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研究生:高水興
研究生(外文):KaoShui-Hsing
論文名稱:生質柴油對重型柴油引擎性能及污染之影響
論文名稱(外文):A Performance & Emission Study on HDD Engines Using Bio-fuels
指導教授:吳澤松
指導教授(外文):Tser-Son Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:崑山科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:生質柴油超級柴油引擎測試再生能源
外文關鍵詞:Bio-dieselPremium DieselRenewable EnergyEngine Test
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
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  • 下載下載:11
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
生質柴油除了可以取代化石柴油,亦可與化石柴油混合使用,使用於柴油引擎時,不需更換新裝置,生質柴油的使用,對國家能源風險的分散有相當大的助益。由於再生能源取之不盡用之不竭,不受產油國家之牽制,在能源供應上能確實掌握。
本研究選定目前陸地上單位面積產量最大之棕櫚油,並經轉酯化反應取得之純生質柴油為研究對象。並選用符合我國環保署二、三期排放管制標準之重型柴油引擎各一部測試引擎,試驗油品為五種不同比例生質柴油,分別為 B10、B20、B30、B50、B100,結果並與低硫超級柴油D100比較,分別探討引擎使用生質油品對二、三期引擎的性能、油耗、噪音及污染排放之影響,並調整噴油角度,以獲得最佳操作條件。試驗結果如下:
由引擎測試結果得知:引擎使用生質柴油最大輸出馬力下降程度為 8.9% ~ 12.9%,最大輸出扭力下降為 0.4% ~ 3.9%、但使用B100則更明顯下降達 8.1%,耗油性能(BSFC)摻配比例至B30增加程度約為0.4% ~ 4.1%,但超過B50則提升至23% ~ 27.6%。排煙測試之黑煙污染度由35%降至14%。法定管制污染物排放對THC有13.1% ~ 58.3%減量、對CO有5.7% ~22%減量、對PM有1.3%~19.7%減量效果。而對NOx排放無顯著影響,此外、對於具毒性之PAHs排放 則有20% ~ 80%之削減效果。
經由本研究確認,生質柴油與化石柴油相容性佳,並能降低柴油引擎各類污染物排放,更能呼應國家能源政策。不過、長期使用生質柴油對柴油引擎燃油系統之影響,如油封及橡膠的膨脹、硬化及龜裂等問題則有待進一步探討。
Bio-diesel blended fuels can be used as a ready alternative fuel for modern diesel engines. It provides an optional energy choice for those crude oil imported countries.
Palm oil, as well as rapeseed oil and soybean oil, etc., can be made for bio-diesel via trans-esterification process. In this study, bio-diesels which made from palm oils were used (B100) and blended into 4 different test fuels, namely B10、B20、B30、and B50, respectively. Chemical analysis for these fuels showed that bio-diesel or bio-blended diesel has higher cetane number、good lubricity performance, and very low sulfur and aromatic contents. However, a major drawback for bio-diesels was its high pour point.
Two heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engines, which represents the older and the new engine technologies, were used to assess the effects of different bio-diesel blends on the engine. Engine test results showed that: using bio-blended diesels may cause power reduction to a degree of 8.9%〜12.9%; A more significant power drop was observed in the case of using pure bio-diesel B100. Fuel economy remained similar for using fuels B10、B20、and B30. Engine using B50 and B100, however, fuel consumption rate raised to an unacceptable degree.
Transient-cycle emission test results showed that: engine using bio-blended diesel fuel can significantly reduce its regulated emissions, THC、CO、and particulate matters. It was also founded that using B10〜B50 bio-blended diesel fuels have no obvious negative effects on the NOx emission. It was concluded that bio-blended diesels is a promising alternative fuels for both older and modern diesel engines.
中文摘要 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- i
英文摘要 --------------------------------------------------------------------- iii
致謝 -------------------------------------------------------------------- v
目錄 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- vi
表目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------------- ix
圖目錄 -------------------------------------------------------------------- x
一、 緒論------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
1.1 研究背景---------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.2 研究動機----------------------------------------------------------- 3
1.3 研究目的---------------------------------------------------------- 5
二、 文獻回顧------------------------------------------------------------ 7
三、 引擎試驗、分析設備與檢測程序----------------------------- 11
3.1 柴油引擎排氣採樣方法------------------------------------- 11
3.1.1 引擎型式---------------------------------------------------------- 11
3.1.2 柴油引擎運轉方式---------------------------------------------- 15
3.1.3 引擎測功計------------------------------------------------------- 15
3.1.4 排氣取樣設備---------------------------------------------------- 16
3.1.5 試驗條件---------------------------------------------------------- 18
3.2 柴油引擎排放PAHs採樣設備及分析方法----------------- 22
3.2.1 PAHs採樣設備--------------------------------------------------- 25
3.2.2 PAHs分析方法與設備------------------------------------------ 27
3.2.3 PAHs採樣前處理------------------------------------------------ 38
3.2.4 分析儀器---------------------------------------------------------- 29
3.2.5 分析方法---------------------------------------------------------- 29
3.3 柴油引擎排放氣狀污染物取樣及分析系統---------------- 32
3.3.1 一氧化碳/二氧化碳分析儀 (CO/CO2 Analyzer)----------- 32
3.3.2 碳氫化合物分析儀 ( Hydrocarbon Analyzer)-------------- 33
3.3.3 氮氧化物分析儀 ( NOx Analyzer)--------------------------- 33
3.3.4 定容量取樣系統 (Constant Volume Sampler,CVS)------ 33
3.3.5 黑煙污染度分析儀 ( Smoke Meter)------------------------- 34
四、 試驗結果與討論-------------------------------------------------- 36
4.1 油品物化性分析結果------------------------------------------- 36
4.1.1 油品分析結果---------------------------------------------------- 38
4.2 引擎性能測試結果---------------------------------------------- 47
4.2.1 最大額定輸出馬力及扭力測試------------------------------- 50
4.2.2 引擎較佳化測試評析------------------------------------------- 56
4.3 引擎污染排放、噪音測試結果--------------------------- 60
4.3.1 排煙及硫氧化物排放測試結果------------------------------- 60
4.3.2 引擎噪音測試結果--------------------------------------------- 61
4.4 引擎污染物排放測試結果------------------------------------- 62
4.4.1 二期引擎測試結果---------------------------------------------- 62
4.4.2 三期引擎測試結果---------------------------------------------- 65
4.5 引擎排放廢氣中PAHs之排放情形--------------------------- 67
4.5.1 二期引擎採樣分析結果---------------------------------------- 67
4.5.2 三期引擎採樣分析結果---------------------------------------- 72
五、 結論與建議--------------------------------------------------------- 76
5.1 結論----------------------------------------------------------------- 76
5.2 建議----------------------------------------------------------------- 78
參考文獻 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
附錄一 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 84
附錄二 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 90
自傳 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 103
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