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研究生:林仲毅
研究生(外文):Tom C.-I. Lin
論文名稱:利用附加資訊之視訊抗誤編碼與傳輸
論文名稱(外文):Error Resilient Video Coding and Transmission by Using Side-information
指導教授:賴文能賴文能引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Nung Lie
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:電機工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:抗誤編碼錯誤隱藏資料隱藏
外文關鍵詞:Error resilienceError concealmentData embedding
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近年來,隨著電腦網路的迅速普及與視訊壓縮技術的快速進步,視訊傳輸已成為人們在日常生活上隨處可見的聯絡方式,如3G手機與MSN的視訊通話機制。然而,為了減少傳輸所需的通道頻寬,視訊資料必須經過高壓縮比的視訊壓縮。但是視訊資料在高度壓縮的狀況下,將導致傳輸資料容易受到通道雜訊的影響而發生錯誤。因此,為了減少通道雜訊的影響並進而提升接收端的視訊品質,抗誤 (error resilience) 與錯誤遮掩(error concealment) 成為視訊傳輸中不可或缺的一環。雖然在現行的視訊壓縮標準中,已經存在了多種抗誤編碼的機制,但是這些機制依然有所不足。特別在高通道錯誤率的狀況下,接收端往往無法取得擁有可被接受品質的視訊資料。為此,我們提出利用附加資訊加強視訊傳輸系統的抗誤能力,而所使用的附加資訊將有助於提高「錯誤偵測」、「快速同步」與「錯誤遮掩」等的能力。
依據不同的錯誤型態、通道協定與編碼格式,有助於視訊傳輸抗誤能力的附加資訊的選擇也勢必有所不同。例如,在 circuit-switched 網路上,如何使解碼器可以快速恢復同步 (resynchronization) 以迅速減少錯誤對視訊的影響,也就是如何令解碼器可以在較小單位下快速恢復同步。在第三章中,我們提出利用附加資訊使解碼器可以在 macroblock layer恢復同步,而不再如同視訊編碼標準中的slice layer才能利用特殊碼進行同步的回復。對於 packet-switch 網路,每一個封包中包含了可獨立解碼的視訊資料,因此回復同步的附加資料將不再有助於提高抗誤能力。然而,改將附加資料利用於引導錯誤遮掩機制,以此提供更好的修復效果,這將是另一個較好的選擇。在第四章與第五章中,我們選定兩種附加資料用以提高錯誤遮掩的效能,進而取得較佳的解碼品質。對於獨立編碼影像 (I-frames) 而言,經過小波轉換的遮掩誤差影像 (concealment error image) 的低頻部分將被選定為附加資料,而對預估編碼影像 (P-frames) 而言,每個macroblock的最佳錯誤遮掩方法,將經過編碼後成為我們所選定的附加資料。
在本論文中,如何傳輸附加資料是另一個重要的研究課題。首先,附加資料可以透過另一個可靠的通道進行傳輸,例如:在第四章中,我們利用TCP/IP網路協定的通道傳輸資料。或者如同第三章與第五章中所使用的方法,利用資料嵌入技術將附加資料隱藏於視訊中進行傳輸。然而這兩種方式在使用上各有各自的問題。對資料嵌入而言,視訊將因為資料隱藏的影響導致品質降低。但對於利用另一個可靠通道傳輸而言,我們則必須面對如何使附加資料與視訊資料取得同步的問題。
透過我們的研究結果可以發現,在大部分的錯誤環境中,附加資料可以有效且顯著的提升視訊傳輸的解碼品質。另外,對於未來的研究我們提出了四個討論方向:
(1) 何種附加資料可以有效的提高視訊編碼的抗誤能力?
(2) 如何有效的傳輸附加資料?
(3) 附加資料應在何時傳輸最為適合?
(4) 何處是附加資料嵌入的最有效位置?
As the networking and compression technologies grow rapidly, video transmission becomes an obtainable component in our daily lives. As the video data is highly compressed, it will be much more prone to channel errors. Therefore, error resilience and error concealment techniques are required to improve video quality in presence of channel errors. Error resilience tools in video coding standards are still insufficient to provide videos with acceptable visual quality in high error rate condition. This motivates us to enhance the codec’s capability by exploiting side-information which is useful for error detection, error correction, resynchronization, error concealment, and so on.
Which kind of side-information is useful depends on the error type, network protocol, or the coding style. For example, in circuit-switched network, resynchronization with a smaller unit is better to reduce the error effects. Therefore, in chapter 3, we provide information for resynchronization at each MB, instead of at GOB or slice in coding standards. For packet-switched networks, where each packet contains an independent unit of video bitstream, the resynchronization information becomes useless, but the information for error concealment becomes a better choice to enhance the resulting quality of the corrupted video. In chapters 4 and 5, the index of best error concealment scheme for each MB in P-frames and the low frequency wavelets coefficients of concealment error image of I-frames are provided as the side-information to enhance the result of error concealment.
How to transmit the side-information is another issue in this research. It can be done by exploiting another reliable channel (such as TCP/IP) (in chapter 4) or using data embedding techniques (in chapters 3 & 5). However, they face different problems. For data embedding, the resulting quality degradation (or increase of bit rate) is the major concern. On the other side, the synchronization between side information and video main stream becomes a challenge if the side-information is transmitted through another reliable channel.
Our research results show that the side-information can provide significant improvement for recovering video quality in most cases of error conditions. By the way, our research raises a “4-W” direction for the future research:
1) What kind of the side-information should be effectively used?
2) How is the side-information effectively transmitted?
3) When is the side-information properly transmitted? and
4) Where is the side-information efficiently embedded?
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Effects of channel errors……………………………………………………. 2
1.2 Issues of error resilience and error concealment……………………………. 4
1.3 Side-information to improve visual quality………………………………… 4
1.4 Organization of dissertation………………………………………………… 5

2 Overview of error resilience tools 8

3 Enhancing video error resilience by using lossy data embedding techniques 14
3.1 Overview……………………………………………………………………. 14
3.2 Basic data embedding schemes……………………………………………... 17
3.3 Proposed error resilient video coding algorithm……………………………. 26
3.4 Simulations………………………………………………………………….. 31
3.5 Summary……………………………………………………………………. 42

4 Prescription-based error concealment technique 45
4.1 Overview……………………………………………………………………. 45
4.2 Prescription-based error concealment………………………………………. 49
4.3 Prescription-map compression……………………………………………… 54
4.4 Requirements on memory and processing power…………………………... 57
4.5 Experimental results………………………………………………………… 58
4.6 Remarks and summary……………………………………………………… 65

5 Error resilient coding based on reversible data embedding technique for H.264/AVC video 67
5.1 Overview …………………………………………………………………… 67
5.2 Previous works……………………………………………………………… 70
5.3 Architecture of prescription- based error concealment (PEC)……………… 72
5.4 Reversible data embedding…………………………………………………. 75
5.5 Self-healing spatial error concealment 81
5.6 Detailed three-stage processing of PEC 93
5.7 Experimental results………………………………………………………… 100
5.8 Summary……………………………………………………………………. 107

6 Conclusions and future works 109
6.1 Contribution of this research……………………………………………….. 109
6.2 Future works……………………………………………………………….. 111


Bibliography 113
List of publications 116
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