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研究生:郭建源
研究生(外文):Chien-Yuan Kuo
論文名稱:高壓液相層析法及毛細管電泳法對gliclazide、corticosteroids與methotrexate之分析研究
論文名稱(外文):High-pressure liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of gliclazide, corticosteroids and methotrexate
指導教授:吳秀梅吳秀梅引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:藥學研究所博士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:藥學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:166
中文關鍵詞:毛細管區帶電泳毛細管微胞電動層析法高壓液相層析法血漿全血製劑線上濃縮電化學偵測降血糖藥物皮質類固醇抗腫瘤藥物
外文關鍵詞:gliclazidecorticosteroidmethotrexatemethotrexate metaboliteHPLCelectrochemical detectoron-line sample stackinglarge-volume sample stackingCZEMEKCplasmawhole bloodpharmaecutical
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高壓液相層析法 (high-pressure liquid chromatography, HPLC) 與毛細管電泳法 (capillary electrophoresis, CE) 為目前廣泛用於分析藥物之分離技術,本論文利用HPLC分析降血糖藥物gliclazide (GL) 之經時血中濃度變化,也利用CE建立六種皮質類固醇之市售劑型含量測定以及抗腫瘤藥物methotrexate (MTX) 及其代謝物之血中濃度監測。
本論文以HPLC測定血漿中GL之經時血中濃度變化,利用C18為固定相,四硼酸二鈉 (70 mM, pH 7.5) 與乙腈 (73.5: 26.5, v/v) 為移動相進行分離,隨後施予800 mV的電位以電化學偵測器 (electrochemical detector, ED) 偵測。確效所建立之分析方法,檢測定量範圍為50.0 nM ~ 4.0 ?嵱,其相關係數 (r) 皆大於0.9990,表示此法具良好定量性;同日內及異日間之相對標準偏差 (RSD) 與相對誤差 (RE) 均小於5.30 %,符合FDA所規定之分析體液檢體,其RSD與RE應小於15 %,顯示本法具良好之精密性與準確性;偵測極限為10.0 nM (S/N = 3,注入10 ?尳)。本法實際應用於一位男性志願者 (27 yr, 70 kg) 服用80 mg GL錠劑後,監測48小時內其血漿中GL濃度之經時變化,所得結果符合文獻中GL之藥物動力學資料。
本論文另以毛細管微胞電動層析法 (micellar electrokinetic chromatography, MEKC) 建立六種市售皮質類固醇製劑 (betamethasone, BMS; cortisone, CTS; prednisolone, PNL; methylprednisolone, MPL; triamcinolone, TCL; prednisone, PNS)之含量測定分析法。所得待測物達基線分離之電泳條件為四硼酸二鈉溶液 (80 mM, pH 9.0) 內含60 mM sodium cholate及60 mM sodium deoxycholate,使用20 kV的分離電壓,在有效分析長度30 cm的毛細管 (內徑50 ?慆) 中,進行紫外光偵測 (UV, 254 nm)。確效所建立之分析方法,檢測定量範圍為10.0 ~ 100.0 ?嵱,其相關係數 (r) 皆大於0.9969,表示此法具良好定量性;同日內及異日間之RSD與RE均小於4.91 %,符合文獻所建議之分析製劑樣品,其RSD與RE應小於5 %,顯示本法具良好之精密性與準確性;偵測極限皆為5.0 ?嵱 (S/N = 3,壓力注入5秒)。本法成功應用於BMS、PNL、MPL市售製劑之含量分析,其個別含量百分率皆符合藥典 (USP XXV; ChP V) 之規定。
另建立一簡單、快速且具選擇性的毛細管區帶電泳法 (capillary zone electrophoresis, CZE) 來同時測定全血中MTX及其八種代謝物 (7-hydroxymethotrexate, 7-OHMTX; 2, 4-diamino-N10-methylpteroic acid, DAMPA; methotrexate polyglutamates, MTX-(Glu)n, n=2-7),最佳化之分析條件為glycine溶液 (1.2 M, pH 9.3),使用20 kV的分離電壓,在有效分析長度30 cm的毛細管 (內徑50 ?慆) 中,進行UV偵測 (300 nm),在10分鐘內,所有待測物可達基線分離。確效所建立之分析方法,檢測定量範圍為10.0 ~ 50.0 ?嵱,其相關係數 (r) 皆大於0.9965,表示此法具良好定量性;同日內及異日間之RSD與RE均小於7.06 %,顯示本法具良好之精密性與準確性。本分析法成功應用於一位患有急性淋巴性白血病的8歲男童,其接受24小時靜脈輸注5.0 g MTX /m2後,分別監測第一及第七小時之全血檢品,其全血中MTX及其代謝物之濃度,所得結果符合文獻中MTX之藥物動力學資料。
為提高CE-UV對血漿中MTX及其代謝物之偵測感度,本研究以大體積方式 (3.0 psi, 70 s) 將樣品溶液導入含有電滲透流修飾劑 (poly(ethylene oxide)) 的毛細管內,藉由樣品溶液區帶之電滲透流幫浦將樣品溶液基質推出毛細管時,待測物會堆積在緩衝溶液與樣品溶液界面間,隨後進行分離。最佳化之分析條件為磷酸氫二鈉溶液 (70 mM, pH 6.0) 內含poly(ethylene oxide) (0.01 %, w/v) ,使用-25 kV的分離電壓,在有效分析長度30 cm的毛細管 (內徑50 ?慆) 中,進行UV偵測 (300 nm)。確效所建立之分析方法,檢測定量範圍MTX及7-OHMTX為0.1 ~ 10.0 ?嵱;DAMPA為0.3 ~ 10.0 ?嵱,其相關係數 (r) 皆大於0.9958,表示此法具良好定量性;同日內及異日間之RSD與相對誤差RE均小於9.69 %,顯示本法具良好之精密性與準確性;偵測極限MTX及7-OHMTX為0.05 ?嵱;DAMPA為0.10 ?嵱 (S/N = 3,壓力注入70秒)。血漿中MTX、7-OHMTX及DAMPA的偵測感度比CZE可提升約100倍。本法成功應用於一位患有急性淋巴性白血病的17歲男性接受24小時靜脈輸注9.75 g MTX後,分別監測第一及第十二小時之血漿樣品,其血漿中MTX及其代謝物之濃度,所得結果符合文獻中MTX之藥物動力學資料。
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) have been broadly applied to the analysis and separation of drugs. This thesis includes a HPLC method for establishing the concentration-time profile of gliclazide (GL) in plasma and CE methods for the assay of six corticosteroids in commercial pharmaceuticals and the simultaneous determination of methotrexate (MTX) and its metabolites in whole blood and plasma.
One HPLC method was established to determine GL in plasma using an electrochemical detector (ED). The analysis was performed on a C18 column using a mobile phase of borate buffer (70 mM, pH 7.5) and acetonitrile (73.5:26.5, v/v) and detected at 800 mV. During method validation, the regression equations of GL possessed good linearity (r?d0.9990) over the calibrated ranges of 50.0 nM ~ 4.0 ?嵱. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error (RE) values in intra- and inter-day assays were below 5.30 %, which showed good precision and accuracy. The limit of detection (LOD) of GL was 10.0 nM (S/N=3, injection 10 ?尳). This proposed method was applied to monitor the GL concentration of a male volunteer (27 yr, 70 kg) dosed one 80-mg Diamicron?? tablet.
Another part of this thesis was to develop a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for the assay of six corticosteroids (betamethasone, BMS; cortisone, CTS; prednisolone, PNL; methylpredisolone, MPL; triamcinolone, TCL; prednisone, PNS) in commercial pharmaceuticals. An uncoated capillary was used (with an effective length of 30 cm) for the analysis. The optimized conditions were using borate buffer (80 mM, pH 9.0) containing 60 mM sodium cholate and 60 mM sodium deoxycholate at 20 kV, and detected at 254 nm. During method validation, the regression equations of corticosteroids showed good linearities (r?d0.9969) over the calibrated ranges of 10.0 ~ 100.0 ?嵱. The RSD and RE values in intra- and inter-day assays were below 4.91 %, which showed good precision and accuracy. The LOD was 5.0 ?嵱 for each analyte. This method was feasible for the application of content assays of commercial formulations (Prednisolone??, Methylprednisolone??, Rinderon??). All of the analytical values fell within labeled amounts required by the USP XXV and ChP V.
We also established a simple, rapid and selective capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method to simultaneously determine MTX and its eight metabolites in whole blood. The separation was performed in an uncoated capillary (effective length 30 cm) using 1.2 M glycine buffer (pH 9.3) under 20 kV by UV detector (300 nm). The baseline separations could be done within 10 minutes. During method validation, the regression equations (10.0 ~ 50.0 ?嵱) possessed good linearities (r?d0.9965). The RSD and RE values in intra- and inter-day assays were below 7.06 %, which showed good precision and accuracy. The optimized method was successfully applied to monitor the blood concentration of MTX and its eight metabolites from one 8-yr-old boy dosed 5.0 g MTX / m2/ 24h IV infusion, and the data fitted that of the pharmacokinetics in literatures.
Large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) is a sensitivity-enhancing technique without additional instrument modification in CE. To improve the sensitivity of MTX, 7-OHMTX and DAMPA in plasma, large volume sample solution (3.0 psi, 70 s) was introduced into the capillary, which was filled with electroosmotic flow modifier, poly(ethylene oxide). The sample matrices would be pumped out from the capillary by electroosmotic flow in the sample zone. Analytes could be stacked at the interface between the buffer zone and the sample zone, and then separated. The optimized conditions were using phosphate buffer (70 mM, pH 6.0) containing 0.01 % (w/v) poly(ethylene oxide) at 25 kV (detection at anode side) and detected at 300 nm. During method validation, the regression equations of MTX, 7-OHMTX and DAMPA had good linearities (r?d0.9958) over the calibrated ranges of 0.1 ~ 10.0 ?嵱 for MTX and 7-OHMTX and 0.3 ~ 10.0 ?嵱 for DAMPA. The RSD and RE values in intra- and inter-day assays were below 9.69 %, which showed good precision and accuracy. The LODs were found to be 0.05 ?嵱 for MTX and 7-OHMTX, and 0.1 ?嵱 for DAMPA. The sensitivities of MTX and its two main metabolites in plasma could be increased about one-hundred fold compared with CZE method under the optimized method. This method was successfully applied to determine the plasma concentration after treating with MTX in clinical practice.
目 錄
中文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i

英文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv

目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vii

圖目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ xi

表目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ xvi


第壹章 緒論---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
第一節 引言----------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
第二節 個論----------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
(一) gliclazide-------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
(二) corticosteroids-------------------------------------------------------------- 9
(三) methotrexate---------------------------------------------------------------- 18

第貳章 實驗部分---------------------------------------------------------------------- 31
第一節 試藥----------------------------------------------------------------------- 31
第二節 器材----------------------------------------------------------------------- 34
第三節 試藥溶液之配製-------------------------------------------------------- 36
(一) HPLC-ED對血漿中gliclazide之分析研究---------------------------- 36
(二) MEKC對六種皮質類固醇之分析研究-------------------------------- 37
(三) CZE對全血中methotrexate及其八種代謝物之同時分析研究---- 39
(四) LVSS-CE對血漿中methotrexate、7-hydroxymethotrexate及2, 4-
diamino-N10-methylpteroic acid之分析研究--------------------------
40
第四節 生物檢體之前處理----------------------------------------------------- 42
(一) HPLC-ED對血漿中gliclazide之分析研究---------------------------- 42
(二) CZE對全血中methotrexate及其八種代謝物之同時分析研究---- 42
(三) LVSS-CE對血漿中methotrexate、7-hydroxymethotrexate及2, 4-
diamino-N10-methylpteroic acid之分析研究--------------------------
43

第参章 實驗結果與討論------------------------------------------------------------- 46
一、 HPLC-ED對血漿中gliclazide之分析研究------------------------------ 46
第一節 HPLC-ED之分析條件------------------------------------------------- 46
第二節 血漿分析條件之建立-------------------------------------------------- 47
1. gliclazide之定位----------------------------------------------------------- 47
2. 移動相中四硼酸二鈉濃度之決定-------------------------------------- 47
3. 移動相中四硼酸二鈉酸鹼值之決定----------------------------------- 49
4. 移動相中ACN添加比例之決定---------------------------------------- 51
5. 最適施加電位之決定----------------------------------------------------- 54
第三節 血漿分析方法之驗證-------------------------------------------------- 56
1. gliclazide之定量性-------------------------------------------------------- 56
2. 分析方法之精密度與準確度之探討----------------------------------- 57
3. 血漿中gliclazide相對回收率之探討---------------------------------- 58
4. gliclazide安定性之探討-------------------------------------------------- 60
5. gliclazide血漿分析方法之偵測極限----------------------------------- 61
第四節 應用分析----------------------------------------------------------------- 61
1. gliclazide在人體血漿中濃度變化之監測----------------------------- 61

二、 MEKC對六種皮質類固醇之分析研究---------------------------------- 66
第一節 MEKC之分析條件----------------------------------------------------- 66
第二節 基本分析條件之建立-------------------------------------------------- 67
1. triamcinolone、cortisone、prednisolone、betamethasone、 methylprednisolone及prednisone之定位------------------------------
67
2. 電泳緩衝溶液濃度之決定----------------------------------------------- 69
3. 電泳緩衝溶液酸鹼值之決定-------------------------------------------- 71
4. 膽鹽濃度之決定----------------------------------------------------------- 71
5. 分離電壓之決定----------------------------------------------------------- 75
第三節 分析方法之驗證-------------------------------------------------------- 77
1. triamcinolone、cortisone、prednisolone、betamethasone及methylprednisolone之定量性--------------------------------------------
77
2. 分析方法之精密度與準確度之探討----------------------------------- 79
3. 市售prednisolone、betamethasone及methylprednisolone製劑回收率之探討-----------------------------------------------------------------
81
4. triamcinolone、cortisone、prednisolone、betamethasone及methylprednisolone分析方法之偵測極限-----------------------------
82
第四節 應用分析----------------------------------------------------------------- 84
1. 市售prednisolone、betamethasone及methylprednisolone製劑之含量分析--------------------------------------------------------------------
84

三、 CZE對全血中methotrexate及其八種代謝物之同時分析研究------ 87
第一節 CZE-UV之分析條件--------------------------------------------------- 87
第二節 全血分析條件之建立-------------------------------------------------- 88
1. methotrexate及其八種代謝物之定位---------------------------------- 88
2. 電泳緩衝溶液濃度之決定----------------------------------------------- 88
3. 電泳緩衝溶液酸鹼值之決定-------------------------------------------- 90
4. 分離電壓之決定----------------------------------------------------------- 92
第三節 全血分析方法之驗證-------------------------------------------------- 96
1. methotrexate及其八種代謝物之定量性------------------------------- 96
2. 分析方法之精密度與準確度之探討----------------------------------- 98
3. 全血中methotrexate及其八種代謝物回收率之探討--------------- 101
4. 全血中methotrexate及其八種代謝物安定性探討------------------ 101
5. methotrexate及其八種代謝物全血分析方法之偵測極限---------- 103
第四節 應用分析----------------------------------------------------------------- 104
1. 病人血中methotrexate濃度之測定------------------------------------- 104

四、 LVSS-CE對血漿中methotrexate、7-hydroxymethotrexate及2, 4-
diamino-N10-methylpteroic acid之分析研究-----------------------------
106
第一節 LVSS-CE之分析條件-------------------------------------------------- 106
第二節 血漿分析條件之建立-------------------------------------------------- 107
1. methotrexate、7-hydroxymethotrexate及2, 4-diamino-N10-
methylpteroic acid之定位------------------------------------------------
107
2. 電泳緩衝溶液濃度之決定----------------------------------------------- 109
3. 電泳緩衝溶液酸鹼值之決定-------------------------------------------- 111
4. PEO濃度之決定----------------------------------------------------------- 111
5. 樣品注入時間之決定----------------------------------------------------- 113
6. 分離電壓的決定----------------------------------------------------------- 116
第三節 血漿分析方法之驗證-------------------------------------------------- 118
1. methotrexate、7-hydroxymethotrexate及2, 4-diamino-N10-
methylpteroic acid之定量性---------------------------------------------
118
2. 分析方法之精密度與準確度之探討----------------------------------- 120
3. 血漿中methotrexate、7-hydroxymethotrexate及2, 4-diamino-N10-
methylpteroic acid絕對回收率之探討---------------------------------
121
4. methotrexate、7-hydroxymethotrexate及2, 4-diamino-N10-
methylpteroic acid血漿分析方法之偵測極限------------------------
122
第六節 應用分析----------------------------------------------------------------- 123
1. 病人血漿中methotrexate濃度之測定--------------------------------- 123

第肆章 結論---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 125

第伍章 參考文獻---------------------------------------------------------------------- 128

附錄 發表文獻目錄------------------------------------------------------------------- 147
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