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研究生:張慧菁
研究生(外文):Chang hui chin
論文名稱:染髮劑對防護手套之滲透評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation the Permeation of Protective Gloves While Challenged by Hair Dyes
指導教授:林瑜雯林瑜雯引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞: 染髮劑 胺基苯酚 苯二胺 滲透 防護手套
外文關鍵詞:hair dyeaminophenolphenylenediaminepermeationprotective glove
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胺基苯酚﹙aminophenol﹚、苯二胺﹙phenylenediamine﹚及其同分異構物﹙isomers﹚為染髮劑中的顯色成分,亦是造成接觸性皮膚炎之主要危害物質。以ASTM F739之標準滲透測試方法測試市售2種染髮劑﹙B染髮劑-自然黑色與F染髮劑-紅銅棕色﹚中之對苯二胺及胺基苯酚之鄰、間、對異構物挑戰3種手套(A手套-染劑附贈手套、B手套-拋棄式乳膠[latex]手套及C手套-丁腈橡膠[nitrile]手套)之滲透性。利用滲透測試結果,評估染髮時所使用之防護手套能否有效隔離染髮劑中之胺基苯酚、苯二胺及其同分異構物,以降低可能的皮膚暴露。
滲透結果顯示,B染髮劑挑戰A手套之最短破出時間﹙breakthrough time, tb﹚與延滯時間(lag time, tl)為鄰胺基苯酚,分別為70~80分鐘與73~83分鐘,B染髮劑挑戰B手套最短破出時間與延滯時間為對苯二胺,分別為250~300分鐘與250~301分鐘;F染髮劑挑戰A手套最短破出時間與延滯時間為對胺基苯酚,皆為200~280分鐘。而C手套則無任何可偵測之滲透發生。如以破出時間為防護效率之考量,則A手套應可提供1小時的保護,B手套為3小時,C手套可重複使用6天,每天使用6小時。因此建議美髮業者在進行長時間的染髮作業時,可穿戴丁腈橡膠材質之手套以減低可能的皮膚暴露。
B染髮劑挑戰A手套之結果以鄰胺基苯酚之穩定滲透速率與擴散係數最大,分別為5.26±0.42 μg/min-cm2與0.23±0.02 10-4mm2/min。B染髮劑對B手套最大之穩定滲透速率與擴散係數亦為鄰胺基苯酚,分別為1.72±0.00 μg/min-cm2與0.17±0.00 10-4mm2/min。F染髮劑挑戰A手套最大之穩定滲透速率與擴散係數則為對胺基苯酚,分別為1.02±0.18 μg/min-cm2與0.12±0.05 10-4mm2/min。
迴歸分析結果顯示,B染髮劑挑戰A手套之破出時間、延滯時間分別皆與擴散係數及logkow呈現負相關(p<0.05)。穩定滲透速率(SSPR)與莫耳體積(MV)呈現負相關,與擴散係數及logkow呈現正相關。因此影響破出時間及延滯時間的主要因素為擴散係數及分子的極性(logkow),而影響穩定滲透速率的因素為擴散係數、分子大小(MV)及極性。
Aminophenol, phenylenediamine, and their isomers are the color-changed ingredients of hair dyes. Nevertheless they are the main hazardous chemicals causing contact dermatitis. The ASTM F739 standard permeation test method was applied to investigate the permeation of the para- meta-, and ortho- isomers of aminophenol and p-phenylenedimine in two different commercially available hair dyes(code B- natural black and code F-mahogany copper brown ). Three different glove materials were tested (Glove A - gloves included in the hair-dye packages, Glove B - latex gloves, and Glove C - nitrile gloves). The permeation results of these chemicals were utilized to evaluate the protective efficiencies of the 3 tested gloves. The appropriate gloves were recommended to prevent the dermal exposure of hair dyes.

The o-aminophenol in code B hair dye resulted in the shortest breakthrough time (tb = 70 ~ 80 min) and lag time (tl = 73 ~ 83 min) while challenged with glove A. With glove B, the earliest breakthrough of code B hair dye was p-phenylenediamine with tb = 250 ~300 min and tl = 250 ~301 min. The other hair dye - code F challenged with Glove A showed o-aminophenol permeated first with the breakthrough time (tb = 200 ~ 280 min) and lag time (tl = 200 ~ 280 min). No breakthrough was detected for Glove C. According to the results of the breakthrough times and lag times, these three gloves provide different protection durations – 1 hour for Glove A, 3 hours for Glove B, and 6 days for Glove C with daily use of 6 hours. Therefore, nitrile gloves (Glove C) are recommended for long-time handling of these hair dyes to prevent dermal exposure.


The o-aminophenol was the one with the fastest steady state permeation (SSPR) and the largest diffusion coefficient (D) among all tested conditions in this study. The fastest SSPR was 5.260.42 μg/min-cm2and the highest D was 0.230.02 10-4mm2/min for code B hair dye with Glove A. This suggested that the exposure dose of o-aminophenol might also be higher than other tested chemicals once the permeation initiated.

The regression analyses showed that breakthrough time (tb) was inversely correlated with diffusion coefficient (D) or the logKow for code B hair dye with Glove A significantly (p<0.05). Similar correlations were also found for lag time (tl) for the same challenged condition. The steady state permeation rate (SSPR) was affected by molar volume (MV) inversely and diffusion coefficient (D) or logKow positively. At least, two independent variables are necessary to account for the SSPR of the complex mixture, code B hair dye for the gloves in the hair dye package. One factor accounts for molecular size and the other for diffusion behavior or polarity.
目錄

摘要 …………………………………………………………………..…I
Abstract …………………………………………………………………..III表目錄 ……………………………………………………………….…VII
圖目錄 …………………………………………………………………VIII
第一章 前言
第一節 研究背景 ……………………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的 ……………………………………………………3

第二章 文獻探討
第一節 染髮劑的種類 ………………………………………………4
第二節 染髮劑之成分規範 …………………………………………5
第三節 染髮劑對人體之健康危害 …………………………………7
第四節 氧化染髮劑之分析方法 ………………………………… 13
第五節 化學物質防護手套之滲透試驗 …………………………19
第六節 化學物質於聚合物中之擴散係數…………………………23
第七節 化合物質聚合物之滲透性…………………………………28

第三章 材料與方法
第一節 藥品與試劑 ………………………………………………30
第二節 儀器與設備 ………………………………………………31
第三節 標準品及溶液之配製 ……………………………………32
第四節 高效液相層析儀﹙HPLC﹚分析條件……………………33
第五節 檢量線之製作 ……………………………………………33
第六節 染髮劑成分之分析 ………………………………………34
第七節 滲透測試之化學物質之物理化學特性 …………………34
第八節 滲透實驗流程 ……………………………………………36

第四章 結果與討論
第一節 染髮劑中化學物質之檢量線 ……………………………..39
第二節 市售染髮劑成分之分析結果 ……………………………..41
第三節 市售染髮劑對於三種手套之破出時間 …………………..49
第四節 市售染髮劑對於三種手套之滲透累積質量 ……………..52
第五節 化學物質在聚合物中之擴散係數(D)、延滯時間(tl)及穩定滲透速率(SSPR) ……………………………………...………57
第六節 破出時間(tb)、延滯時間(tl)、穩定滲透速率(SSPR)與擴散係數(D)、莫耳體積(MV)、LogKow之相關性………………60

第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論…………………………………………………………64
第二節 建議未來研究方向…………………………………………66

中文參考文獻 …………………………………………………………67
英文參考文獻 …………………………………………………………68



表目錄
表2-2-1 染髮劑之含有醫療或劇毒藥品基準…………….……………...6
表2-4-1 Satoshi Takano等人所分析之染髮劑成份 ……………………14
表2-4-2 Tanada等人分析之染髮劑成份 ……………………………….15
表2-4-3 吳白玟等人所分析之染髮劑之化合物 ………………………16
表2-4-4 Dowle 和 Malyan使用正相與逆相液體層析的解析度及線性相關係數比較 ………………………………………………...17
表2-4-5 Gennaro分析化合物於不同波長的莫耳吸收係數……………18
表2-6-1 文獻中化學物質在聚合物薄膜中之擴散係數模式………......25
表3-6-1染髮劑檢體溶液配製所秤取重量 ……………………………34
表4-2-1市售染髮劑檢體分析結果 ……………………………………42
表4-3-1染劑對於個別手套之破出時間﹙Breakthrough Time, tb﹚…...49
表4-5-1 化學物質於聚合物中之擴散係數,延滯時間與穩定滲透速率……………………………………………………………….59
表4-6-1 破出時間(tb)與化學物質之物化性質之相關 ………………..61
表4-6-2 延滯時間(tl)與化學物質之物化性之相關 …………………...61
表4-6-3 B染髮劑對A手套穩定滲透速率與化學物質之物化性質之相關 ……………...........................................................................62



圖目錄
圖2-5-1 化合物對聚合物之五種滲透行為 ………………………...….22
圖2-6-1 滲透過程 ………………………………………………………24
圖2-6-2累積滲透量隨時間變化之曲線,經由其線性部分向下外插交於時間軸(X軸)所得為延滯時間(lag time) ………………………27
圖3.9-1 ASTM 滲透測試裝置 …………………………………………38
圖4-1-1 4種氧化染髮成分與內在標準品之HPLC層析圖...................39
圖4-1-2 氧化染髮劑成分之標準品檢量線 ………………....................40
圖4-2-1 A染髮劑之HPLC層析圖 ……………………………………..43
圖4-2-2 B染髮劑之HPLC層析圖 ………………………….................44
圖4-2-3 C染髮劑之HPLC層析圖 ………………………….................45
圖4-2-4 D染髮劑之HPLC層析圖 ………………………….................46
圖4-2-5 E染髮劑之HPLC層析圖 …………………………..................47
圖4-2-6 F染髮劑之HPLC層析圖 ……………………………………..48
圖4-4-1 B染髮劑中PPD對於A手套之滲透累積質量 …....................53
圖4-4-2 B染髮劑中OAP對於A手套之滲透累積質量 ………………53
圖4-4-3 B染髮劑中MAP對於A手套之滲透累積質量 ……………..53
圖4-4-4 B染髮劑對於A手套之滲透累積質量 …………….................54
圖4-4-5 F染髮劑中PPD對於A手套之滲透累積質量 …....................55
圖4-4-6 F染髮劑中PAP對於A手套之滲透累積質量 …....................55
圖4-4-7 F染髮劑對於A手套之滲透累積質量 ……………..................55
圖4-4-8 B染髮劑中OAP對於B手套之滲透累積質量 ………………56
圖4-4-9 B染髮劑中PPD對於B手套之滲透累積質量 ……………….57
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