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研究生:林秀蔓
研究生(外文):Lin,Shiou-Man
論文名稱:以冷凍麵糰調製水煎包之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research on Frozen Dough for Processing of Chinese Steamed Bread
指導教授:楊鵑華楊鵑華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang,Chuan-Hua
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:餐旅管理學系碩士班
學門:民生學門
學類:餐旅服務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:冷凍麵糰酵母三仙膠中種法
外文關鍵詞:Frozen doughYeastXanthan gumSponge
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摘要
本研究之目的在於應用冷凍麵糰之技術於傳統水煎包的製作,以提高產能及安定產品品質,賦予傳統的中式麵製品更現代化的食品加工科學技術內涵。
本實驗主要是以冷凍麵糰製程方式製備水煎包麵皮,配方製程採3x2x2多因子實驗設計進行,實驗控制因子為酵母種類與三仙膠及中種麵糰之組合,實驗控制水準依烘焙百分比添加1%即溶乾酵母、3%新鮮酵母、3%耐凍酵母、0.1% 與0.15%三仙膠及10%和20%中種麵糰添加量之組合。所製成水煎包麵皮貯存於-18℃冷凍貯存0、14、28及42天後取出麵糰,經解凍發酵煎煮等程序完成水煎包成品品質評估,以獲得最適配方組合。
本研究分為二部分進行,第一部分為冷凍麵糰分析包含麵糰醒發時間、酵母殘存率之計算、麵糰膨發速率測定與麵皮色澤,結果發現隨著冷凍貯藏時間增長麵糰醒發時間有顯著增加(p<0.05)、酵母殘存率顯著減少(p<0.05)與麵糰膨發速率顯著下降(p<0.05)而麵皮色澤則無顯著差異。以1%即溶乾酵母組麵糰於冷凍貯存第0天有最快的麵糰醒發時間(86±3)分鐘,即溶乾酵母組之酵母殘存殘率較低,於麵糰膨發速率中新鮮酵母組與耐凍酵母組則無顯著差異,而麵糰醒發時間與酵母殘存率及麵糰膨發速率呈顯著負相關(p<0.01)。三種不同酵母於麵皮白度測定無顯著差異,0.1% 和0.15%三仙膠與10%和20%中種麵糰添加量於麵糰醒發時間、酵母殘存率之計算、麵糰膨發速率測定與麵皮色澤則無顯著差異。
第二部分水煎包成品品質分析包含成品比容積、成品組織物性測定及官能品評等,在水煎包比容積方面以3%耐凍酵母組有較高的比容積,水煎包成品比容積與麵糰冷凍貯存天數呈顯著負相關(p<0.01),在水煎包組織物性測定方面麵糰冷凍貯存天數增長水煎包硬度顯著增加(p<0.05)而彈性、內聚力、膠質感、咀嚼感無顯著差異,0.1% 和0.15%三仙膠與10%和20%中種麵糰添加量於水煎包組織物性測定無顯著差異。
官能品評中口感喜好程度與麵皮冷凍天數呈顯著正相關(p<0.05) 麵糰冷凍天數與水煎包產品彈性、內聚力、膠質感、咀嚼性成顯著負相關(p<0.05),品評人員對於口感柔軟之水煎包產品有較高的接受性。酵母的種類對於水煎包產品色澤、外觀、口感、整體接受度呈顯著正相關(p<0.05),耐凍酵母於麵糰冷凍貯存第0、14、28和42天中,在水煎包產品色澤、外觀、口感、整體接受度品評中皆有一致且呈現較高評分與喜好性。中種麵糰的添加與水煎包產品口感呈顯著正相關(p<0.05)。整體而言,本實驗最佳水煎包產品之冷凍麵糰組合配方,以3%耐凍酵母與0.1%三仙膠及10%中種麵糰的添加量即可調製出最適冷凍麵糰之水煎包產品。
Abstract
The aim of this study is to apply the frozen dough manufacturing technology to the Chinese steamed bread in order to increase production capacity, maintain stable quality of the products, and offer the traditional Chinese flour food with extra quality from the modern food processing technology.

The primary concern of this research work was the production of the Chinese steamed bread dough through the frozen dough manufacturing process. The prescriptive production process adopts the 3x2x2 multi-factors experimental designs and the control factors and levels will be derived from the experimental processes. The compositions of the frozen dough consist of 1% instant yeast, 3% compressed yeast, 3% frozen yeast, 0.1% and 0.15 xanthan gum, 10% and 20% sponge. The manufactured dough pieces were packed and kept frozen in the freezer at -18˚C. According to sequential time intervals, dough pieces were sampled after 0, 14, 28, 42 days of frozen storage. After being removed from the freezer, completely thawed, fermented and steamed, they were made into steamed bread product.

The present study contains two parts: The first part focused on the analyses of the frozen dough properties including dough proof time, yeast survival rate count, rate of dough expansion and dough color. The results indicated that as the frozen storage time increased the dough proof time increased significantly (p<0.05), the yeast survival rate count decreased significantly (p<0.05), and so did the rate of dough expansion (p<0.05). The shortest proof time of dough with 1% instant yeast frozen stored for 0 day was 86±3 minutes.

The yeast survival rate count was low and there were no significant differences in dough expansion rate with 3% compressed yeast, 3% frozen yeast and in the three varieties yeast in dough color. The addition of xanthan gum of 0.1%, 0.15% and sponge of 10%, 20% also showed no significant differences in dough proof time, yeast survival rate count, rate of dough expansion and dough color.

The second part of the study focused on the quality analyses of the Chinese steamed bread product which includes its specific volume, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluation. In terms of specific volume, those made from dough with 3% frozen yeast had higher specific volume. In correlation analysis, the specific volume of the steamed bread was significantly negatively related to the storage days (p<0.01). In regards to the TPA test of the steamed bread, an increase in the number of days of storage time of the frozen dough resulted in significant increases in the hardness of the steamed bread (p<0.05), but revealed no significant differences with springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The addition of 0.1% and 0.15% of Xantham gum, 10% and 20% of sponge revealed no significant differences in relation to texture profile analysis.
The number of frozen days of the dough was significantly negatively related (p<0.05) to the springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the steamed bread. The varieties of yeast was significantly positively related (p<0.05) to the color, appearance, texture, and overall acceptance of the steamed bread. The addition of sponge was also significantly positively related (p<0.05) to the texture of the steamed bread. Dough with 3% frozen yeast revealed a higher sensory evaluation score.
Overall, the present experiment revealed that 3% frozen yeast and 0.1% xanthan gum with 10% sponge added was the best prescription for making good quality frozen dough of Chinese streamed bread.
目 錄
目錄 …………………………………………………………………………… VI
表目次 …………………………………………………………………………… VIII
圖目次 …………………………………………………………………………… XIII
第壹章 前言………………………………………………………………………………1
第貳章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………………………3
第一節冷凍麵糰之介紹…………………………………………………………3
第二節影響冷凍麵糰之因素…………………………………………………‥6
一、原料的選擇…………………………………………………… 6
第三節發麵原理…………………………………………………………………13
一、發麵的分類…………………………………………………… 13
二、發麵的製作原理……………………………………………… 13
三、水煎包成品之品質改良……………………………………… 16
四、田口品質工程分析法………………………………………… 17
第參章 材料與方法…………………………………………………………………… 18
第一節實驗材料……………………………………………………………… 18
一、原料…………………………………………………………… 18
二、添加物………………………………………………………… 18
第二節實驗方法.……………………………………………………………… 19
一、麵粉組成分析………………………………………………… 19
二、冷凍麵糰分析………………………………………………… 20
三、水煎包麵皮製作……………………………………………… 22
四、水煎包產品之物性測定……………………………………… 25
五、預備實驗設計…………………………………………………………… 27
六、統計分析………………………………………………………………… 28
七、研究架構………………………………………………………………… 29
第肆章 結果與討論…………………………………………………………………… 30
第一節麵粉基本成分分析…………………………………………………… 30
第二節以田口品質工程法分析原料種類及比例對水煎包品質之影響…… 31
一、實驗設計………………………………………………………………… 31
第三節以多因子實驗設計法分析原料種類及比例對水煎包品質之影響… 43
一、實驗設計………………………………………………………………… 43
二、麵糰之醒發時間分析………………………………………… 44
三、酵母殘存析…………………………………………………… 46
四、麵糰膨發速率測定……………………………………………………… 48
五、冷凍麵糰麵皮白度分析………………………………………………… 67
六、水煎包品質分析………………………………………………………… 70
第伍章 結論與建議…………………………………………………………………… 94
一、結論………………………………………………………… 94
二、建議…………………………………………………………… 95
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………………… 96
中文部分……………………………………………………………………… 96
英文部分……………………………………………………………………… 99
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