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研究生:徐靜媛
研究生(外文):Ching - Yuan Hsu
論文名稱:韓國泡菜的飲食文化與營養保健之綜論研究
論文名稱(外文):The Review Studies on Culture and Health Aspects of Kimchi
指導教授:李寧遠李寧遠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ning - Yuean Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:韓國泡菜飲食文化乳酸菌類黃酮大蒜辣椒
外文關鍵詞:KimchiDietary cultureLactic acid bacteriaFlavonoidsGarlicChili pepper
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隨著經濟進步及生活水準的提升,養生保健觀念日趨受到國人的重視,故韓國泡菜不僅因其口感獨特,且因其對人體具有卓越之生理功能,近年來在世界各地大放異彩而受到世人重視。故本綜論研究主要目的在收集統整韓國泡菜之營養成分和對人體之保健功能,及對韓國泡菜飲食文化層面的探討。過去韓國因位於較高緯度、天氣嚴寒,較缺乏新鮮蔬菜,所以於公元七世紀出現了醃製蔬菜產物-泡菜,從此也奠定了泡菜重要的地位。對現在的韓國而言,蔬菜一點都不匱乏,但泡菜已是韓國人生活中不可或缺的一個重要環節,韓國人每年平均吃掉18公斤泡菜,且對於這個祖先所傳承下來的智慧結晶深深引以為傲。許多流行病學研究及動物試驗結果均顯示攝取蔬果類可降低許多慢性疾病罹患率;這結果與蔬果中之植物化學物質有密切關係。植物化學物質為蔬果中之化學成分,具有許多生理功能。在植物中含量雖少,卻有調節人體生理作用之功能;植物化學物質包括大蒜中的有機硫化物,蕃茄及辣椒中的類胡蘿蔔素,辣椒中的類辣椒素、十字花科中之異硫氰酸酯化物及天然多酚類化合物如類黃酮等。韓國泡菜一般由白菜、白蘿蔔、辣椒、蒜、蔥、薑及海鮮所醃製而成,故韓國泡菜中除了含有大量的維生素C、脂肪、蛋白質、碳水化合物、礦物質、維生素A、B1、B2和乳酸菌,還有許多植物化學物質如有機硫化物、類胡蘿蔔素、類辣椒素、異硫氰酸酯化物及類黃酮,因此具有提升免疫功能、抗菌、減低發炎反應、抗氧化、調節腸胃功能、降膽固醇、抗血栓、抗過敏及抗癌之作用。綜合上述,韓國泡菜具有提供獨特的飲食文化背景與生理活性功能。
As the development of economy and the progress of living standard, health management has been deeply emphasized by people in Taiwan. Because of the unique taste and the extraordinary beneficial effects on health, people put much emphasis on kimchi, a kind of pickled vegetables in Korea, The review thesis was aimed to collect and integrate the data of the nutrients and biological functions on kimchi, and investigate the dietary culture of kimchi. During the cold winter season in Korea, cultivation was practically impossible, which directly led to the development of a storage method: pickling. Being a kind of pickled vegetables, kimchi, was born around the 7th century in Korea. As a result, kimchi establishes an important role in Korean dietary culture. Even vegetables are sufficient in Korea now. Each of Korean consumes kimchi about 18 Kg per year. And Korean people are very proud of this wisdom of their ancestors who delivered this kind of food custom. There was abundant evidence from epidemiological studies and in vivo experiments that higher intake from vegetables and fruit was associated with decreased risk for chronic disease. It was associated with phytochemicals, which naturally occur in vegetables and fruit. They are not usually required for normal functioning of the body nonetheless that have a beneficial effect on health. Phytochemicals include organosulphur compounds in Alliaceae such as garlic, carotenoids in carrots and chili peppers, capsacinoids in chili peppers, isoflavones in soybeans, and isothiocyanates in Cruciferae and polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids. Kimchi has been scientifically proved to be highly nutritious. Common ingredients in kimchi include Chinese cabbage, radish, chili powder, garlic, spring onion, ginger, squid, oyster or other seafood, and salt. The studies have found that kimchi contains a surprisingly large amount of vitamin C, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamin A, B1, B2, as well as substantial amounts of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, organosulfur compounds, carotenoids, isothiocyanates, capsaicinoids. Lactobacilli are heavily involved in the fermentation of kimchi. Substances in kimchi may promote the functions of the immune system and gastrointestinal system, act directly against bacteria and viruses, reduce inflammation and cholesterol. Besides, kimchi is associated with the treatment and/or prevention of cancer, and has antioxidant, anti-thrombosis and anti-allergic functions. In conclusion, there are special background of dietary culture on Kimchi and lots of biological functions for humans, so it is worth to uptake.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
致謝 V
目 錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第壹章 前言 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第貳章 韓國泡菜之飲食文化 4
第一節 韓國泡菜之起源 4
第二節 韓國泡菜之種類 6
第三節 韓國泡菜之製作 11
第四節 韓國泡菜之保存 12
第五節 韓國泡菜營養成分及功能 13
第六節 韓國泡菜國際化 19
第参章 乳酸菌 22
第一節 乳酸菌之定義 22
第二節 乳酸菌之分類 23
第三節 乳酸菌之生理功能 24
第肆章 類黃酮 37
第一節 緣由 37
第二節 類黃酮之種類 40
第三節 類黃酮之生理功能 44
第四節 潛在毒性 54
第伍章 大蒜與青蔥 57
第一節 緣由 57
第二節 大蒜與青蔥之營養成份 59
第三節 大蒜與青蔥之生理功能 66
第四節 大蒜之缺點 74
第陸章 辣椒 76
第一節 緣由 76
第二節 辣椒之營養成份 77
第三節 辣椒之生理功能 85
第四節 辣椒的迷思 90
第柒章 薑 91
第一節 緣由 91
第二節 薑之營養成份 91
第三節 薑之生理功能 93
第捌章 結論 104
參考文獻 108
附錄 144
表一 韓國泡菜歷史 7
表二 韓國泡菜營養成分 14
表三 2002年OECD會員國與我國惡性腫瘤發生率 17
表四 人類大腸中的細菌種類 24
表五 口服乳酸菌對免疫調節功能之影響 30
表六 飲食中主要的類黃酮種類及來源 38
表七 大蒜一般的組成成分 62
表八 蔥之有效成分及作用 65
表九 乾辣椒之營養成分 78
表十 類辣椒素之化學結構 81
表十一 生薑的有效成分及作用 94
表十二 從薑分離之化學成分對前列腺素合成酶的抑制效果 101
表十三 由薑分離之化學成分的抗血小板凝集作用 103
圖一 韓國不同地區的泡菜口味 10
圖二 乳酸菌調節免疫反應之抗過敏機制 29
圖三 類黃酮的基本結構 41
圖四 類黃酮之主要種類 42
圖五 類黃酮之化學結構 43
圖六 類黃酮生理功能與作用機轉之假說 46
圖七 大蒜之不同製備物中主要的有機硫化物 61
圖八 大蒜成分之化學變化 62
圖九 常見之全反式類胡蘿蔔素的化學結構 82
圖十 動物體中β胡蘿蔔素轉換為維生素A之機制 84
圖十一 薑之主要辛辣成分 95
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