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研究生:楊百川
研究生(外文):Yang, Bai-Chuan
論文名稱:策略性核心職能辨認模式建構-價值活動與流程分析導向
論文名稱(外文):Establishing Strategic Core Competency Identification Model-Value Activity and Process Analysis Oriented
指導教授:吳秉恩吳秉恩引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu, Bing-Eng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:商學研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:412
中文關鍵詞:核心職能核心職能辨認模式價值活動分析流程分析
外文關鍵詞:core competencycore competency identification modelvalue activity analysisprocess analysis
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人力資源管理理念受人力資本概念之影響,附著於人員身上之才能/職能成為關注焦點。「職能」的概念從個人學習績效的評估串聯到企業策略與競爭力的發展,加上企業策略分析模式由環境基礎漸轉向資源基礎,組織內成員能力基礎,影響著企業策略的落實。愈能辨認與掌握本身核心職能之組織愈具未來之競爭優勢,更讓核心職能成為討論內部資源累積的重要標的,同時也形成人力資源與組織策略聯結之新契機。此理念基礎的轉變,正全面重塑企業所建立之各項管理制度的風貌,如何為組織辨認其核心職能,也成為亟待回答的問題。本研究企圖建構一兼具策略性理論及實務性操作意涵之核心職能辨認模式,以回應趨勢之需求。
本研究根據模式建立之過程,分別以核心職能影響因素、策略思維體系、核心職能理念、價值活動與流程分析手法、策略性核心職能辨認模式之建構與評估,五個構面加以分析。首先整備核心職能之知識內容結構與脈絡體系,提供一個完整之理念聯結平台,再透過策略思維體系之環境基礎及資源基礎思維的引導,及實際操作之價值活動及流程步驟分析的型塑,順著既有理論之演繹邏輯,及現場個案實作資料之歸納推演,以啟發式之創意思維,及實作式的經驗探索,完成策略性核心職能辨認模式之建構與評估並發展其應用之相關概念及原則。
本研究以整合之觀點,將由上而下之策略思維以及由下而上之流程分析予以統整,提出以價值活動及流程分析導向之策略性核心職能辨認模式,大不同於傳統以人員主觀與意見調查為導向之模式。新建構之模式除兼具兩種策略思維之優點,同時亦整合多個知識領域之理念,其建構過程中也達成包括:釐清核心職能之概念並形成其知識體系、完備操作核心職能辨認模型的標準流程及工具箱、提供運用核心職能辨認模式之指導原則等目標,有效地補實目前之理論缺口,更滿足了實務引導之需要。
The importance of human capital is highly recognized by both academician and filed people for its crucial impact on demonstrating companies’ competitive advantage in nowadays. The core competency is the major substantial concept to reflect the inventory of human capital; therefore, exploring defining and solidifying those competencies will profoundly affect the performance of a company. Though the concrete idea is thoroughly accepted, the best practice and sound theory base has not been investigated.
The research intends to establish a strategic core competency identification model which not only integrates the related domain knowledge including strategy management, human resource management and operations management, but also developed the tools to bridge the gap between theory and practice. By reviewing the existing literature and employing the heuristic thinking approach, the research not only sets up a knowledge map for core competency but also establishes a conceptual framework to analyze the related constructs. Furthermore, procedural model of implementations is hence developed with comprehensive tool box based on the map and framework depicted.
Comparing with existing identification model, this research puts more emphasis on the value activity and process analysis which is the main technique to improve the competitiveness. It will obviously increase the objectivity and stability of the output in this new developed model. Three companies were hereafter sampled and testified against the suggested model. It is proved that these three case companies can obtain the core competency model with high consensus smoothly. The impact factors of selecting core competency items for a company were also comprehensibly examined and ranked by invited experts. These outputs provide some rules to apply the model more properly. The propositions were also proposed after collecting data from the selected cases which can lead the direction of future studies. The implications of the research on human resource management and strategy management were finally discussed and the issues of future research were indicated as well.
目 錄
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究背景與動機………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的與研究問題…………………………………… 8
第三節 研究程序………………………………………………… 11
第四節 研究範圍界定…………………………………………… 15
第五節 論文撰寫結構及關鍵字詞使用說明…………………… 17

第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………… 21
第一節 核心職能辭意探索……………………………………… 22
第二節 職能項目的內容建構…………………………………… 29
第三節 核心職能建構之策略論述……………………………… 36
第四節 策略性人力資源管理之聯結…………………………… 50
第五節 價值活動與流程分析…………………………………… 58
第六節 核心職能辨認模式與方法……………………………… 66

第三章 研究方法………………………………………………… 77
第一節 研究設計………………………………………………… 77
第二節 研究架構………………………………………………… 81
第三節 研究分析方法…………………………………………… 85
第四節 研究限制………………………………………………… 91

第四章 核心職能現場理念操作與運用之問題探索…………… 93
第一節 以問卷調查探索現場理念操作與運用問題…………… 94
第二節 以焦點訪談探索現場理念操作與運用問題…………… 104
第三節 以個案實作探索現場理念操作與運用問題…………… 118
第四節 資料綜合分析及現場理念操作與運用問題彙總……… 134
第五節 現場理念操作與運用問題探索後之研究涵義………… 142

第五章 辨認核心職能之知識體系與模型架構………………… 145
第一節 核心職能釋義…………………………………………… 145
第二節 核心職能知識脈絡的建立……………………………… 150
第三節 核心職能知識內容與範疇之建構……………………… 152
第四節 核心職能之知識地圖建構……………………………… 156
第五節 建構策略性核心職能辨認模式(SPOCCI)之理念架構…158
第六節 策略性核心職能辨認模式之實作程序發展…………… 161

第六章 策略性核心職能辨認模式之工具發展與運用………… 173
第一節 選項清單之發展………………………………………… 173
第二節 結構性調查表單之設計………………………………… 178
第三節 電子計算系統之發展…………………………………… 182
第四節 策略性核心職能辨認模式與工具之整合……………… 187
第五節 策略性核心職能理念於人力資源管理制度之設計意涵 189

第七章 策略性核心職能辨認模式之個案實作與討論………… 193
第一節 實作個案之施行過程與方法說明……………………… 193
第二節 實作個案一:甲公司…………………………………… 197
第三節 實作個案二:乙公司…………………………………… 208
第四節 實作個案三:丙公司…………………………………… 221
第五節 實作個案之綜合分析與討論…………………………… 235

第八章 影響組織選擇核心職能之因素評估…………………… 247
第一節 影響組織選擇核心職能因素…………………………… 247
第二節 影響組織核心職能因素之調查與分析………………… 252
第三節 影響組織選擇核心職能因素之情境分析……………… 254
第四節 專家意見層級分析之結果與討論……………………… 260

第九章 結論與意涵討論………………………………………… 263
第一節 本研究之結論…………………………………………… 263
第二節 本研究對管理理論之意涵與貢獻……………………… 268
第三節 本研究對管理實務之意涵與貢獻……………………… 271
第四節 本研究對後續研究之意涵……………………………… 274
參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 279


圖 目 錄
圖1-1 研究程序圖………………………………………………………11
圖2-1 不同職能分類方式交叉圖………………………………………33
圖2-2 職能屬性關係圖…………………………………………………34
圖3-1 本研究之整體分析架構…………………………………………81
圖4-1 本研究之資料蒐集及分析工具關係圖…………………………94
圖4-2 顧客價值次數分配圖……………………………………………95
圖4-3 價值活動次數分配圖……………………………………………96
圖4-4 價值活動加權次數分配圖………………………………………97
圖4-5 X公司之核心職能分配狀況……………………………………129
圖4-6 X公司之各部門之核心職能分配狀況…………………………129
圖4-7 價值活動─策略制訂之收集與分析之職能需求分配圖………130
圖4-8 價值活動─新產品設計與研發之職能需求分配圖……………130
圖4-9 問卷調查結果價值鏈……………………………………………135
圖4-10 焦點訪談結果價值鏈……………………………………………135
圖4-11 個案結果價值鏈…………………………………………………136
圖5-1 相關字義定義圖…………………………………………………146
圖5-2 核心職能涵義架構………………………………………………149
圖5-3 核心職能知識脈絡分析圖………………………………………151
圖5-4 核心職能知識內容分析圖………………………………………154
圖5-5 核心職能知識地圖全貌…………………………………………156
圖5-6 辨認核心職能策略思維架構圖…………………………………158
圖5-7 核心職能啟動策略作用圖………………………………………159
圖5-8 核心職能辨認模型理念架構圖…………………………………160
圖5-9 辨認核心職能需處理構面架構圖………………………………161
圖5-10 策略十字圖範例…………………………………………………164
圖5-11 多軸式策略地圖…………………………………………………164
圖5-12 策略性核心職能辨認模式架構圖………………………………166
圖6-1 計算系統模式架構………………………………………………183
圖6-2 內部觀點產出範例………………………………………………185
圖6-3 外部觀點產出範例………………………………………………185
圖7-1 甲公司核心價值活動組成之價值鏈……………………………199
圖7-2 甲公司全公司核心職能分配圖…………………………………203
圖7-3 各功能單位核心職能分配圖─業務單位………………………203
圖7-4 各功能單位核心職能分配圖─研發單位………………………204
圖7-5 各功能單位核心職能分配圖─生產單位………………………204
圖7-6 各功能單位核心職能分配圖─管理單位………………………205
圖7-7 乙公司核心價值活動組成之價值鏈……………………………210
圖7-8 各資料庫之所得結果彙總分配圖………………………………215
圖7-9 各功能群核心職能分配圖………………………………………219
圖7-10 各功能群核心職能分配圖2……………………………………219
圖7-11 丙公司核心價值活動組成之價值活動鏈………………………224
圖7-12 丙公司全公司核心職能分配統計圖……………………………230
圖7-13 丙公司全公司核心職能分配統計圖-中階主管工作坊………231
圖7-14 丙公司全公司核心職能分配統計圖-基層主管工作坊………231
圖7-15 丙公司事業部核心職能分佈圖…………………………………232
圖7-16 丙公司各功能單位核心職能分佈圖……………………………232
圖8-1 核心職能因素分層分類架構圖…………………………………251
圖8-2 影響因素之樹狀權重圖…………………………………………252
圖8-3 學者與業界認知各影響因素之權重樹狀分析圖………………254
圖8-4 製造業與服務業認知各影響因素之權重樹狀分析圖…………257


表 目 錄
表3-1 研究構想與資料蒐集工具彙總表………………………………89
表4-1 問卷調查價值活動彙整表………………………………………97
表4-2 對應各項價值活動與產業的職能排名分配表…………………99
表4-3 企業顧客重視價值與所需核心職能交叉分配表………………101
表4-4 產業成功關鍵因素彙整表………………………………………107
表4-5 關鍵價值活動彙整表……………………………………………109
表4-6 受訪對象規模/職級與核心職能彙整表………………………110
表4-7 焦點訪談受訪者核心職能之認知………………………………112
表4-8 X公司顧客重視價值檢視表…………………………………121
表4-9 X公司價值活動彙整表………………………………………122
表4-10 X公司各小組擇定之四大問題彙整…………………………123
表4-11 X公司之SWOT分析表………………………………………123
表4-12 X公司KSF關鍵成功因素彙整………………………………125
表4-13 X公司價值活動與流程展開表………………………………126
表4-14 X公司流程步驟展開表………………………………………128
表4-15 顧客重視價值彙總……………………………………………134
表4-16 完成價值活動之流程展開表…………………………………137
表4-17 產業核心職能彙總……………………………………………139
表6-1 價值活動與流程展開交叉表…………………………………178
表6-2 價值活動所涉流程資訊彙總表………………………………179
表6-3 流程步驟展開資訊彙總表……………………………………180
表6-4 SPOCCI模式操作程序相關論述彙總表……………………187
表7-1 甲公司價值活動與流程交叉展開表…………………………201
表7-2 各功能單位囊括之部門性質彙總表…………………………202
表7-3 全公司之核心職能及各功能單位核心職能彙總表…………205
表7-4 乙公司價值活動與流程交叉展開表…………………………212
表7-5 各資料庫所得結果排序表……………………………………214
表7-6 各事業部核心職能排序表……………………………………216
表7-7 各部門核心職能排序表………………………………………218
表7-8 部門功能分群表………………………………………………219
表7-9 丙公司價值活動與流程展開交叉表…………………………226
表7-10 丙公司對環境趨勢導向之SWOT表…………………………229
表7-11 丙公司事業部別之核心職能分配次數分佈表………………232
表7-12 三個案公司實作程序檢視與可能命題整理表………………235
表8-1 影響因素權重層級別比較表…………………………………253
表8-2 學者與業界認知影響因素權重層級比較表…………………255
表8-3 製造業與服務業所認知影響因素權重層級比較表…………258
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