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研究生:吳國安
研究生(外文):Guo-An Wu
論文名稱:巴特神學中的啟示與歷史(1910-1939)
論文名稱(外文):Revelation and History in Barth's Theology (1910-1939)
指導教授:歐力仁歐力仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Jen Ou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:宗教研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:宗教學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:巴特啟示歷史
外文關鍵詞:historyrevelationBarth
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:346
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
許多偉大神學家的作品一再顯示,基督教信仰與歷史間有著密切而複雜的關係。本研究在「啟示與歷史」關係的脈絡下,追溯此一主題在二十世紀新教神學家卡爾•巴特學術生涯前三十年(1910-1939)思想中的發展,指出巴特在自由主義時期持「內在歷史觀」,1920年代(以《〈羅馬書〉釋義》〔再版〕為代表)持「超越啟示下的負面歷史觀」,至整個1930年代(以《教會教義學》前三冊為代表)則著重「啟示有歷史性」。
與將巴特視為「非歷史」甚或「反歷史」的一般印象不同,本研究主張在《〈羅馬書〉釋義》時期,巴特確實因著刻意維護啟示的超越性而將啟示與歷史畫分為二,甚至有貶抑歷史以發揚啟示的傾向。但自《教會教義學》出版開始,由於給予「道成肉身」足夠的重視,在「透過啟示觀照歷史」的前提下,巴特樂於承認甚至強調歷史的地位,從而為啟示確立起堅實的歷史實在性。唯有歷史是實在的,進入歷史的啟示才會是可靠而具體的。因此,正是在巴特肯定啟示超越性的嘗試中,歷史被賦予積極性;此點應得到巴特研究者的理解。
然而筆者進一步指出,儘管確立起「一般歷史整體」的實在性,巴特卻未能給予「現世歷史內容和發展」足夠的重視,以致實在歷史的具體性在某種程度上被架空。脫離了具體歷史內容,不但關於啟示的論述會變得理論化和抽象化,更將危及巴特辛苦確立的歷史實在性。因此,「歷史能否脫離啟示而有自足價值」此一問題是值得思考的。
As many great theologians' works have indicated, Christian faith has a close yet complex connection with history. Tracing the development of this theme through the early stage (1910-1939) of the 20th century Protestant theologian Karl Barth's academic career, this study endeavors to investigate his concept of history in the light of its relationship with revelation, and indicates Barth's emphasis on "inner history" in his liberal years, "negative concept of history" in the shadow of the utterly transcendent revelation in the 1920s (represented by his Römerbrief [second edition]), and the attribution of historicity to revelation in the 1930s (represented by the first three half volumes of his Church Dogmatics).
Different from the conventional wisdom that understands Barth as an unhistorical or even anti-historical theologian, this study argues that, despite the tendency to demarcate revelation and history because of the intention to safeguard the transcendence of revelation in his Römerbrief period, since the publication of the Church Dogmatics, due to his emphasis on Incarnation, Barth has become willing to acknowledge the place of history, and indeed affirmed the historicity of revelation. Only when the reality of history is confirmed can the revelation which has entered history be said to be certain and concrete. Therefore, it is in the attempt to maintain the transcendence of revelation that Barth attributes positiveness to history; this should be appreciated by those who study Barth.
However, the present writer points out that, despite his affirmation of the reality of "the entirety of general history," Barth fails to put enough stress on "the concrete content and development of secular history," so that the concreteness of history has to some extent been abstracted. Apart from the concrete content of history, not only Barth’s doctrine of revelation becomes theoretical and abstract, but also the reality of history, which he has taken so much labor to establish, will be jeopardized. Therefore, the question whether history can have its own suffcient value independent of revelation is worth pondering.
論文提要 1
目錄 5
導論 9
第一節 研究緣起 9
第二節 論文主旨 10
(一)巴特,1910-1939 10
(二)使用材料 15
(三)各章要點 18
小結 23
第一章 近代神學中的歷史問題 25
前言 25
第一節 十八世紀 25
(一)萊馬盧斯:「歷史上的耶穌」與「宣講中的基督」 26
(二)萊辛:「醜陋的溝渠」 26
第二節 十八至十九世紀 27
(一)士來馬赫:宗教有歷史性 27
(二)黑格爾:真理在歷史中發展為事實 28
第三節 十九世紀 30
(一)史特勞斯:福音書是神話 31
(二)立敕爾:歷史事件傳承的宗教經驗 32
(三)特洛爾奇:從歷史主義到宗教相對主義 33
小結 34
第二章 歷史的聲音 39
前言 39
第一節 青年巴特論信仰與歷史 40
第二節 偶發的歷史與絕對者上帝 43
(一)一般歷史的偶發性 43
(二)宗教史的可疑性 45
第三節 信仰與耶穌基督 47
(一)超越歷史的信仰 47
(二)耶穌基督作為相切點 48
第四節 歷史的消極性與積極性 52
小結 54
第三章 「作為上帝之道的啟示」與歷史 59
前言 59
第一節 上帝之道的三重形式 60
(一)宣講之道:教會宣講 60
(二)成文之道:聖經 61
(三)啟示之道:耶穌基督 62
(四)三重形式的合一 64
第二節 上帝之道的奧祕性與世間性 65
第三節 上帝之道的共時性與非共時性 66
第四節 對上帝之道的歷史了解 69
小結 71
第四章 「三一上帝的啟示」與歷史 73
前言 73
第一節 「自我揭露」的聖子上帝 75
第二節 「不能被揭露」的聖父上帝 79
第三節 「自我分授」的聖靈上帝 81
第四節 上帝永恆的時間性 84
(一)上帝的永恆 86
(二)永恆與時間的積極關係 86
(三)永恆的三重時間性 88
(四)三重時間性之平衡 91
小結 94
第五章 啟示的時間 97
前言 97
第一節 上帝的時間和我們的時間 97
(一)上帝有時間給我們 98
(二)啟示與歷史 99
(三)上帝啟示祂自己 101
(四)人的時間的歸結 102
第二節 「期待」的時間(Time of Expectation) 103
(一)《舊約》見證啟示中同在的上帝 104
(二)《舊約》見證審判中隱藏的上帝 105
(三)《舊約》見證末世中將臨的上帝 107
第三節 「回憶」的時間(Time of Recollection) 109
(一)《新約》見證啟示中同在的上帝 110
(二)《新約》見證審判中隱藏的上帝 111
(三)《新約》見證末世中將臨的上帝 113
小結 116
結論 巴特的啟示與歷史觀 119
第一節 概述 119
(一)極端內在的歷史觀 119
(二)極端超越啟示觀下的極端負面歷史觀 119
(三)啟示有歷史性 120
第二節 「在歷史而不屬歷史」的啟示 121
第三節 歷史的實在性與具體性 124
(一)堅實的歷史實在性(Reality of History Affirmed) 124
(二)架空的歷史具體性(Concreteness of History Abstracted) 126
第四節 評估與反思 127
(一)歷史的價值僅來自於彰顯啟示,雖然歷史不等於啟示 128
(二)歷史的價值來自於彰顯啟示,而且歷史可以是啟示 128
(三)歷史具有與啟示無關的自足價值 129
結語 131
參考書目 135
中文著作
巴特著作(按原著出版先後排列)
《〈羅馬書〉釋義》,魏育青譯(香港:漢語基督教文化研究所,1998)。
《教會教義學:精選本》,戈爾維策(Auswahl von Helmut Gollwitzer)編,何亞將、朱雁冰譯(北京:三聯書店,1996)。
《福音的神學──導論》,龔書森譯(台南:東南亞神學院,1975)。
關於巴特的專書及文章
張旭,《卡爾•巴特神學研究》(上海:上海人民出版社,2005)。
歐力仁,《信仰的類比》(香港:文字事務出版社,2004)。
其他著作及文章
史特勞斯(Strauss, David F.),《耶穌傳》,卷一,吳永泉譯(北京:商務印書館,1996)。
布魯斯(Bruce, Frederick. F.),《丁道爾新約聖經註釋─羅馬書》,劉良淑譯(台北:校園,1987)。
伊格爾斯(Iggers, Georg G.),〈二十世紀的歷史科學──國際背景評述〉,何兆武、王燕生譯,載於《史學理論研究》(1995年第1期),頁139至148。
托倫斯(Thomas F. Torrance),《神學的科學》,阮煒譯(北京:中國人民大學,2003)。
江丕盛,〈從基督論看植根於歷史的救贖〉,載於《道風》,第19期(2003年秋),頁69至98。
艾利克森(Erickson, Millard J.),《基督教神學》,卷一(增訂本),郭俊豪、李清義譯(台北:中華福音神學院,2000)
伯克(Burke, Peter),〈西方歷史思想的十大特點〉,王晴佳譯,1997年。下載自http://zisi.net/htm/xhjy/2005-03-23-10013.htm。
利文斯頓(Livingstone, James),《現代基督教思想》,何光滬譯(四川:四川人民出版社,1992)。
約翰•加爾文(Calvin, John),《羅馬人書註釋》,趙中輝、宋華忠譯(台北:基督教改革宗翻譯社,1971)。
特洛爾奇(Troeltsch, Ernst),《基督教理論與現代》,朱雁冰等譯(北京:華夏出版社,2004)。
馬丁•路德(Luther, Martin),《路德選集》,徐慶譽、湯清等譯(香港:基督教文藝出版社,1958)。
莫爾特曼(Molmann, Jürgen),《創造中的上帝:生態的創造論》,陳仁蓮等譯(北京:三聯書店,2002)。
莫爾特曼(Moltmann, Jürgen),《神學思想的經驗:基督教神學的進路與形式》,曾念粵譯(香港:漢語基督教文化研究所,2004)。
麥葛福(McGraph, Alister E.),《基督教神學原典菁華》,楊長慧譯(台北:校園,1998)。
麥葛福(McGrath, Alister E.),《基督教神學手冊》,劉良淑、王瑞琦合譯(台北:校園,1998)。
凱利(Kelly, J. N. D.),《早期基督教要義》,康來昌譯(台北:華神,1984)。
黃錫木,《新約研究透視》(香港:基道出版社,1999)。
楊牧谷主編,《當代神學辭典》,(台北:校園出版社,1997)。
葛倫斯(Grenz, Stanley J.)、奧爾森(Olson, Roger E.)合著,《二十世紀神學評論》,劉良淑、任孝琦合譯(台北:校園,1998)。
漢斯•昆(孔漢斯,Küng, Hans),《上帝存在嗎?》,卷上,孫向晨譯(香港:道風書社,2003)。
漢斯•昆(孔漢斯,Küng, Hans),《基督教大思想家》,包利民譯(北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2001)。
漢斯•昆(孔漢斯,Küng, Hans),《論基督徒》,楊德友譯(北京:三聯書店,1995)。
福特(David Ford)編,《現代神學家:二十世紀基督教神學導論》,董江陽、陳佐人譯(香港:漢語基督教文化研究所,2005)。
劉小楓,《走向十字架的真理》(台北:風雲時代出版公司,1991)。
簡河培(Conn., Harvie M.),《現代神學論評》,趙中輝譯(台北:改革宗,1973)。
英文著作
巴特著作(按原著出版先後排列)
“Der christliche Glaube und die Geschichte” (1910), in Hans-Anton Drewes and Hinrich Stoevesandt (eds.), Vorträge und kleinere Arbeiten, 1909-1914 (Zurich: TVZ, 1993), pp. 155-212。轉引自Richard E. Burnett, Karl Barth’s Theological Exegesis: The Hermeneutical Principles of the Römerbrief Prefaces (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004), p. 45 n. 137。
The Theology of John Calvin, trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1995, original version 1922).
Revolutionary Theology in the Making: Barth-Thurneysen Correspondence, 1914-1925, trans. James D. Smart (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1964).
“The Strange New World Within the Bible,” in The Word of God and the Word of Man, trans. Douglas Horton (New York: Harper & Row, 1957, original version 1928), pp. 28-50.
Ethics, ed. Dietrich Braun, trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Edinbourgh: T. & T. Clark, 1981, original version: Ethik I [Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 1928 c. 1973] and Ethik II [Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 1928/1929 c. 1978]).
Church Dogmatics, Volume I: The Doctrine of the Word of God, Part 1, ed. Geoffery W. Bromiley and Thomas. F. Torrance, trans. Geoffery W. Bromiley (Edingburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1975, original version 1932).
“No!” (Nein! Antwort an Emil Brunner, München: Chr. Kaiser Verlag, 1934) in Brunner, Emil, Natural Theology: Comprising "Nature and Grace" by Professor Dr. Emil Brunner and the Reply "No!" by Dr. Karl Barth (Eugene: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2002), pp. 67-94.
Credo, trans. J. Strathearn McNab (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1936, original version 1935).
Church Dogmatics, Volume I: The Doctrine of the Word of God, Part 2, ed. Geoffery W. Bromiley and Thomas. F. Torrance, trans. G. T. Thomson and Harold Knight (Edingburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1956, original version 1939).
Church Dogmatics, Volume II: The Doctrine of God, Part 1, trans. T. H. L. Parker, W. B. Johnson, H. Knight and J. L. M. Haire (Edingburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1957, original version 1940).
Church Dogmatics, Volume III: The Doctrine of Creation, Part 1, trans. Geoffery W. Bromiley (Edingburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1958, original version 1945).
“The Humanity of God” (1956), in The Humanity of God, trans. Thomas Wieser and John Newton Thomas (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1974).
How I Changed My Mind (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1966).
Karl Barth-Rudolf Bultmann Letters 1922-1966, trans. and ed. Georffrey Bromiley (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1981).
關於巴特的專書及文章
Balthasar, Hans Urs von, The Theology of Karl Barth: Exposition and Interpretation (Karl Barth: Darstellung und Deutung Seiner Theologie, Köln: Verlag Jakob Hegner, 1951), trans. Edward T. Oakes (San Francisco: Communio Books, Ignatius Press, 1992).
Barnes, Elizabeth B., An Affront to the Gospel? The Radical Barth and the Southern Baptist Convention (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987).
Berkouwer, George C., The Triumph of Grace in the Theology of Barth, trans. H. R. Boer (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publising, 1956).
Bromiley, Geoffrey W., An Introduction to the Theology of Karl Barth (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1979).
Burnett, Richard E., Karl Barth’s Theological Exegesis: The Hermeneutical Principles of the Römerbrief Period (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004).
Busch, Eberhard, Karl Barth: His Life from Letters and Autobiographical Texts, trans. John Bowden (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976).
Busch, Eberhard, The Great Passion: An Introduction to Karl Barth's Theology, trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley, ed. Darrell L. Guder and Judith J. Guder (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004).
Dorrien, Gary J, The Barthian Revolt in Modern Theology: Theology without Weapons (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000).
Fisher, Simon, Revelatory Positivism?: Barth’s Earliest Theology and the Marburg School (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).
Gunton, Colin E., Becoming and Being: the Doctrine of God in Charles Hartshorne and Karl Barth, Second edition (London: SCM Press, 2001).
Hart, Trevor A., Regarding Karl Barth: Toward a Reading of His Theology (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1999).
Hunsinger, George, How to Read Karl Barth: The Shape of His Theology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
Jüngel, Eberhard, Karl Barth, a Theological Legacy (Barth-Studien, Zürich-Köln: Benziger Verlag, 1982), trans. Garrett E. Paul (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986).
MacDonald, Neil B., Karl Barth and the Strange New World within the Bible: Barth, Wittgenstein and the Metadilemmas of the Enlightenment (Waynesboro: Paternoster Press, 2000).
Mangina, Joseph L., Karl Barth: Theologian of Christian Witness (Burlington: Ashgate, 2004).
McCormack, Bruce L., “Revelation and History in Transfoundationalist Perspective: Karl Barth’s Theological Epistemology in Conversation with a Schleiermacherian Tradition,” in The Journal of Religion, Vol. 78 (1998), pp. 18-37.
McCormack, Bruce L., Karl Barth's Critically Realistic Dialectical Theology: Its Genesis and Development, 1909-1936 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Metzger, Paul L., The Word of Christ and the World of Culture: Sacred and Secular through the Theology of Karl Barth (Grand Rapids: William. B. Eerdmans Publising, 2003).
Molnar, Paul D., “The Function of the Immanent Trinity in the Theology of Karl Barth: Implication for Today,” in Scottish Journal of Theology, Vol. 42 (1989), pp. 367-399.
Molnar, Paul D., Divine Freedom and the Doctrine of the Immanent Trinity: In Dialogue with Karl Barth and Contemporary Theology (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 2002).
Morrison, John, “God, World and ‘God’s Time For Us’ In Christ: Karl Barth and The Time-Eternity Problem” (Theological Research Exchange Network [TREN]: Conference Papers, 1999), pp. 1-31.
Roberts, Richard H., A Theology on its Way?: Essays on Karl Barth (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1991).
Robinson, James M. (ed.), The Beginning of Dialectic Theology, Vol. 1, trans. Keith R. Crim and Louis De Crazia (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1968).
Sonderegger, Katherine, That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew: Karl Barth’s Docrine of Israel (Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992).
Sykes, Stephen W. (ed.), Karl Barth: Centenary Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Torrance, Thomas F., Karl Barth: an Introduction to His Early Theology, 1910-1931 (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1962).
Webster, John B. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Karl Barth (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
Webster, John B., Barth’s Earlier Theology (London: T. & T. Clark International, 2005).
其他著作及文章
“Witness to an Ancient Truth,” in Time, April 20, 1962, pp. 39-43.
Brunner, Emil, Revelation and Reason: the Christian Doctrine of Faith and Knowledge, trans. Olive Wyon (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1946).
Gunton, Colin E, A Brief Theology of Revelation: the 1993 Warfield Lectures (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1995).
Highton, Mike, Christ, Providence and History: Hans W. Frei’s Public Theology (New York: T. & T. Clark, 2004).
Hodgson, Peter C., The Formation of Historical Theology: a Study of Ferdinand Christian Baur (New York: Harper & Row, 1966).
Howard, Thomas A., Religion and the Rise of Historicism: Historicist Thought in the Shadow of Theology: W.M.L. de Wette, Jacob Burckhardt, and the Shaping of Nineteenth-Century Historical Consciousness (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
Keck, Leander E. and Martyn, J. Louis (eds.), Studies in Luke-Acts, (Nashvill: Abingdon, 1966).
Küng, Hans, My Struggle for Freedom: Memoirs, trans. John Bowden (London, New York: Continuum, 2003).
Küng, Hans, The Incarnation of God: An Introduction to Hegel’s Theological Thought as Prolegomena to a Future Christology, trans. J. R. Stephenson (New York, Crossroad, 1987).
Lessing, G. E., Lessing’s Theological Writings, ed. and trans. Henry Chadwick (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1957).
McDonald, H. D., Theories of Revelation: an Historical Study, 1860-1960, one-volumn edition (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979).
McGrath, Alister E. (ed.), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Modern Christian Thought (Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1993).
McGrath, Alister E., The Making of Modern German Christology: From the Enlightenment to Pannenberg (Oxford: Basile Blackwell, 1986).
Moltmann, Jürgen, Experiences in Theology, trans. Margaret Kohl (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000).
Pannenberg, Wolfhart, “Eternity, Time and the Trinitarian God,” in CTI Reflections, Vol. 3 (1999), pp. 48-61.
Pannenberg, Wolfhart, Systematic Theology, Vol. 1 (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publising, 1991).
Plant, Raymond, Politics, Theology and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Powell, Samuel M., The Trinity in German Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Quash, Ben, Theology and the Drama of History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Shauf, Scott, Theology as History, History as Theology: Paul in Ephesus in Acts 19 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2005).
Wood, Laurence W., God and History: The Dialectical Tension of Faith and History in Modern Thought (Lexington: Emeth Press, 2005).
Wood, Laurence W., Theology as History and Hermeneutics: A Post-Critical Conversation with Contemporary Theology (Lexington: Emeth Press, 2005).
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