{15}{subsection.2.2.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.2.3}QoS-Guaranteed Networks}{19}{subsection.2.2.3}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.2.4}QoS-Aware Internet}{21}{subsection.2.2.4}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.2.5}End-to-End Delay Model in Heterogeneous Networks}{22}{subsection.2.2.5}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {2.3}Proposed Multipoint Integrated Transport Service Model}{24}{section.2.3}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.3.1}Functionalities of the MITSM}{25}{subsection.2.3.1}
contentsline {subsubsection}{Causal Ordering Protocol}{25}{section*.7}
contentsline {subsubsection}{Real-time Delivery}{25}{section*.8}
contentsline {subsubsection}{Partial Reliability}{26}{section*.9}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {2.3.2}Some Notes about the MITSM}{27}{subsection.2.3.2}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {3}Evolution of Causal Ordering and the Realization of Multipoint Integrated Transport Service Model}{29}{chapter.3}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {3.1}Logical Time and Logical Clocks}{30}{section.3.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.1.1}Happened-before Relation}{30}{subsection.3.1.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.1.2}Logical Clocks}{33}{subsection.3.1.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.1.3}Totally Ordered Logical Clocks}{34}{subsection.3.1.3}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.1.4}Vector Clocks}{36}{subsection.3.1.4}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.1.5}Matrix Clocks}{37}{subsection.3.1.5}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {3.2}Causal Ordering Protocol and the Relationship}{39}{section.3.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.2.1}Making the System Causal-Ordered}{39}{subsection.3.2.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.2.2}An Easy Way to Implement the Causal Ordering}{41}{subsection.3.2.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.2.3}Limitations of Causal Ordering}{41}{subsection.3.2.3}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {3.3}$Delta $-Causal Ordering Protocol}{43}{section.3.3}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.3.1}Causal Ordering for Real-time Applications}{43}{subsection.3.3.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.3.2}Details of the $Delta $-causal Ordering Protocol}{44}{subsection.3.3.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.3.3}Limitations of the $Delta $-causal Ordering Protocol}{46}{subsection.3.3.3}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {3.4}Partial-Reliable-Delta-Causal Ordering}{48}{section.3.4}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.4.1}Causal Ordering for Real-time Applications with Partial Reliability}{48}{subsection.3.4.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {3.4.2}Details of the Partial-Reliable-$Delta $-causal Ordering Protocol}{49}{subsection.3.4.2}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {4}Implementation of the Multipoint Integrated Transport Service}{52}{chapter.4}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {4.1}System Architecture}{52}{section.4.1}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {4.2}Components of the RTSM}{53}{section.4.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {4.2.1}Group Manager}{53}{subsection.4.2.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {4.2.2}Time Synchronization Daemon}{55}{subsection.4.2.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {4.2.3}Loss and Delay Surveyors}{57}{subsection.4.2.3}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {4.2.4}Causal-Ordering Manager}{60}{subsection.4.2.4}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {4.3}Design Issues of the Multipoint Integrated Transport Service}{61}{section.4.3}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {4.3.1}Determining a Proper Value for Message Life-time}{61}{subsection.4.3.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {4.3.2}Should we use the DCO or the PRDCO?}{64}{subsection.4.3.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {4.3.3}Evaluating the Required Buffer Size}{65}{subsection.4.3.3}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {5}Experiments and Simulation Results}{69}{chapter.5}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {5.1}$Delta $-Causal Ordering on TANET}{70}{section.5.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.1.1}Experimental Design}{70}{subsection.5.1.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.1.2}Experimental Environments}{72}{subsection.5.1.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.1.3}Understanding the End-to-End Delay Model}{73}{subsection.5.1.3}
contentsline {subsubsection}{Dataset collection}{74}{section*.10}
contentsline {subsubsection}{Sampling the Network Delay}{76}{section*.11}
contentsline {subsubsection}{Time Series Analysis of the Network Delay on the TANET}{78}{section*.12}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.1.4}Experimental Results}{79}{subsection.5.1.4}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {5.2}$Delta $-Causal Ordering on Emulated WAN}{85}{section.5.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.2.1}Experimental Design}{86}{subsection.5.2.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.2.2}Experimental Environments}{86}{subsection.5.2.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.2.3}Experimental Results}{87}{subsection.5.2.3}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {5.3}Partial-Reliable-$Delta $-Causal Ordering}{90}{section.5.3}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.3.1}Simulation Environments}{90}{subsection.5.3.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {5.3.2}Simulation Results}{92}{subsection.5.3.2}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {6}Discussion}{94}{chapter.6}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {6.1}Buffer Requirements}{94}{section.6.1}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {6.2}Performance Trade-off and Biased-Performance Phenomena}{97}{section.6.2}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {6.3}Effectiveness of Causal Ordering}{98}{section.6.3}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {6.4}Limitations of Multipoint Integrated Transport Service}{100}{section.6.4}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {6.4.1}The Group Model in the MITSM}{100}{subsection.6.4.1}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {6.4.2}The Priority of the Three Requirements for Different Applications}{101}{subsection.6.4.2}
contentsline {subsection}{
umberline {6.4.3}The Limitations of Modelling the End-to-End Delay}{101}{subsection.6.4.3}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {6.5}Future Issues: Flow Control}{103}{section.6.5}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {7}Conclusion}{104}{chapter.7}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {A}Modelling the End-to-End Delay with Time Series Analysis}{105}{appendix.A}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {A.1}General Concept of Modelling with Time Series}{105}{section.A.1}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {A.2}What are ARIMA models}{107}{section.A.2}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {A.3}Dataset Collection}{108}{section.A.3}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {A.4}Model Identification}{110}{section.A.4}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {A.5}Model Fitting}{110}{section.A.5}
contentsline {section}{
umberline {A.6}Model Diagnostic}{113}{section.A.6}
contentsline {chapter}{
umberline {B}The Correlation Between the Message Causality and non-Poisson Traffic Model}{115}{appendix.B}
contentsline {chapter}{Bibliography}{125}{appendix*.13}
contentsline {chapter}{Index}{126}{appendix*.13}
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BOOKTITLE = "2004 IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, (CCGrid 2004)",
YEAR = "2004",
pages = "228--238",
}

@ARTICLE{rio:qosnw,
AUTHOR = "Miguel Rio and et al.",
TITLE = "Quality of Service Networking for High Performance Grid Applications",
JOURNAL = "Special Issue: High Performance Networking, Journal of Grid Computing ",
YEAR = "2003",
volume = "1",
number = "4",
pages = "329--343",
}

@ARTICLE{atwood:rmp,
AUTHOR = "J.W. Atwood",
TITLE = "A classification of reliable multicast protocols",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Network Magazine",
YEAR = "2004",
month = "May",
volume = "18",
number = "3",
pages = "24--34",
}

@ARTICLE{whetten:rmtp2,
AUTHOR = "B. Whetten and G. Taskale",
TITLE = "An overview of reliable multicast transport protocol II",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Network Magazine",
YEAR = "2004",
month = "January",
volume = "14",
number = "1",
pages = "37--47",
}

@MISC{jacobson:bst,
author = "V. Jacobson and C. Alaettinoglu and K. Poduri",
title = "BST - BGP Scalable Transport",
howpublished = "NANOG 26th Meeting, available on http://www.nanog.org/mtg-0302/bst.html",
year = "2002",
month = "October",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{zeadally:sip,
AUTHOR = "S. Zeadally and F. Siddiqui",
TITLE = "Design and implementation of a SIP-based VoIP architecture",
BOOKTITLE = "2004 IEEE 18th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, (AINA 2004)",
YEAR = "2004",
month = "March",
pages = "187--190",
volume = "2",
}

@ARTICLE{chandra:perfcom,
AUTHOR = "AP. Chandra and P. Gambhire and A.D. Kshemkalyani",
TITLE = "Performance of the optimal causal multicast algorithm: a statistical analysis",
JOURNAL = "Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on",
YEAR = "2004",
volume = "15",
number = "1",
pages = "40--52",
month = "January",
}

@ARTICLE{ych:atmvc,
AUTHOR = "Ting-Chao Hou,Chorng-Horng Yang and Kim-Joan Chen",
TITLE = "Achieving High Interactivity and Stability of a Videoconferencing System over ATM Networks",
JOURNAL = "IEICE Transactions on Communications",
YEAR = "2001",
month = "July",
volume = "E84-B",
number = "7",
pages = "1926--1935",
}

@ARTICLE{ccwen:gcieice,
AUTHOR = "Chao-Cheng Wen and Yuan-Sun Chu and Kim-Joan Chen",
TITLE = "Causal-Ordered Real-Time Communications of Grid Computing on the Internet",
JOURNAL = "IEICE Transactions on Communications",
YEAR = "2005",
volume = "88-B",
number = "10",
pages = "225--234",
month = "October",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{abouaissa:hierarchicalco,
AUTHOR = "A. Abouaissa and A. Benslimane",
TITLE = "Hierarchical architecture for real time causal delivery",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of 1998 IEEE 23rd Annual Conference on Local Computer Networks, (LCN '98)",
YEAR = "1998",
pages = "374--383",
month = "October",
}



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AUTHOR = "Maria Ramalho and Alcatel Corporate Research Centre",
TITLE = "Intra- and inter-domain multicast routing protocols: A survey and texonomy",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials",
YEAR = "2000",
volume = "3",
number = "1",
pages = "2--25",
month = "January",
source = "http://www.comsoc.org/pubs/surveys",
}

@BOOK{gouda:protocoldesign,
AUTHOR = "Mohamed G. Gouda",
TITLE = "Elements of Network Protocol Design",
PUBLISHER = "John Wiley and Sons",
YEAR = "1998",
}

@BOOK{david:atm,
AUTHOR = "David E. McDysan and Darren L. Spohn",
TITLE = "ATM: Theory and Application",
PUBLISHER = "McGraw-Hill",
YEAR = "1995",
}

@BOOK{tanenbaum:networks,
AUTHOR = "Andrew S. Tanenbaum",
TITLE = "Computer Networks, Fourth Edition",
PUBLISHER = "Prentice Hall",
YEAR = "2003",
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@BOOK{bruce:mpls,
AUTHOR = "Bruce Davie and Yakov Rekhter",
TITLE = "MPLS: Technology and Applications",
PUBLISHER = "Morgan Kaufman. Publishers",
YEAR = "2000",
}

@ARTICLE{tom:opnetmcastperf,
AUTHOR = "Tom Billhartz and J. Bibb Cain and Ellen Farrey-Goudreau and Doug Fieg and Stephen Gordon Batsell",
TITLE = "Performance and resource cost comparisons for the CBT and PIM multicast routing protocols",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC)",
YEAR = "1997",
volume = "15",
number = "3",
pages = "304--315",
month = "April",
}

@ARTICLE{william:rmpclassification,
AUTHOR = "J. William Atwood",
TITLE = "A Classification of Reliable Multicast Protoc",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Network Magazine",
YEAR = "2004",
pages = "25--34",
month = "May/June",
}

@BOOK{bosse:sigtele,
AUTHOR = "John G. van Bosse",
TITLE = "Signaling in Telecommunication Networks",
PUBLISHER = "Wiley",
YEAR = "1997",
}

@BOOK{perlman:interworking,
AUTHOR = "Radia Perlman",
TITLE = "Interconnections: Bridges and Routers",
PUBLISHER = "Addison-Wesley",
YEAR = "1992",
}

@BOOK{comer:tcpip,
AUTHOR = "Douglas E. Comer",
TITLE = "Internetworking with TCP/IP, Volume 1--3, Third Edition",
PUBLISHER = "Prentice Hall",
YEAR = "1995",
}

@BOOK{stevens:tcpip,
AUTHOR = "Wright Stevens",
TITLE = "TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1--3",
PUBLISHER = "Addison-Wesley",
YEAR = "1995",
}

@BOOK{stevens:unixnetwork,
AUTHOR = "W. Richard Stevens",
TITLE = "UNIX Network Programming, Volume 1--2, Second Edition",
PUBLISHER = "Prentice Hall",
YEAR = "1998",
month = "January"
}

@BOOK{galvin:os,
AUTHOR = "Silberschatz Galvin",
TITLE = "Operating System Concepts, Fourth Edition",
PUBLISHER = "Addison-Wesley",
YEAR = "1995",
}

@BOOK{bocker:isdn,
AUTHOR = "Peter Bocker",
TITLE = "ISDN - The Integrated Services Digital Network. Concept, Methods, Systems",
PUBLISHER = "Springer-Verlag",
YEAR = "1988",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{mark:middleware,
AUTHOR = "Mark Swick and James White and Michael Masters",
TITLE = "A summary of communication middleware requirements for advanced shipboard computing systems",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS'99)",
YEAR = "1999",
pages = "245--254",
}

@ELECTRONIC{columbia:rtpfaq,
TITLE = "Some frequently asked questions about {RTP}",
author = "Henning Schulzrinne",
url = "http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~hgs/rtp/faq.html",
note = "Available on url{http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~hgs/rtp/faq.html}",
}

@BOOK{beran:longmemory,
AUTHOR = "Jan Beran",
TITLE = "Statistics for long-memory processes",
PUBLISHER = "Chapman & Hall",
YEAR = "1994",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{he:sampling,
AUTHOR = "Guanghui He and Jennifer C. Hou",
TITLE = "An in-depth, analytical study of sampling techniques for self-similar Internet traffic",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICSCS’05)",
YEAR = "2005",
pages = "404--413",
month = "June",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{yang:predictingdelayoverview,
AUTHOR = "Ming Yang and X. Rong Li and Huimin Chen and Nageswara S. V. Rao",
TITLE = "Predicting Internet end-to-end delay: an overview",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the Thirty-Sixth Southeastern Symposium on System Theory",
YEAR = "2004",
pages = "210--214",
month = "October",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{yang:predictingdelaymultiple,
AUTHOR = "M. Yang and J. Ru and XR Li and H. Chen and A. Bashi",
TITLE = "Predicting Internet end-to-end delay: a multiple-model approach",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications (INFOCOM 2005)",
YEAR = "2005",
pages = "2815-2819",
month = "March",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{downey:pathchar,
AUTHOR = "Allen B. Downey",
TITLE = "Using pathchar to estimate Internet link characteristics",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communication (ACM SIGCOMM '99)",
YEAR = "1999",
pages = "241-250",
month = "August",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{shioda:bwestimation,
AUTHOR = "Shigeo Shioda and Takahiro Yagi and Kenichi Mase",
TITLE = "A new approach to the bottleneck bandwidth measurement for an end-to-end network path",
BOOKTITLE = "Communications, 2005. ICC 2005. 2005 IEEE International Conference on",
YEAR = "2005",
pages = "59--64",
month = "May",
volume = "1",
}

@ARTICLE{banerjea:tenet,
AUTHOR = "Anindo Banerjea and Domenico Ferrari and Bruce A. Mah and Mark Moran and Dinesh C. Verma and Hui Zhang",
TITLE = "The Tenet real-time protocol suite: design, implementation, and experiences",
JOURNAL = "IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking",
YEAR = "1996",
volume = "4",
number = "1",
pages = "1--10",
month = "February",
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@ARTICLE{clc:gps,
AUTHOR = "Chia-Lung Cheng and Fan-Ren Chang and Kun-Yuan Tu",
TITLE = "Highly accurate real-time GPS carrier phase-disciplined oscillator",
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volume = "54",
number = "2",
pages = "819--824",
month = "April",
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@BOOK{box:arima,
AUTHOR = "George E. P. Box and Gwilym M. Jenkins and Gregory C. Reinsel",
TITLE = "Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control, Third Edition",
PUBLISHER = "Prentice Hall",
YEAR = "1994",
}

@BOOK{abraham:forecasting,
AUTHOR = "Bovas Abraham and Johannes Ledolter",
TITLE = "Statistical Methods for Forecasting",
PUBLISHER = "Wiley",
YEAR = "1983",
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AUTHOR = "W. N. Venables and B. D. Ripley",
TITLE = "Modern Applied Statistics with S-PLUS, Second Edition",
PUBLISHER = "Springer",
YEAR = "1997",
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@ARTICLE{papazonglou:webservice,
AUTHOR = "M. P. Papazoglou and W.-J. van den Heuvel",
TITLE = "Web services management: a survey",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Internet Computing Magazine",
YEAR = "2005",
volume = "9",
number = "6",
pages = "58--64",
month = "December",
}

@ARTICLE{davoli:p2p,
AUTHOR = "L. Caviglione and F. Davoli",
TITLE = "Peer-to-peer middleware for bandwidth allocation in sensor networks",
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volume = "9",
number = "3",
pages = "285--287",
month = "March",
}

@ARTICLE{goth:p2p,
AUTHOR = "G. Goth",
TITLE = "In brief: colleges taking file-sharing into their own hands",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Distributed System Online",
YEAR = "2005",
volume = "6",
number = "5",
month = "May",
}

@ARTICLE{chan:webservice,
AUTHOR = "A.T.S. Chan and J. Cao and C.K. Chan, C.K.",
TITLE = "WEBGOP: Collaborative Web Services Based on Graph-Oriented Programming",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Transaction on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A",
YEAR = "2005",
volume = "35",
number = "6",
pages = "811--830",
month = "November",
}

@ARTICLE{zhang:multipoint,
AUTHOR = "Yin Zhang and M. Roughan and C. Lund and D.L. Donoho",
TITLE = "Estimating point-to-point and point-to-multipoint traffic matrices: an information-theoretic approach",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Transaction on Networking",
YEAR = "2005",
volume = "13",
number = "5",
pages = "947--960",
month = "October",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{mattern:vectorclocks,
AUTHOR = "F. Mattern",
TITLE = "Virtual time and global states in distributed systems",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Algorithms",
YEAR = "1989",
pages = "215--226",
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@ARTICLE{fidge:vectorclocks,
AUTHOR = "C. Fidge",
TITLE = "Logical time in distributed computing systems",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Computer Magazine",
YEAR = "1991",
volume = "24",
number = "8",
pages = "28--33",
month = "August",
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@INPROCEEDINGS{fischer:matrixtime,
AUTHOR = "M. J. Fischer and A. Michael",
TITLE = "Sacrificing serializability to attain high availability of data in unreliable network",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Principles Database Systems",
YEAR = "1982",
pages = "70--75",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{bernstein:matrixtime,
AUTHOR = "G. T. J. Wuu and A. J. Bernstein",
TITLE = "Efficient solutions to the replicated log and dictionary problems",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the Third ACM Symposium on Principles Distributed Computing (PODC)",
YEAR = "1984",
pages = "233--242",
}

@ARTICLE{lynch:matrixtime,
AUTHOR = "S. K. Sarin and L. Lynch",
TITLE = "Discarding obsolete information in a replicated database system",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering",
YEAR = "1987",
volume = "SE",
number = "13.1",
pages = "39--46",
month = "January",
}

@ARTICLE{bost:sizeofcoinformation,
AUTHOR = "B. Charron Bost",
TITLE = "Concerning the size of logical clocks in distributed systems",
JOURNAL = "Information Processing Letters",
YEAR = "1991",
volume = "13.1",
pages = "11--16",
month = "July",
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@ELECTRONIC{trimble:gps,
TITLE = "Tutorials on Global Positioning System (GPS)",
author = "Trimble Coporation",
url = "http://www.trimble.com/gps/index.html",
note = "Available on url{http://www.trimble.com/gps/index.html}",
}

@ARTICLE{bellcore:selfsimilarity,
AUTHOR = "W. E. Leland and M. S. Taqqu and W. Willinger and D. V. Wilson",
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JOURNAL = "IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking",
YEAR = "1994",
volume = "2",
number = "1",
pages = "1--15",
month = "February",
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{park:selfsimilarity,
AUTHOR = "Kihong Park and Gitae Kim and M. Crovella",
TITLE = "On the relationship between file sizes, transport protocols, and self-similar network traffic",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Network Protocols",
YEAR = "1996",
pages = "171--180",
month = "November"
}

@ARTICLE{ammar:layeredmulticast,
AUTHOR = "Taehyun Kim and M. H. Ammar",
TITLE = "A comparison of heterogeneous video multicast schemes: Layered encoding or stream replication",
JOURNAL = "IEEE Transactions on Multimedia",
YEAR = "2005",
volume = "7",
number = "6",
pages = "1123--1130",
month = "December",
}
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