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研究生:蔡培豪
研究生(外文):Tsai,Pei-Hao
論文名稱:受雇者身材與其薪資關係之實證研究
論文名稱(外文):The Relationships between Employees’Physical Appearance and Wages
指導教授:高安邦高安邦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kao,An-Pang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:行政管理碩士學程
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:公共行政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:BMI值人力資本相貌薪資
外文關鍵詞:attractivenessBMIhourly wagehuman capital
相關次數:
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
國外實證研究證實,個人外表與其在勞動市場的表現密切相關,但台灣目前尚無學者從美貌理論的面向,探討身材、相貌與個人薪資水平有無關係。因此,為了初探台灣勞動市場是否存有“平庸懲罰”和“俊美獎勵”的情況,本文以太子汽車工業股份有限公司之員工為研究對象,以BMI值外加相貌等級作為個人外表的觀察指標,檢驗太子汽車工業股份有限公司員工之身材、相貌,與其所獲取的薪資有無關連,期能藉此彌補相關文獻,多從個人特徵及人力資本考量勞動者薪資差異之不足。

本文以最小平方法(OLS),將男性非銷售人員、女性非銷售人員、及銷售人員分別估計。實證結果如下:首先,在男性非銷售人員部分,婚姻、教育與年資對其時薪皆有正面效果;國小以下子女數、年資平方及BMI值肥胖則有負面影響。其中,肥胖者時薪偏低的情況,可能與「雇主歧視」有關。至於男性非銷售人員之相貌則與其薪資無關。

其次,在女性非銷售人員部分,其估計結果與男性非銷售人員有極大的落差,僅有年齡和相貌與其時薪呈正相關;其餘的個人特徵及人力資本變數皆未達顯著水準。

最後在銷售人員部分,婚姻及教育程度與其時薪呈正相關;BMI值過輕對時薪則有不利的影響,此現象可能源自於消費者歧視。至於相貌等級與銷售人員的時薪無關。

部門間時薪比較的結果如下:就男性非銷售人員而言,部門員工平均時薪由高至低分別為總經理室、會計部、稽核室、售後服務本部、資訊部、管理部、國外部、法務部、採購部、塗裝部、營業本部、製造部、品保部、技術部、工務部、財務部及售後服務場。而女性非銷售人員之平均時薪由高至低則分屬國外部、總經理室、售後服務場、工務部、品保部、製造部、塗裝部及技術部。

This study aims to apply the theory of beauty to the labor market in Taiwan and attempts to investigate determinants of the wage difference for the sake of being the supplement to the existing literature related to this research field which primarily consider the gender or human capital factors. This study takes the data form the data bank of Prince Motor Corporation. The total number of sample used in this study is 754 and the empirical employed in this study is OLS Model.

The findings suggest that marital status, education, experience have a positive effect on non-sales men’s hourly wages; number of children under age 12, square of experience, and being overweight, a negative effect. For non-sales women, hourly wages are only significantly and positively affected by age and attractiveness. Compared with non-sales men, significant earnings premium for attractive are found for women. Finally, the sales people who are married and have higher education definitely have higher hourly wages and who are obese oppositely pay a penalty.
第一章、緒論................................................1
第一節、研究動機.............................................1
第二節、研究目的與架構.......................................4

第二章、理論探討與相關文獻回顧................................6
第一節、理論探討.............................................6
第二節、國外相關文獻........................................10
第三節、國內相關文獻........................................17
第四節、本章小結............................................21

第三章、資料分析............................................23
第一節、資料來源與相貌等級的評定..............................23
第二節、基本資料分析........................................25
第三節、本章小結............................................35

第四章、研究設計............................................37
第一節、研究方法與實證模型...................................37
第二節、變數定義............................................42
第三節、研究範圍與研究限制...................................46
第四節、本章小結............................................48

第五章、實證結果與分析......................................50
第一節、異質變異檢定........................................50
第二節、實證結果分析........................................52
第三節、本章小結............................................57

第六章、結論與建議..........................................59
參考文獻 ..................................................63


表次
表1: 國外有關漂亮經濟的文獻整理.............................15
表2: 台灣有關漂亮經濟的文獻整理.............................20
表3: 性別、單位與時薪交互表.................................25
表4: 教育程度與時薪交互表...................................27
表5: 年資與時薪交互表......................................29
表6: 台灣、亞太及歐美地區BMI界定之體型標準...................31
表7: BMI值與時薪交互表.....................................32
表8: 相貌與時薪交互表......................................33
表9: 實證變數說明..........................................45
表10:OLS模型估計結果.......................................53
表11:部門虛擬變數之估計結果.................................56

圖次
圖1: 研究架構圖............................................5
一、中文部分
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李奕君(1993),「教育水準與薪資分配均度之關係-台灣實證研究」,國立政治大學經濟研究所碩士論文。
李承達(2004),「美貌對得票率的影響-以2004年立委選舉為例」,國立台灣大學經濟學研究所碩士論文。
林忠正(1988),「初入勞動市場階段之工資性別差異」,《經濟論文叢刊》,16(3),頁305-322。
林旺福(1991),「間斷性勞動參與率對已婚婦女工資的影響」,國立政治大學經濟研究所碩士論文。
林慧明(1991),「大學法商科畢業生薪資差異的分析」,國立中興大學經濟研究所碩士論文。
周孟熹(1989),「就業市場性別歧視之經濟分析-台灣的實證分析」,私立逢甲大學經濟研究所碩士論文。
苗坤齡(1999),「兩性薪資比較的平等基礎及衡量模式」,《中國統計通訊》,10(5),頁21-29。
吳惠林(1988),「專上人力報酬的決定因素-台灣實證分析」,《經濟論文叢刊》,16(3),頁357-369。
吳惠林、苗坤齡(1990),「台灣專上畢業生初入勞動市場之工資差異」,《當前人力運用問題研討會論文集》,頁147-202,台北:中央經濟研究院。
莊奕琦、李鈞元(2003),「如何衡量人力資本:理論與台灣實證」,《經濟叢刊》,31(1),頁51-85。
許伶蕙(1991),「台灣有偶婦女工資率之研究-人力資本理論之應用」,國立台灣大學經濟研究所碩士論文。
許碧光(1996),「百貨業銷售人員薪資決定因素之研究」,《勞工研究季刊》,122,頁45-73。
黃台心、熊一鳴(1992),「臺灣地區男女全職與兼職工作工資差異之研究」,《台灣銀行季刊》,43(2),頁327-347。
黃同圳(1995),「教育程度、工作年資與性別對薪資決定之交互作用效果分析」,《中山管理評論》,3(4),頁64-75。
曾敏傑(2001),「台灣地區兩性薪資差異與變遷:1982、1992、及2002年的比較」,《人口學刊》,23,頁147-209。
曾敏傑(2002),「人力資本、勞動結構、與薪資決定過程:職業間的比較」,《國立政治大學社會學報》,32,頁75-113。
焦興鎧(1997),「歧視肥胖者在美國所引起之就業歧視爭議」,《美歐季刊》,12,頁69-87。
葉玫君(2003),「肥胖與職業-肥胖女性是否較可能無業?」,私立淡江大學產業經濟學系碩士論文。
劉天賜、蘇曉楓(1995),「工商業男女受雇員工平均薪資差異原因之探討」,《就業與訓練》,13(6),頁77-84。
劉姿君(1993),「教育投資與薪資報酬-人力資本理論之應用」,國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文。
劉錦添、劉錦龍(1987),「台灣地區男女工資率的差異」,《中國經濟學會年會論文集》,頁107-129,台北:中國經濟學會。
劉鶯釧(1989),「台灣地區受雇人員工資的性別歧視」,《經濟論文叢刊》,17(3),頁359-388。
蔡瑞明、林大森(2002),「滾石不生苔?台灣勞力市場中的工作經歷對薪資的影響」,《台灣社會學刊》,29,頁57-95。
薛立敏(1988),「就業市場性別歧視的經濟分析」,《經濟前瞻》,3(2),頁131-132。
譚令蒂(1998),「公、私部門工資性別差異-臺灣之實證研究」,《國家科學委員會研究彙刊:人文及社會科學》,8(2),頁335-348。
鐘谷蘭(1987),「台灣地區工資與就業的性別差異」,國立台灣大學經濟學研究所碩士論文。

二、英文部分
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Adams, G. and J. C. LaVoie (1974), “The Effect of Sex of Child, Conduct, and Facial Attractiveness of Teacher Expectancy,” Education, 95, 76-83.
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Benson P. L., S. A. Karabenick, and R. M. Lerner (1976), “Pretty Pleases: The Effects of Physical Attractiveness, Race, and Sex on Receiving Help,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 409-415.
Blau, F. D. and A. Beller (1992), “Black-White Earnings Over the 1970s and 1980s: Gender Differences and Trends,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 16, 172-201.
Blau, F. D. and L. M. Kahn (1997), “Swimming Upstream: Trends in the Gender Wage Differential in the 1980s,” Journal of Labour Economics, 15, 1-42.
Blau, P. M. and O. D. Duncan (1967), The American Occupational Structure. NY: John Wiley.
Cain, G. (1986), “The Economic Analysis of Labour Market discrimination: A Survey,” in Ashenfelter, O. and R. Layard (eds.), Hanbook of Labour Economics, 693-785. Amsterdam: North Holland.
Dickey-Bryant, L., G. J. Lautenschlager, J. L. Mendoza, and N. Abrahams (1986), “Facial Attractiveness and Its Relation to Occupational Success,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 16-19.
Dion, K. and S. Stein (1978), “Physical Attractiveness and Interpersonal Influence,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 97-108.
Dipboye, R. L., H. L. Fromkin, and K. Wilback (1975), “Relative Importance of Applicant Sex, Attractiveness, and Scholastic Standing in Evaluation of Job Applicant Resumes,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 39-43.
Engemann K. M. and M. T. Owyang (2005), “So Much for That Merit Raise: The Link Between Wages and Appearance,” The Regional Economist, 10-11.
French, M. T. (2002), “Physical Appearance and Earnings: Further Evidence,” Applied Economics, 34, 569-572.
Frieze, I., J. Olson and J. Russell (1991), “Attractiveness and Income for Men and Women in Management,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21(3), 1039-1057.
Gannicott, K. (1986), “Women, Wage, and Discrimination: Some Evidence from Taiwan,” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 34, 721-730.
Gladwell, M. (2005), Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. New York: Little, Brown & Company.
Glass, J. and V. Gamarigg (1992), “Gender, Parenthood, and Job-Family Compatibility,” American Journal of Sociology, 98(1), 131-151.
Greene, W. H. (2003), Econometric Analysis. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hamermesh, D. S. and A. M. Parker (2003), “Beauty in the Classroom: Instructors’ Pulchritude and Putative Pedagogical Productivity,” Working Paper in National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hamermesh, D. S. and J. E. Biddle (1994), “Beauty and the Labor Market,” American Economic Review, 84, 1174-1194.
Hamermesh, D. S. and J. E. Biddle (1998), “Beauty, Productivity, and Discrimination: Lawyers’ Looks and Lucre,” Journal of Labor Economics, 16(1), 172-201.
Harper, B. (2000), “Beauty, Stature and the Labour Market: A British Cohort Study,” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 62(0), 771-800.
Hashimoto, M. and J. Raisian (1985), “Employment Tenure and Earnings Profiles in Japan and the United States,” American Economic Review, 75(4), 721-730.
Hill, R. C., W. E. Griffiths, and G. G. Judge (2001), Undergraduate Econometrics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Hundley, G. (2000), “Male/Females Earnings differences in Self-Employment: the Effects of Marriage, Children, and Household Division of Labour,” Industrial and Labour Relations Review, 54(1), 95-114.
Larkin, J. C. and H. A. Pines (1979), “No Fat Persons Need Apply Experimental Studies of the Over-Weight Stereotype and Hiring Preference,” Work and Occupations, 6, 312-327.
Loh, E. S. (1993), “The Economic Effects of Physical Appearance,” Social Science Quarterly, 74(2), 420-438.
Luft, H. S. (1975), “The Impact of Poor Health on Earnings,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 87, 43-57.
Marshall, J., C. Hazlett, D. Spady and H, Quinney (1990), “Comparison of Indicators of Obesity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 22-28.
Marshall, R. (1974), “The Economics of Racial Discrimination: A Survey,” Journal of Economic Literature, 12, 847-871.
McAllister, I. (1990), “Gender and Household division of Labor,” Work and Occupation, 17(1), 79-99.
Mincer, J. (1958), “Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution,” Journal of Political Economy, 66, 281-302.
Mincer, J. (1974), Schooling Experience, and Earnings. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Morrow, P. C., J. C. McElroy, B. G. Stamper, and M. A. Wilson (1990), “The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Other Demographic Characteristics on Promotion Decisions,” Journal of Management, 16, 723-736.
Neal, D. (1995), “Industry-Specific Human Capital: Evidence from Displaced Workers,” Journal of Labor Economics, 13, 653-677.
Persico, N. , Postlewaite, A. and Silverman, D. (2004), “The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height,” Journal of Political Economy, 112(5), 1019-1053.
Pfann, G. A. , J. E. Biddle, D. S. Hamermesh and C. M. Bosman (2000), “Business Success and Businesses' Beauty Capital,” Economics Letters, 67(2), 201-207.
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三、參考網站
行政院衛生署(2002),「國人肥胖定義及處理原則」,2002/4/15。http://www.doh.gov.tw/newverprog/proclaim/content.asp?class_no=2452&doc_no=10790.
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