(34.204.185.54) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/16 19:02
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳俊豪
研究生(外文):Chun-Hao Chen
論文名稱:超臨界流體萃取與微波輔助超臨界流體萃取米糠醇之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Microwave-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction for Oryzanol
指導教授:曾清桂曾清桂引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Guey Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:超臨界流體萃取微波輔助萃取米糠醇
外文關鍵詞:supercritical fluid extractionmicrowave-assistedOryzanol
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:950
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
中文摘要
稻米為台灣最大宗的農作物,年產量133萬公噸。糙米碾白時約產生10 %的米糠,大部分作為飼料、肥料或土壤改良劑,甚至當廢棄物處理。米糠中之米糠油主要含有三種的天然抗氧化成份,分別為生育酚(Tocopherols)、三烯生育酚(Tocotrienols)、米糠醇(Oryzanol),對人體有許多機能性的功用。以前米糠油是從傳統的壓榨方式獲得,雖然已經有許多學者研究米糠油,但仍多停留在傳統方式取得米糠油,本研究使用超臨界流體(Supercritical fluid, SCF)及微波輔助(Microwave-Assisted)超臨界流體萃取米糠中之米糠醇。
本研究使用超臨界二氧化碳萃取米糠中之米糠醇,分別調查1.壓力範圍3000 ~ 6000 psi、2.溫度範圍313 K~333 K、3.不同來源米糠及、4.超臨界條件下二氧化碳流速2~6 ml/min等變數對萃取米糠醇效率的影響。另外本研究也首度嘗試以微波輔助超臨界流體萃取米糠中米糠醇,實驗的萃取樣品除以HPLC進行分析外,也使用熱重分析儀輔助觀察萃取物熱性質,最後進行超臨界流體分離米糠醇。本研究也建立經驗方程式估算超臨界二氧化碳密度,以拉克式塞流理論模式(Lack’s plug-flow model)進行實驗數據模擬,探討質傳現象。
本研究結果顯示在同一溫度下,超臨界二氧化碳對米糠油的萃取效率,隨著壓力的增加,米糠油的萃取效率也隨之增加。米糠醇的萃取效率亦隨著萃取壓力增加萃取效率增加。在壓力3000 psi時,溫度323 K的米糠油萃取效率較333 K高,溫度313 K的米糠油萃取效率最差。在壓力4000 psi以上,隨著溫度的增加米糠油的萃取效率也隨之增加。壓力3000 psi時,溫度313 K時的米糠醇萃取效率是最高的,隨著溫度的增加,萃取效率也隨著降低。在4000 psi時米糠醇的萃取效率沒有明顯的差異,壓力在5000 psi以上,隨著溫度的增加米糠醇的萃取效率也隨之增加,對超臨界二氧化碳萃取米糠醇的效率有顯著的變化。本研究觀察所謂的交錯現象(crossover phenomena),且發現超臨界二氧化碳流速對米糠油及米糠醇萃取效率並沒有產生很大的影響。本研究也調查不同來源的米糠,在米糠油及米糠醇的含量上皆有很大的差異,其結果也從索式萃取得到驗證。
本研究首次嘗試微波輔助超臨界流體萃取,結果顯示在低壓下使用微波照射,可提高米糠油萃取效率;但在高壓下照射微波反而降低米糠油的萃取效率。米糠醇萃取效率在使用微波輔助後並無明顯的增加。
藉由TGA的分析,觀察到米糠醇具有良好的熱穩定性,而米糠油的熱穩定性則較差。另外我們也發現米糠醇較難揮發,米糠油由於成份複雜,但相較之下大部分的成份屬於較容易揮發的。
本研究分別探討在壓力1500 psi及2000 psi、溫度在308 K及318 K的條件下,進行超臨界二氧化碳分離米糠醇,在同一溫度下,經超臨界二氧化碳純化後,壓力2000 psi所獲得純度均較1500 psi高。在同一壓力下,溫度308 K所獲得純度均較318 K高。經這樣的分離程序可提高米糠醇含量達3倍。
本研究以拉克式塞流理論模式(Lack’s plug-flow model)進行萃取曲線之模擬。模擬結果顯示外部質傳係數遠大於內部質傳係數,兩者相差約100倍,內部質傳阻力為影響萃取速率的主要因素。模擬的結果與實驗數據相符合,模擬的最大平均誤差值為3.16 %。
Abstracts
Rice is the most important cereal crop in Taiwan, and the production in 2004 was 1.33 million tons. About 10% of this amount corresponds to the rice bran fraction—a by-product of rice processing, which is normally used as animal feed, fertilizer,soil modifier, or even treated as waste materials. Therefore their high nutraceutical value is lost. The rice bran oil, extracted from rice bran, mainly includes three kinds of natural anti-oxidant compound, tocopherols, tocotrienols and oryzanols. To date, most of the Rice Bran Oil (RBO) has been extracted through the traditional methods, such as expeller pressing or solvent extraction. In this study, supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction and microwave-assisted SCF extraction are used to extract oryzanol-riched rice bran oil.
The supercritical carbon dioxide is utilized to extract rice bran oil first. The yields of RBO and the concentrations of oryzanol were investigated at pressure from 3,000 to 6,000 psi, and temperature from 313 K to 333 K, while two different rice brans were used as the raw material and the flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide varied from 2 to 6 ml/min. Therefore, microwave-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction performed as another extraction method. At last, the oryzanol-riched RBO is obtained through supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The concentrations of oryzanol in result products are measured by HPLC, in addition, the thermal properties are observed by thermal gravity analyzer (TGA). In this study, the density of carbon dioxide was estimated from an empirical equation, and Lack’s plug-flow model was used to carry out empirical simulation to study the mass transfer phenomenon.
The results of this study reveal that the extraction efficiency of supercritical carbon dioxide from rice bran increases as pressure increases at the same temperature. And the concentration of oryzanol also increases as pressure increases at the same temperature. At 3,000 psi, the extraction efficiency at 323K is higher than that at 333K, while the extraction efficiency at 313K is lowest. The phenomena is known as “crossover phenomena”. The concentration of oryzanol in RBO increases as temperature increase at the same pressure. The flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide is found that there is no obvious effect on the extraction efficiencies of RBO and oryzanol. From the results of Soxhlet extraction, it is obvious that the contents of RBO and oryzanol in different kind of rice bran are tremendously different.
In this study, the microwave-assisted method is first used in supercritical fluid extraction for rice bran oil extraction, it is found that microwave can improve the extraction efficiency of RBO at low pressure, but deteriorate at high pressure. And microwave has no effect on the extraction efficiency of oryzanol at any pressure.
The results of TGA analysis shows that oryzanol has good thermostability than rice bran oil, and oryzanol is more difficult to volatilize than RBO. In order to get oryzanol-riched RBO, the extraction is carried out at different operation conditions, and it is found the concentration of oryzanol can be 3 times that as usual.
This study separately discusses condition in pressure 1,500 psi and 2,000 psi, the temperature in 308 K and 318 K, carries on the supercritical carbon dioxide separation oryzanol, under the identical temperature, after the supercritical carbon dioxide purification, at pressure 2,000 psi obtains purity 1,500 psi to be higher.Under the identical pressure, temperature 308 K obtains purity than 318 K higher. The separation process can enhance oryzanol content over 3 times using the traditional method.
The Lack's plug-flow model is used to simulate the extraction curve of the experiment. The result shows that exterior mass transfer coefficient is far bigger than internal mass transfer coefficient by two orders. So, internal mass transfer resistance should be the major factor of the extraction rate. The simulation and empirical results are quite simular since the max. mean deviation between them is 3.16 %.
中文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------ⅰ
英文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------ⅲ
誌謝 -------------------------------------------------------ⅴ
目錄 -------------------------------------------------------ⅵ
表目錄 -------------------------------------------------------ⅷ
圖目錄 -------------------------------------------------------ⅸ
符號說明 -------------------------------------------------------
一、 緒論---------------------------------------------------1
二、 文獻回顧-----------------------------------------------3
2.1 超臨界流體萃取------------------------------------------3
2.1.1 超臨界流體之歷史發展-------------------------------------3
2.1.2 超臨界流體性質------------------------------------------8
2.1.3 超臨界流體萃取原理--------------------------------------10
2.1.4 超臨界二氧化碳之工業應用---------------------------------14
2.1.5 萃取曲線模擬--------------------------------------------21
2.2 微波輔助萃取-------------------------------------------27
2.2.1 微波發展簡介-------------------------------------------27
2.2.2 微波加熱的原理-----------------------------------------27
2.2.3 微波的特性---------------------------------------------30
2.2.4 影響微波的因素------------------------------------------31
2.2.5 微波裝置圖---------------------------------------------33
2.3 米糠之簡介---------------------------------------------36
2.3.1 米糠之化學組成------------------------------------------36
2.3.2 米糠醇之組成--------------------------------------------39
三、 實驗方法與步驟------------------------------------------45
3.1 實驗材料及試藥------------------------------------------45
3.2 實驗儀器設備--------------------------------------------45
3.3 超臨界二氧化碳萃取---------------------------------------46
3.4 微波輔助超臨界二氧化碳萃取--------------------------------47
3.5 索式萃取------------------------------------------------48
3.6 超臨界流體分離米糠醇--------------------------------------49
四、 實驗結果-------------------------------------------------51
4.1 分析條件及標準曲線之建立-----------------------------------51
4.2 索式萃取-------------------------------------------------53
4.3 壓力的影響-----------------------------------------------53
4.4 溫度的影響-----------------------------------------------58
4.5 不同流速對萃取效率之影響-----------------------------------66
4.6 不同樣品來源之影響----------------------------------------69
4.7 微波輔助超臨界流體萃取之影響-------------------------------71
4.8 熱性質分析-----------------------------------------------76
4.9 超臨界流體分離探討----------------------------------------77
4.10 萃取曲線模擬---------------------------------------------78
五、 結論----------------------------------------------------85
六、 未來展望-------------------------------------------------87
參考文獻 --------------------------------------------------------89
附錄一 超臨界流體密度計算---------------------------------------- 98
自傳 ------------------------------------------------------- 100
1.李秀眉、沈燕士、張正,生化科技產業,2000.11。
2.行政院農業委員會網站。
3.McHugh, M.A. and Krukonis V.J., 1986, “Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Principle and Practice”, Butterworth Publishers.
4.Stahl E., Quirin K.W., and Gerard D., 1988, Dense Gases for Extraction and Refining, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg Germany, 1-29.
5. Francis A.W., 1954, “Ternary Systems of Liquids Carbon Dioxids”, J. Phys. Chem., 58, 1099-1114.
6.Pellerin P., 1991, “Supercritical Fluid Extraction of National Raw Materials for the Flavour and Perfume Industry”, Perfum. Flavor, 16, 37-39.
7.Rizvi S. S. H. and Benkind A. L., 1989, “A Process for Cholesterol Reduction and Fractionation of Animal Fats Using Supercritical Fluid”, Proceedings of Fifth International Congress on Engineering and Foods, Cologne, W. Germany, p. 20A.
8.Rizvi S.S.H., Lim S., Nikoopour H., Singh M. and Yu Z., 1989, “Supercritical Fluid Processing of Milk Fat, In Engineering and Foods”, W.E.L. Spiess and H. Schubert (Ed.), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, New York, 3, 145.
9.Zozel K., 1981, “Process for the Decaffeination of Coffee”, U.S. Patent, 4,274,570, January 27.
10.Hubert, P. and Vitzthum, O. G., 1978, “Fluid extraction of hops, spices, and tobacco with supercritical gases”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 17, 710.
11.Rizvi S.S.H., Daniels J.A., Benado A.L. and Zollweg J.A., 1986, “Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Operating principles and Food Applications”, Food Technol., 7, 57-64.
12.潘怡瑾,2000,以超臨界二氧化碳萃取中藥藥材柏子仁之研究,國立台灣大學化學工程系碩士論文。
13.郭博堯,背景分析-京都議定書的爭議與妥協,國政研究報告,2001
14.新興重要策略性產業屬於製造業及技術服務業部分獎勵辦法,中華民國95年1月1日院臺經字第0940095633號令修正公布
15.Yoshinori Adachi and Benjamin C. -Y. Lu, 1983 “Supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide and ethylene”, Fluid Phase Equil., 14, 147.
16.Bartle, K. D., Boddington, T., Clifford, A. A., and Hawthorne, S. B., 1992, “The Effect of solubility on the kinetics of dynamic supercritical-fluid extraction”, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 5, 207.
17.T. R. Bott, 1982, Chemistry Industies, 19, 394.
18.Chang, C. J., Randolph, A. D., Craft, N. E., 1991, “Separation of β-Carotene Mixtures Precipitated from Liquid Solvents with High-Pressure CO2”, Biotechnology Progress, 7, 275-278.
19.Chang, H. and Morrell, D. G., 1985, “Solubilities of methoxy-1-tetralone and methyl nitrobenzoate isomers and their mixtures in supercritical carbon dioxide”, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 30, 74-78.
20.Dobbs, J.M., Wong, J. M. and Johnston, K. P., 1986. “Nonpolar co-solvents for solubility enhancement in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide”, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 31, 303-308.
21.H. Hammam, 1992, “Solubilities of pure lipids in supercritical carbon dioxide”, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 5,101.
22.Randolph, T. W., 1990, “Supercritical fluid extractions in biotechnology”, Tibtech., 8, 78.
23.Wong, J. M. and Johnston, K. P., 1986, “Solubilization of biomolecules in carbon dioxide based supercritical solutions”, Biotech. Press., 2, 29.
24.Barber, S., 1974, “Process for the stabilization of rice bran.Ⅰ. Basic research studies; in proceeding of rice by-product ulitization”, International conference.
25.Shastry, B. S. and Roa, M. R. R., 1975, “Studies on lipoxygenase from rice bran”, Cereal Chem., 52, 5, 597-603.
26.Takano, K., 1993 “Mechanism of lipid hydrolysis in rice bran”, Cereal Food World, 38, 9, 695-698.
27.Aizono, Y., Funatsu, M., Sugano, M., Hayashi, K. and Fujiki, Y., 1973, “Enzymatic properties of rice bran lipase”, Agric. Biol. Chem., 37, 9, 2031-2036.
28.Kaminura, M., Takahashi, S. and Sato, S., 1965, “Influence of γ-Oryzanol on Skin Capillary Circulation”, Chemical Abstracts, 30, 341, 62,5783e.
29.Hyatt J.A., 1984, “Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as a Organic Solvents”, J. Org. Chem., 49, 5097.
30.Brogle H., 1982, “CO2 as a solvent: its properties and applications”, Chemistry and Industry, 11, 385-390.
31.Chordia, L., and Robey, R., 2000, “Industrial applications of supercritical fluids”, Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, Westin Atlanta North Atlanta, Georgia, USA, April.
32.郎慶勇,魏建謨,羅建苗,瞿港華,1999,“超臨界流體萃取技術的應用及展望”,科儀新知,20,5,90-97。
33.Perrut, M., 2000, “Supercritical fluid applications industrial developments and economic issues”, Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, 8-12, Westin Atlanta North Atlanta, Georgia, USA, April.
34.江淑芬,2000,“淺談中草藥世界市場概況”,科技與生活,38-41。
35.Nakamura, K., “Biological applications of supercritical fluid”, In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids-Tome 3: Reaction”, Material Science, 1994.
36.Ooi, C., Bhaskar, K. A., Yener, M. S., Tuan, D. Q., Rizvi, S. S. H. 1996, “Continuous supercritical carbon dioxide processing of palm oil”, JAOCS, 73, 233.
37.Zosel, K., 1979, “Process for deorisation fats and oils”, United States patent, 4, 156, 688.
38.Lack, E., Seidlitz, H., 1993, Commercial scale decaffeination of coffee and tea using supercritical CO2. In Extraction of Natural Products Using Near-Critical Solvents, Edited by M. B. King and T. R. Bott, Chapman & Hall, London..
39.Kamat S., Critchley G.., Beckman E. J., Russell A. J., 1995, “Biocatalytic synthesis of acrylates in organic solvent and supercritical fluids: III. does carbon dioxide covalently modify enzymes”, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 46, 610.
40.Gardner, D. S., 1982, “Industrial scale hop extraction with liquid CO2”, Chemistry and Industry, 19, 402.
41.Hierro, M. T. G. and Santa-Maria, G., 1992, “Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable and animal fats with CO2 Mini Review”, Food Chemistry, 45, 189.
42.Temelli,F., Chen,C. S., Braddock, R. J., 1988, “Supercritical fluid extraction in citrus oil processing”, Food Technology, Jan: 145.
43.Sakaki, K., Yokochi, T., Suzuki, O., Hakuda, T., 1990, “Supercritical fluid extraction of fungal oil using CO2, N2O , CHF2, and SF6”, JAOCS, 67, 533.
44.Stahl, E., Schutz, E., Mangold, H. K., 1980, “Extraction of seed oils with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide”, J. Agric. Food Chem., 28, 1153.
45.廖怡禎,2002,“超臨界流體技術工業化應用實例”,超臨界流體應用技術研討會論文集,台灣。
46.Wai, C. M. and Wang, S. J., 1997, “Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Metals as Complexes”, Chromatography A, 785, 369.
47.McNally, M. E. P., Deardorff, C. M., Fahmy, T. M., 1992, ACS Symp. Ser., 488, 165.
48.Via, J. C., Braue, C. L., Talor, L. T., 1994, “Supercritical Fluid Fractionation of a Low Molecular Weight, High-Density Polyethylene Wax Using Carbon Dioxide, Propane, and Propane-Modified Carbon Dioxide” Anal. Chem., 66, 603.
49.Langenfeld, J. J., Burford, M. D., Hawthorne, S. B., and Miller, D. J.,1992 “Effects of collection solvent parameters. and extraction cell geometry on supercritical fluid extraction efficiencies”, J. Chromatogr., 594, 297-307
50.Kaupp, G., 1994, “Reactions in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide”, Angew. Chem. Ind. Ed. Engl., 33, 1452.
51.Johnston, K. P., Haynes, C., 1987, “Extreme solvent effects on reaction rate constants at supercritical fluid conditions”, J. AICHE, 33, 2017.
52.郭子禎,2002,“超臨界二氧化碳清洗技術簡介”,超臨界流體應用技術研討會論文集,台灣。
53.盧昱彰,陳明德,陳政群,邱創弘,2004,“用超臨界流體技術去除晶圓奈米污染物”,The 3rd International conference on the Supercritical Fluid Technology,台灣。
54.連培榮、凌永健,2004,“超音波輔助超臨界二氧化碳去光阻研究”,The 3rd International conference on the Supercritical Fluid Technology,台灣。
55.Sun, Y. P., and Rollins, H. W., 1998, “Preparation of polymer-protected semiconductor nanoparticles through the rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solution”, Chemical Physics Letters, 288, 585-588.
56.吳弦聰、李明哲、林河木,2004,“超臨界抗溶劑法製備次微米級blue 15:6顏料微粒”,The 3rd International conference on the Supercritical Fluid Technology,台灣。
57.I. Hiroya, S. Mitsuya, Y. Akiyoshi and O. Yutaka, 1996, “Inactivation of enzymes and decomposition of a-helix structure by supercritical carbon dioxide micro-bubble method”, J. Agric. Food Chem., 44, 2646.
58.孫璐西,廖怡禎,1997,“超臨界流體技術在食品工業中之應用”,化工技術,6,148。
59.陳毓婷、邱永和、陳啟銘、張夢揚,2004,“以超臨界二氧化碳殺滅冠狀病毒及日本腦炎病毒之研究”,The 3rd International conference on the Supercritical Fluid Technology,台灣.
60.De Giorgi M. R., E. Cadoni, D. Maricca, and A. Piras, 2000, “Dyeing Polyester Fibers with Disperse Dyes in Supercritical CO2”, Dyes and Pigments, 45, 75~79.
61.Sovova H., 1994(a), “Rate of the Vegetable Oil Extraction with Supercritical CO2 -Ⅰ Modeling of Extraction Curves”, Chem. Eng., 49, 3, 409-414.
62.Lee A.K.K., Bulley N.R., Fattori M. and Meisen A., 1986, “Modelling of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Canola Oilseed in fixed beds”, JAOCS, 63, 921-925.
63.Cygnarowicz-Provost M., O`Brien D., Maxwell R.J. and Hampson J.W., 1992, “Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Fungal Lipids Using Mixed Solvents : Experiment and Modeling”, J. of Supercritical Fluids, 5, 24-30.
64.Pekhov A.V., and Goncharenko G.K., 1986, “Ekstrakcija Prjanogo Rastitelnogo Syrja Szhizhennymi Gazami”, Maslozhirovaja promtshlennost, 34, 10, 26-29.
65.Lack, E. A., 1985, Kriterien zur Auslegung von Anlagen fur die Hochdrunckextraktion von Naturstoffen, Ph.D. thesis, TU Graz.
66.Sovova, H., Kucera, J. and Jez, J.,1994(b), “Rate of the vegetable oil extraction with supercritical CO2-Ⅱ. Extraction of Grape Oil”, Chem. Eng. Sci., 49, 3, 415-420.
67.Stastova, J., Jez, J., Bartlova, M. and Sovova, H., 1996, “Rate of the Vegetable Oil Extraction with Supercritical CO2-Ⅲ. Extraction from Sea Buckthorn”, Chem. Eng. Sci., 51, 18, 4347-4352.
68.Abu-Samia, A., Morris, J. S., Koirtyohann, S. R., 1975, “Wet ashing of some biological samples in a microwave oven”, Analytical Chemistry, 47, 1475-1477.
69.Ganzler, K., Salgo, A., Valko, K., 1986, “Microwave extraction a novel sample preparation method for chromatography”, J. Chromatogr., 371, 299-306.
70.金欽漢、戴樹珊、黃卡瑪,2001,“微波化學”,科學出版社。
71.Kingston, H. M. and Jassie, Lois. B., 1988, Introduction to Microwave Sample Preparation: Theory and Practice, 7-31.
72.許道平,1998,“分析樣品前處理技術–微波萃取法”,化學,56,4,285-294。
73.洪志青,2000,開放式微波萃取土壤中多氯聯苯之研究,國立高雄師範大學化學系碩士論文。
74.紀伯享,楊末雄,1998,“微波消化之方法與應用”,科儀新知,56,4,269-284。
75.Saunders, R. M., 1986, “Rice Bran: Composition and potential food uses”, Food Rev. Intern., 1, 3, 465-495.
76.Juliano, B. O. and Hicks, P. A., 1996, “Rice functional properties and rice food products”, Food Rev. Int., 12, 1, 71-103.
77.Sayre, R. N. and Saunders, R. M., 1990, “Rice bran and rice oil”, Lipid Technol., 2, 3, 72-74.
78.Prakash, J. and Ramantham, G., 1995, “Effect of stabilization treatment of rice bran on nutritional quality of protein concentrates”, Int. J. Food Sci. and Nutr., 46, 177-184.
79.Prakash, J., 1996, “Rice bran protein: properties and food uses”, CRC. Food Sci. and Nutr., 36, 6, 537-552.
80.連俊杰,1994,比較不同品種之米糠蛋白質組成及其功能性,靜宜大學食品營養系碩士論文。
81.Kennedy, B. H. and Schelstraete, M., 1975, “Chemical, physical and nutritional properties of high protein flours and residual kernel from the overmilling of uncoated milled rice, Ⅲ. Iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and phytic acid”, Cereal Chem., 52, 5, 173-182.
82.Marshall, W. E. and Wadsworth, J. I., 1993, “Rice Science and Technology”, part Ⅳ. 16. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 381-404.
83.Cheryan, M., 1980, “Phytic acid interactions in food system”, CRC Crit Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 13, 297-335.
84.Kahlon, T. S., Chow, F. I., Hudson, C. A. and Sayre, R. N., 1994, “Cholesterol-lowering properties of rice bran”, Cereal Food World., 39, 2, 99-103.
85.Ei-Zanati, E M. and Khedr, M. A., 1991, “Separarion of saturated and unsaturated acids from rice bran oil”, J. Amer. Oil. Chem. Soc., 68, 6, 436-439.
86.Orthoefer, F. T., 1996, “Rice Bran Oil: health lipid source,” Food Tech., 12, 62-64.
87.Barber, S and De Barber CB., 1980, “Rice bran: Chemistry and technology”, Rice: Production and Utilization. West port Avi, 790-862.
88.Aizono , Y., Funatsu, M., Fujiki, Y. and Watanabe, M.,1976, “Purification and characterization of rice bran lipase”, Agric. Biol. Chem., 40, 2, 317-324.
89.Shastry, B. S. and Roa, M. R. R., 1975, “Studies on lipoxygenase from rice bran”, Cereal Chem., 52, 5, 597-603.
90.Takano, K., 1993, “Mechanism of lipid hydrolysis in rice bran”, Cereal Food World, 38, 9, 695-698.
91.Aizono, Y., Funatsu, M., Sugano, M., Hayashi, K. and Fujiki, Y., 1973, “Enzymatic properties of rice bran lipase”, Agric. Biol. Chem., 37, 9, 2031-2036.
92.Kaminura, M., Takahashi, S. and Sato, S., 1965, “Influence of γ-Oryzanol on Skin Capillary Circulation”, Chemical Abstracts, 30, 341, 62,5783e.
93.Shimizu, M. and Ohta, G., Kitahsra, S., Tsunoo, G. and Sasahara, S., 1957, “Studies on the Constituents of Rice Bran Oil:Ⅰ Isolation of Phenolic Substances ”, Pharm. Bulletin (Tokyo), 5, 36-39.
94.Shimizu, M. and Ohta, G., 1957, “Studies on the Constituents of Rice Bran Oil:Ⅱ.Structure of Oryzanol-A”, Pharm. Bulletin (Tokyo) 5, 40-44.
95.Shimizu, M. and Ohta, G. , 1958, “A New Triterpenoid Alcohol,24-Methlene cycloartanol, as its Ferulate, from Rice Bran Oil”, Pharm.Bulletin (Tokyo), 6, 325-326.
96.Diack, M. and Saska, M., 994, “Separation of Vitamin E and -Oryzanol from Rice Bran Oil by Normal-Phase Chromatography”, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 71, 11, 1211-1217.
97.Orthoefer, F. T., 1996, “Rice bran oil: health lipid source”, Food Tech., 12, 62-64.
98.Seetharamaiah, G. S. and Prabhakar, J. V., 1986, “Oryzanol Content of Indian Rice Bran Oil and Its Extraction from Soap Stock”, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 23, 270.
99.Okada, T. and Yamaguchi, N. , 1983, “Anntioxiidant effect and pharmacology of oryzanol”, Yukaku, 32, 305.
100.Tamagawa, M., Otaki, Y., Takahashi, T., Otaka, T., Kimura, S. and Miwa, T.,1992 , “Carcinogenicity Study of gamma-Oryzanol in B6C3F1 Mice”, Fd. Chem. Toxic., 30, 49-56.
101.Hiramitsu, T. and Armstrong, D., 1991, “Preventive effect of antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in the retina”, Ophthalmic Res., 23, 4, 196-203.
102.Kahlon, T. S., Chow, F. I., Chiu, M. M., Hudson, C. A. and-Sayre, R. N., 1996, “esterol-lowering by rice bran and rice bran oil unsaponifiable matter in hamsters”, Cereal Chem., 73, 1, 69-74.
103.Hiramitsu, T., Tani, T., Kimura, Y., Izumi, S. I. and Nakane, P.K., 1990, “Effect of gamma-oryzanol on atheroma formation in hypocholesterolermic rabbits”, J. Exp. Clin. Med. (Tokai), 15, 4, 299-306.
104.Seetharamaiah, G. S. and Chandrasekhara, N., 1990, “Effect of oryzanol on cholesterol absorption and biliary and fecal bile acids in rats”, J. Med. Res. Section. (Indian), 92, 12, 471-475.
105.Ito, M., Hsu, C. T. Shichijo, K. and Sekine, I., 1992, “Effect of amma-oryzanol on experimental liver cirrhosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats”, J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 12, 3, 193-199.
106.Yoshino, G., Kazumi, T., Amano, M., Tateiwa, M.Yamasaki, T., Takashima, S., Iwai, M., Hatanaka, H. and Baba, S., 1989, “Gamma-oryzanol and Probucol on Hyperlipidemia”, Curr. Ther. Res., 45, 975-982.
107.Sasaki, J., Takada, Y., Handa, K., Kusuda, M., Tanabe, Y., Matsunaga, A. and Arakawa, K., 1990, “Effect of gamma-oryzanol on serum lipld and apolipoproteins in dyslipidemic schizophrenics receiving major tranquilizers”, Clin. Therap., 12, 3, 465-495.
108.Seetharamaiah, G. S., Krishnantha, T. P. and Chandrasekhara, N., 1990, “Influence of oryzanol on platelet aggregation in rats”, J. Nutr.Sci.Vitam., 36, 3, 291-297.
109.Lei S.-P., 1980, Studies on the Retention of -Oryzanol in Refining Rice Bran Oil for Blackfoot Disease Therapy, Master Thesis, Department of Agriculture Chemistry, National Taiwan University, June.
110.傅偉祥,2001,利用米糠開發含營養極具機能性之食品配料,國立台灣大學食品科技研究所博士論文。
111.Juliano, B. O. and Hicks, P. A., 1996, “Rice functional properties and rice food products”, Food Rev. Int., 12, 1, 71-103.
112.Sayre, Robert N., 1988, “Rice Bran as a Source of Edible Oil and Higher Value Chemicals”, Western Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA.
113.鄭宏,2003,從米糠油中提取米糠醇之研究,國立台灣科技大學化學工程系碩士論文。
114.陳正行、周彤,1999,“米糠:一種潛在的健康食品優質原料”,Cereal & Feed Industry,10。
115.Castaneda-Acosta J., Cain A.W., Fischer N.H. and Knopf F.C., 1995, “Extraction of Bioactive Sesquiterpene Lactones from Magnolia grandifolra Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Near-Critical Propane”, J. Agric. Food Chem., 43, 63-68.
116.Friedrich J.P., List G.R. and Heakin A.J., 1982, “Petroleum-Free Extraction of Oil from Soybeans with Supercritical CO2”, JAOCS, 59, 7, 288-292.
117.Goto M., Roy B.C. and Hirose T., 1996, “Shrinking - Core Leaching Model for Supercritical Fluid Extraction”, J. of Supercritical Fluids, 9, 128-133.
118.Cocero M.J. and Calvo L., 1996, “Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Sunflower Seed Oil with CO2 - Ethanol Mixtures”, JAOCS, 73, 11, 1573-1578.
119.Roy B.C., Goto M. and Hirose T., 1996, “Extraction of Ginger Oil with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Experiments and Modeling”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 35, 607-612.
120.Illes V., Szalai O., Then M., Daood H. and Perneczki S., 1997, “Extraction of Hiprose Fruit by Supercritical CO2 and Propane”, J. of Supercritical Fluids, 10, 209-218.
121.Reverchon E. and Marrone C., Supercritical Extraction of Clove Bud Essential Oil: Isolation and Mathematical Modeling, Chem. Eng. Sci., 52, 20, 3421-3428, 1997.
122.Goto M., Sato M. and Hirose T., Extraction of Peppermint Oil by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, J. Chem. Eng. Japan, 26, 4, 401-407, 1993.
123.Perrut M., Clavier J.Y., Poletto M. and Reverchon E., Mathematical Modeling of Sunflower Seed Extraction by Supercritical CO2, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 430-135, 1997.
124.Reverchon E., Mathematical Modeling of Supercritical Extraction of Sage Oil, AIChE, 42, 6, 1765-1771, 1996a.
125.Roy B.C., Goto M. and Hirose T., Extraction of Ginger Oil with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Experiments and Modeling, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35, 607-612, 1996.
126.Ferreira S.R.S., Nikolov Z.L., Doraiswamy L.K., Meireles M.A.A. and Petenate A.J., Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrun L.) Essential Oil, J. of Supercritical Fluids, 14, 235-245, 1999.
127.Del Valle. J. M. and Aguilera, J. M., 1988, “An improved equation for predicting the solubility of vegetable oils in supercritical CO2”, Ind Engng Chem. Res., 27, 1551-1553.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 耿志華(1995)。臺灣教育本土化的回顧與前瞻。北縣教育,7,30-32。
2. 夏黎明(1988)。鄉土定義分析。臺東師院學報,1,283-299。
3. 洪雯柔(2002)。全球化與本土化辯證中的比較教育研究。國立國際暨南大學比較教育研究所博士論文,未出版,南投縣。
4. 侯元鈞(2004,12月)。黃皮膚白面具:西方課程學術移植的後殖民反思。載於國立臺北師範學院課程與教學研究所舉辦之「課程研究與教師」研討會論文集(頁104-117),臺北市。
5. 邱貴芬(1995b)。是後殖民,不是後現代:再談臺灣身分/認同政治。中外文學,23(11),29-46。
6. 林慈淑(2001)。「學歷史」與「歷史學」之間—九年一貫「人與時間」領域規劃的商榷。東吳歷史學報,7,139-172。
7. 林青青(1999)。國民中學「認識臺灣—社會篇」課程之分析:從多元文化教育觀點。公民訓育學報,8,507-552。
8. 李雅婷(2005)。社會轉化與與美感創造—探析社會重建論的課程關懷。課程與教學季刊,8(2),頁41-52。
9. 吳清山(1993)。教育研究本土化的取向。教育研究雙月刊,31,15-21。
10. 吳密察(1997)。歷史教育與鄉土史教育:一個提供討論的意見。當代,120,32-37。
11. 吳俊憲(2005)。鄉土乎?本土乎?全球乎?--理解臺灣本土教育的意涵。教育學誌(原南師初等教育學報),18,93-122。
12. 吳明清(1997)。發展本土化教育特色的概念架構。北縣教育,17,58-62。
13. 吳文星(2000)。「認識臺灣(歷史篇)」對日本殖民統治時期社會變遷之編纂。人文及社會學科教學通訊,10(5),35-43。
14. 朱瑞玲(1994)。臺灣心理學研究之本土化的回顧與展望。載於楊國樞(主編),本土心理學的開展(頁89-119)。臺北市:臺灣大學心理學系本土心理學研究室。
15. 王麗雲(2002)。中文拼音政策的爭議與課程政治取向的反省。教育研究集刊,48(1),95-131。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔