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研究生:劉俊志
研究生(外文):Chun-Chih Liu
論文名稱:以攝氧率及碎形維度分析A2/O系統膨化潛勢之研究
論文名稱(外文):Using oxygen uptake rate and fractal dimension to analyze bulking potential in A2/O activated sludge process
指導教授:邱仁杰邱仁杰引用關係白子易白子易引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ren-Jie ChiouTzu-Yi Pai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:膨化碎形維度污泥容積指數亞硝酸氮氧化菌氨氮氧化菌異營菌攝氧率
外文關鍵詞:ammonia oxidizing bacteriaheterotrophic organismsSludge Volume Indexbulkingfractal dimensionnitrite oxidizing bacteriaoxygen uptake rate
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本研究以A2/O程序進行研究,程序之總進流量為67 ml min-1,好氧槽DO維持在2.0 ~ 3.0 mg L-1、pH維持在7.0 ~ 8.0、水力停留時間為10小時、污泥停留時間控制15天、污泥循環比為0.5、MLSS為2200 ~ 3000 mg L-1,厭氧與好氧體積比為2:6,探討模廠水質處理特性、不同污泥容積指數(Sludge Volume Index, SVI)與絲狀菌之相關性及以攝氧率實驗推求異營菌 (heterotrophic organisms, XH)、氨氮氧化菌 (ammonia oxidizing bacteria, XAOB)、 亞硝酸氮氧化菌 (nitrite oxidizing bacteria, XNOB) 之族群動力等。結果顯示水質處理去除效率方面,TCOD、SCOD、NH4+-N、TN、PO4-3去除率分別為91.9%、85.3%、95.4%、73.7%及42.0%。在增殖係數 (Yield﹐Y) 方面,異營菌、氨氮氧化菌、亞硝酸鹽氧化菌增殖係數分別為0.73 gCOD gCOD-1、0.23 gCOD gCOD-1、0.21 gCOD gCOD-1。在系統未膨化及膨化時,SVI與XH biomass取平均值後分別為123 ml g-1、236 ml g-1與361 mg L-1、704 mg L-1,其XH biomass增加百分比為95.0%,隨著SVI增加XH biomass增加3.0 mgL mlg-1。量測微生物碎形維度 (Fractional dimension,Df) 之變動後發現,於膨化時平均Df值為1.33。
In this study, the A2/O pilot plant was used to implement the experiment. The dissolved oxygen and pH were controlled between 2.0∼3.0 mg L-1 and in the range of 7.0∼8.0, respectively. The hydraulic retention time, sludge retention time and ratios of return sludge were controlled at 10 hour、15 days and 0.5, respectively. The objectives of this study were:(1) to investigate the removal efficiency of the A2/O pilot plant, (2) to observe the correlation between filamentous bacteria and different sludge volume index (SVI), and (3) to estimate heterotrophic/nitrifying species using oxygen uptake rate. Accroding to the results, the removal efficiency of total chemical oxygen demand, solution chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and orthoposphate for 91.9%, 85.3%, 95.4%, 73.7% and 42.0%, respectively. The yield of heterotrophic organisms, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria were 0.73 gCOD gCOD-1, 0.23 gCOD gCOD-1 and 0.21 gCOD gCOD-1, respectively. When a steady state was reached, the average values of SVI and heterotrophic organisms biomass were 123 ml g-1 and 236 ml g-1, respectively. When bulking, their values were 361 mg L-1 and 704 mg L-1, respectively. The biomass increased by 95.0%. When bulking, to microorganisms fractal dimension, average value was 1.33 and it increased when SVI increased.
目 錄
摘 要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 Ⅲ
目 錄 IV
表 目 錄 VI
圖 目 錄 VII
符 號 表 X
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究內容 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 生物處理程序之理論 4
2.2 生物除磷 5
2.2.1 影響生物除磷之因素 9
2.3 生物除氮 12
2.3.1 氮之硝化作用 17
2.3.2 氮之脫硝作用 18
2.4 污泥絲狀膨化之原因及對策 20
2.4.1 絲狀膨化之原因與現象 20
2.4.2 改善絲狀膨化污泥之對策 23
2.5 碎形理論 24
2.5.1 碎形之特性 25
2.5.2 碎形維度之應用 26
2.6 以攝氧率量化微生物biomass 之研究 27
2.7 以攝氧率量測微生物族群所應用之抑制劑 30
2.8 以短時間攝氧率推求增殖係數之理論 31
2.9 台灣活性污泥模式之發展【Pai et al., 2004】 33
2.9.1 溶解性成份"S?"之定義 35
2.9.2 溶解性成份"X?"之定義 36
第三章 實驗設備與方法 45
3.1 模型廠與實驗設備 45
3.2 模廠操作條件 47
3.3 分析項目與方法 48
3.3.1 分析項目 48
3.3.2 分析方法 49
3.4 絲狀菌及膠羽菌觀察及量測 50
3.5 增殖係數之推求 52
3.5.1 異營菌增值係數之推求 52
3.5.2 氨氮氧化菌增值係數之推求 52
3.5.3 亞硝酸鹽氮氧化菌增值係數之推求 53
3.6 攝氧率批次實驗 57
3.6.1 總攝氧率 57
3.6.2 異營菌攝氧率 57
3.6.3 氨氮氧化菌攝氧率 60
3.6.4 亞硝酸氧化菌攝氧率 60
3.6.5 攝氧率批次實驗之定義 62
3.7 演算法 63
3.7.1 XH最大生長速率常數及biomass量化公式之推求 63
3.7.2 XAOB最大生長速率常數及biomass量化公式之推求 64
3.7.3 XNOB最大生長速率常數及biomass量化公式之推求 65
第四章 結果與討論 66
4.1 A2/O程序於穩態操作下水質處理去除效率 66
4.1.1 水質去除率綜合討論 70
4.2 A2/O程序增殖係數分析 73
4.2.1 異營菌之增殖係數 73
4.2.2 氨氮氧化菌之增殖係數 75
4.2.3 亞硝酸鹽氮氧化菌之增殖係數 77
4.2.4 增殖係數分析之綜合討論 79
4.3 A2/O程序於未膨化時異營/硝化族群動力之分析 82
4.3.1 異營菌族群動力之分析 82
4.3.2 氨氮氧化菌族群動力之分析 89
4.3.3 亞硝酸鹽氮氧化菌族群動力之分析 96
4.4 A2/O程序於膨化時異營菌族群動力之分析 103
4.4.1 異營菌族群動力之分析 103
4.5 異營/硝化族群動力分析綜合討論 110
4.5.1 異營/硝化族µ值、b值之比較 110
4.5.2 異營菌biomass與SVI之比較 116
4.6 A2/O系統碎形維度之分析 119
4.6.1 量測不同SVI時Deq之分析與討論 119
4.6.2 量測不同SVI時Df值之分析與討論 120
4.6.3 量測不同SVI時菌絲長度之變化與其控制 127
第五章 結論與建議 129
5.1結論 129
5.2 建議 130
參考文獻(英文部分) 131
參考文獻(中文部分) 135
附錄一 136



表 目 錄
表2.1 去氮除磷之的關係相關性 5
表2.2 生物除磷之步驟 7
表2.3 生物處理脫氮作用機制 20
表2.4 污泥容積指數 22
表2.5 異營族群動力參數彙整 28
表2.6 硝化菌最大生長速率之比較 29
表2.7 硝化菌裂解速率之比較 29
表2.8 抑制劑之相關運用 31
表2.9 TWEA1計量矩陣 41
表2.10 TWEA1程序速率式 42
表2.11 TWEA1動力參數之定義及典型值 43
表2.12 TWEA1計量係數定義及典型值 44
表3.1 調勻池水質概況 47
表3.2 添加抑制劑所代表之意義 62
表4.1 A2/O程序模廠監測數據 66
表4.2 體積比2:2:6未膨化操作下水質處理去除率 67
表4.3 BNR程序水質處理效率 72
表4.4 不同體積比之YH值 80
表4.5 不同體積比之YAOB值 80
表4.6 不同體積比之YNOB值 81
表4.7 不同體積比異營菌動力參數之比較 113
表4.8 不同體積比硝化菌最大生長速率之比較 114
表4.9 不同體積比硝化菌裂解速率之比較 115
表4.10 未膨化時XH biomass與SVI之變化 117
表4.11 膨化時XH biomass與SVI之變化 117
表4.12 未膨化/膨化時XH biomass與SVI平均值之變化 118


圖 目 錄
圖1.1研究架構流程圖 3
圖2.1磷蓄積菌厭氧-好氧代謝模式示意圖 6
圖2.2厭氧-缺氧-好氧程序對於磷及氮之去除模式 7
圖2.3 PHB之合成與分解 9
圖2.4生物處理程序中氮的轉換 12
圖2.5自然界氮循環 13
圖2.6氮的氧化態 14
圖2.7廢污水中總氮 (TN) 之組成及分類 15
圖2.8廢污水中總凱氏氮之組成及分類 15
圖2.9廢污水中有機氮 (a)溶解性有機氮 (b)粒狀有機氮之分類 16
圖2.10膠羽生成菌與絲狀菌比生長速率比較圖 21
圖2.11異營菌與各種成份的反應途徑 39
圖2.12氨氮、亞硝酸鹽氮氧化菌與各種成份的反應途徑 39
圖2.13磷蓄積菌與各種成份的反應途徑 40
圖2.14水解與醱酵的反應途徑 40
圖3.1 A2/O模廠示意圖 46
圖3.2 A2/O模廠實照圖 46
圖3.3絲狀菌觀察及量測流程 51
圖3.4 YH實驗流程 54
圖3.5 YH + YAOB實驗流程 55
圖3.6 YH + YAOB + YNOB實驗流程 56
圖3.7 OURT實驗流程 58
圖3.8 OURH實驗流程 59
圖3.9 OURH + OURAOB實驗流程 61
圖3.10批次反應槽 62
圖4.1體積比2:2:6未膨化操作下TCOD濃度與去除率變化 68
圖4.2體積比2:2:6未膨化操作下SCOD濃度與去除率變化 68
圖4.3體積比2:2:6未膨化操作下NH4+-N濃度與去除率變化 69
圖4.4體積比2:2:6未膨化操作下TN濃度與去除率變化 69
圖4.5體積比2:2:6未膨化操作下PO4-3濃度與去除率變化 70
圖4.6 XH-1短時間攝氧率 73
圖4.7 XH-2短時間攝氧率 74
圖4.8 XH-3短時間攝氧率 74
圖4.9 XAOB-1短時間攝氧率 75
圖4.10 XAOB-2短時間攝氧率 76
圖4.11 XAOB-3短時間攝氧率 76
圖4.12 XNOB-1短時間攝氧率 77
圖4.13 XNOB-2短時間攝氧率 78
圖4.14 XNOB-3短時間攝氧率 78
圖4.15 XH-1攝氧率 83
圖4.16 XH-1攝氧率線性迴歸 83
圖4.17 XH-2攝氧率 84
圖4.18 XH-2攝氧率線性迴歸 84
圖4.19 XH-3攝氧率 85
圖4.20 XH-3攝氧率線性迴歸 85
圖4.21 XH-4攝氧率 86
圖4.22 XH-4攝氧率線性迴歸 86
圖4.23 XH-5攝氧率 87
圖4.24 XH-5攝氧率線性迴歸 87
圖4.25 XH-6攝氧率 88
圖4.26 XH-6攝氧率線性迴歸 88
圖4.27 XAOB-1攝氧率 90
圖4.28 XAOB-1攝氧率線性迴歸 90
圖4.29 XAOB-2攝氧率 91
圖4.30 XAOB-2攝氧率線性迴歸 91
圖4.31 XAOB-3攝氧率 92
圖4.32 XAOB-3攝氧率線性迴歸 92
圖4.33 XAOB-4攝氧率 93
圖4.34 XAOB-4攝氧率線性迴歸 93
圖4.35 XAOB-5攝氧率 94
圖4.36 XAOB-5攝氧率線性迴歸 94
圖4.37 XAOB-6攝氧率 95
圖4.38 XAOB-6攝氧率線性迴歸 95
圖4.39 XNOB-1攝氧率 97
圖4.40 XNOB-1攝氧率線性迴歸 97
圖4.41 XNOB-2攝氧率 98
圖4.42 XNOB-2攝氧率線性迴歸 98
圖4.43 XNOB-3攝氧率 99
圖4.44 XNOB-3攝氧率線性迴歸 99
圖4.45 XNOB-4攝氧率 100
圖4.46 XNOB-4攝氧率線性迴歸 100
圖4.47 XNOB-5攝氧率 101
圖4.48 XNOB-5攝氧率線性迴歸 101
圖4.49 XNOB-6攝氧率率 102
圖4.50 XNOB-6攝氧率線性迴歸 102
圖4.51膨化時XH-1攝氧率 104
圖4.52膨化時XH-1攝氧率線性迴歸 104
圖4.53膨化時XH-2攝氧率 105
圖4.54膨化時XH-2攝氧率線性迴歸 105
圖4.55膨化時XH-3攝氧率 106
圖4.56膨化時XH-3攝氧率線性迴歸 106
圖4.57膨化時XH-4攝氧率 107
圖4.58膨化時XH-4攝氧率線性迴歸 107
圖4.59膨化時XH-5攝氧率 108
圖4.60膨化時XH-5攝氧率線性迴歸 108
圖4.61膨化時XH-6攝氧率 109
圖4.62膨化時XH-6攝氧率線性迴歸 109
圖4.63 µH與SVI之關係 111
圖4.64 bH與SVI之關係 111
圖4.65 µAOB與SVI之關係 112
圖4.66 µNOB與SVI之關係 112
圖4.67 XH與SVI之關係 118
圖4.68 SVI為102 ml g-1時影像分析 121
圖4.69 SVI為114 ml g-1時影像分析 121
圖4.70 SVI為173 ml g-1時影像分析 122
圖4.71 SVI為191 ml g-1時影像分析 122
圖4.72 SVI為204 ml g-1時影像分析 123
圖4.73 SVI為256 ml g-1時影像分析 123
圖4.74 SVI為102 ml g-1時線性迴歸 124
圖4.75 SVI為114 ml g-1時線性迴歸 124
圖4.76 SVI為173 ml g-1時線性迴歸 125
圖4.77 SVI為191 ml g-1時線性迴歸 125
圖4.78 SVI為204 ml g-1時線性迴歸 126
圖4.79 SVI為256 ml g-1時線性迴歸 126
圖4.80 Df與SVI值之相關性 127
圖4.81 SVI與菌絲長度變化 128
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