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研究生:鄭琮憲
研究生(外文):Cheng, Tsung-hsien
論文名稱:GATS郵政快遞服務貿易相關問題之研究-以分類標準與到達費議題為中心
指導教授:張新平張新平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Shin-pyng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:國際貿易研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:貿易學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:185
中文關鍵詞:郵政服務快遞服務快捷服務分類到達費萬國郵盟
外文關鍵詞:postal servicescourier servicesexpress servicesclassificationterminal duesUniversal Postal Union
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郵政服務與快遞服務均為服務貿易總協定下通訊服務之次部門。相較於電信服務與視聽服務,顯然受到WTO會員較少的關切與注意,整體之承諾程度,相對於電信服務與視聽服務亦較低。然而,隨著全球化的腳步日益加速,郵政與快遞服務促進實體貨件有效率的流通,對整體經濟發展扮演愈來愈重要的角色。因此,隨著服務貿易新回合談判的展開,郵政與快遞服務成便為談判重點項目之一,相關議題亦逐漸浮上台面,廣受會員密切討論。
本文首先介紹郵政快遞服務貿易實務,概述郵政快遞服務之貿易概況、產業特性與貿易障礙。其次,探討GATS架構下郵政快遞服務之相關規範與承諾,並分別就與郵政快遞服務具高度關連性之GATS條文進行解釋,討論其對郵政快遞服務之影響,同時分析WTO會員之現行承諾狀況與回應清單之開放情形。最後,以爭議性較高之分類議題與到達費議題為本文重點,進行深入之分析與討論:分類議題主要係分析現行GATS對郵政與快遞服務分類標準之可能缺失,並提出未來可能之調整方向;到達費議題則主要探討萬國郵盟到達費制度是否違反GATS最惠國待遇原則,並提出未來可能之調和方向。
Postal and courier services are both subsectors in the communication services under the GATS. Compared to telecommunication and audiovisual services, WTO Members apparently paid less attention to the two subsectors. As a result, in general, the level of commitments in the subsectors is relatively low. However, as the pace of globalization accelerates, postal and courier services could improve the efficient flows of physical documents and shipments, and could play a more important roles to the integral economic development. Therefore, at the outset of new round negotiations on trade in services, postal and courier services became the key items of the negotiations, and related issues were also put on the table and dicussed frequently by the Members.
The thesis first introduces the practices of trade in postal and courier services, and summarizes the trade profiles, industrial characteristics, and trade barriers on trade in postal and courier services. Then the thesis discusses the related regulations and commitments of postal and courier services under the GATS framework, explains the related GATS articles for postal and courier services, and clarifies their influence. Besides, the thesis also analyzes Members’ existing commitments and offers. Finally, the thesis focuses on the classification and terminal dues issues: the main point of the former is analyzing existing GATS classification on postal and courier services, and submitting the future adjustment solutions; the main point of the later is examining whether the terminal dues system of the Universal Postal Union is inconsistent with the GATS MFN treatment principle, and submitting the future harmonization solutions.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第一款 研究動機 1
第二款 研究目的 2
第二節 研究範圍與限制 2
第一款 研究範圍 2
第二款 研究限制 3
第三節 研究方法與架構 4
第一款 研究方法 4
第二款 研究架構 4
第二章 郵政快遞服務之貿易實務 7
第一節 郵政快遞服務之概述 7
第一款 郵政服務 8
第二款 快遞服務 12
第二節 郵政快遞服務之特性 17
第一款 郵政服務 17
第二款 快遞服務 22
第三節 郵政快遞服務業之貿易障礙 25
第一款 郵政服務 26
第二款 快遞服務 27
第三章 GATS郵政快遞服務之規範與承諾 33
第一節 郵政快遞服務業相關之GATS規範 33
第一款 服務貿易總協定之簡介 33
第二款 郵政快遞服務適用GATS之疑義 40
第三款 與郵政快遞服務相關之GATS條文 47
第二節 WTO會員之相關承諾範圍 57
第一款 郵政服務 57
第二款 快遞服務 60
第三節 小結 64
第四章 郵政快遞服務之主要爭議問題 67
第一節 WTO會員對於郵政快遞服務自由化之相關建議 67
第一款 分類議題 67
第二款 與萬國郵盟間之關係 75
第三款 競爭議題 77
第二節 GATS架構下郵政快遞服務之分類議題 82
第一款 GATS服務業分類清單與CPC之發展歷程 82
第二款 現行郵政快遞服務分類之潛在缺失 84
第三款 其他國際分類標準與會員相關分類提案之檢討 90
第四款 郵政快遞服務之本質探討 96
第五款 調整方向之建議 100
第三節 最惠國待遇原則與到達費制度之可能衝突與調和 101
第一款 到達費制度之意義與歷史沿革 102
第二款 現行到達費制度與最惠國原則之潛在衝突 104
第三款 到達費制度布加勒斯特大會修正版之檢驗 113
第四款 調和方向之建議 117
第五章 結論與建議 123
第一節 結論 123
第二節 建議 129
參考文獻 133
附錄 143
附錄一 WTO會員郵政服務承諾表 143
附錄二 WTO會員快遞服務承諾表 149
一、 書籍
(一) 中文
1. 中華徵信所,《國際貿易金融大辭典》,增修訂二版。台北,中華徵信所企業股份有限公司出版,民國92年7月。
2. 交通部,《交通政策白皮書—郵政》,初版。交通部出版,民國91年1月。
3. 林淑馨,《鐵路電信郵政三事業民營化—國外經驗與台灣現況》,初版。台北,鼎茂圖書出版有限公司出版,民國92年8月。
4. 張清溪、許嘉棟、劉鶯釧、吳聰敏合著,《經濟學理論與實際》,三版,上冊。台北,翰蘆圖書出版有限公司出版,民國84年8月。
5. 張新平,《世界貿易組織下之服務貿易》,初版。台北,元照出版有限公司出版,民國85年3月。
6. 莊慶達、趙聚誠合著,《經濟名詞釋典》,初版。台北,華泰事業文化股份有限公司出版,民國89年11月。
7. 楊光華,《服務補貼規範必要性之初探》,收錄於「第四屆國際經貿法學發展學術研討會論文集」。台北,國立政治大學商學院國際經貿組織暨法律研究中心,民國93年8月。
8. 羅昌發,《國際貿易法》,初版。台北,元照出版有限公司出版,民國88年7月。

(二) 英文
1. Alverno, Anthony and Allison Levy, the WTO Doha Development Agenda, in COMPETITIVE TRANSFORMATION OF THE POSTAL AND DELIVERY SECTOR (Dordrecht, Kluwer Acadamic Publishers Group, 2004).
2. Carter, Ralph et al., A License to Mail-Balancing the USO and Competitive Services Globally, in COMPETITIVE TRANSFORMATION OF THE POSTAL AND DELIVERY SECTOR (Dordrecht, Kluwer Acadamic Publishers Group, 2004).
3. Harford, Greg and Wendy Eitan, International Postal Arrangement, Trade, and Competition Law, in COMPETITIVE TRANSFORMATION OF THE POSTAL AND DELIVERY SECTOR (Dordrecht, Kluwer Acadamic Publishers Group, 2004).
4. Hill, Charles W. L., the Strategy of International Business, in INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS-COMPETING IN THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE (New York, McGraw-Hill Inc., Int’l 5th ed. 2005).
5. Hoekman, Bernard M. and Michel M. Kostecki, Trade in Services, in THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE WORLD TRADING SYSTEM (New York, Oxford University Press, 2nd ed. 2001).
6. International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments: Structure and Classification, in BALANCE OF PAYMENTS MANUAL (International Monetary Fund, 5th ed. 1993).
7. Luff, David, International Regulation of Postal Services: UPU vs. WTO Rules, in THE LIBERALIZATION OF POSTAL SERVICES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION (Dordrecht, Kluwer Law International, 2002).
8. The New Oxford Dictionary of English (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1998).
9. United States International Trade Commission, Industry Overview and International Trade Flows, in EXPRESS DELIVERY SERVICES: COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS FACING U.S.-BASED FIRMS IN FOREIGN MARKETS (Apr. 2004).

二、 期刊
(一) 中文
1. 莊懿妃、劉崇堅,《論我國郵政體制改革》,經社法制論叢第25期。台北,行政院經濟建設委員會,民國89年1月。
2. 彭心儀,《由美墨電信爭端案論WTO電信服務貿易規範之現在與未來》,清華科技法律與政策論叢第1卷第1期。新竹,國立清華大學科技法律研究所,民國93年10月。

(二) 英文
1. Abu-Akeel, Aly K., the MFN as it Applies to Service Trade-New Problems for an Old Concept, 33 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE (Oct. 1999).
2. Krajewski, Markus, Public Services and Trade Liberalization: Mapping the Legal Framework, JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW (2003).
3. Mukherjee, Neela, Multilateral Negotiations and Trade Barriers in Services Trade-A Case Study of U.S. Shipping Services, 26 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE (Oct. 1992).
4. Nikerson, Jack A. et al., Market Position, Resource Profile, and Governance: Linking Porter and Williamson in the Context of International Courier and Small Package Services in Japan, 22 STRAT. MGMT. J. (March 2001).
5. Perrazzelli, Alessandra and Paolo R. Vergano, Essay: Terminal Dues under the UPU Convention and the GATS: An Overview of the Rules and of Their Compatibility, 23 FORDHAM INT'L L.J. (Mar. 2000).
6. Sokol, D. Daniel, Express Delivery and the Postal Sector in the Context of Public Sector Anti-Competitive Practices, 23 NW. J. INT'L L. & BUS (Winter 2003).

三、 學位論文
1. 洪佳琳,《由安地瓜控告美國禁止線上博奕案-探討服務貿易之部門分類標準》。國立政治大學國際貿易研究所碩士論文,民國93年7月。
2. 陳蒨儀,《我國加入世界貿易組織後法律服務之發展方向與相關問題研究》。國立政治大學法律研究所碩士論文,民國88年6月。
3. 莊懿妃,《考慮競爭之服務別差別定價—以郵政服務為例》。國立成功大學交通管理科學研究所博士論文,民國84年6月。
4. 湯冠群,《台灣國際快遞業之專屬性資訊技術、統治型式與運送績效關係之研究》。銘傳大學管理科學研究所,民國91年6月。
5. 黃桂芬,《探討顧客服務要素應用在國際快遞業作業流程改善之研究》。國立台北大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民國93年6月。
6. 劉美玉,《應收帳款管理制度個案探討-以台灣地區國際快遞業為例》。淡江大學會計研究所在職專班碩士論文,民國92年6月。
7. 劉漢威,《GATS自然人移動之重要議題及我國相關對策分析》。國立政治大學法律研究所碩士論文,民國94年4月。
8. 盧家慧,《郵政事業營運特性、成本結構及規模經濟之探討》。國立成功大學交通管理科學研究所碩士論文,民國83年6月。

四、 國際組織文件
(一) 世界貿易組織
1. A Training Package Module 6 Services: GATS (Dec. 1998).
2. An Introduction to the GATS (Oct. 1999).
3. GATS/EL/88 (Apr. 15, 1994).
4. GATS/SC/13 (Apr. 15, 1994).
5. GATS/SC/16 (Apr. 15, 1994).
6. GATS/SC/24 (Apr. 15, 1994).
7. GATS/SC/27 (Apr. 15, 1994).
8. GATS/SC/39 (Apr. 15, 1994).
9. GATS/SC/44 (Apr. 15, 1994).
10. GATS/SC/56 (Apr. 15, 1994).
11. GATS/SC/71 (Apr. 15, 1994).
12. GATS/SC/75 (Apr. 15, 1994).
13. GATS/SC/76 (Apr. 15, 1994).
14. GATS/SC/88 (Apr. 15, 1994).
15. GATS/SC/90 (Apr. 15, 1994).
16. GATS/SC/96 (Apr. 15, 1994).
17. GATS/SC/104 (Aug. 30, 1995).
18. GATS/SC/109 (Aug. 30, 1995).
19. GATS/SC/118 (Nov. 16, 1995).
20. GATS/SC/120 (Nov. 10, 1995).
21. GATS/SC/126 (Apr. 22, 1999).
22. GATS/SC/128 (Dec. 15, 2000).
23. GATS/SC/130 (Dec. 22, 2000).
24. GATS/SC/132 (Dec. 15, 2000).
25. GATS/SC/134 (Dec. 21, 2001).
26. GATS/SC/135 (Feb. 14, 2002).
27. GATS/SC/136 (Feb. 15, 2002).
28. GATS/SC/138 (Apr. 30, 2004).
29. GATS/SC/139 (Aug. 30, 2004).
30. MTN.GNS/W/120, Service Sectoral Classification List (Jul. 10, 1991).
31. S/L/80, Procedures for the Implementation of Article XXI of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) (Modification of Schedules) (Oct. 29, 1999).
32. S/L/84, Procedures for the Certification of Rectifications or Improvements to Schedules of Specific Commitments (Apr. 18, 2000).
33. S/L/92, Guideline for the Scheduling of Specific Commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) (Mar. 28, 2001).
34. S/C/W/39, Postal and Courier Services (Jun. 12, 1998).
35. S/C/W/50, Health and Social Services (Sep. 18, 1998).
36. S/C/W/74, Telecommunication Service (Dec. 8, 1998).
37. S/C/W/75, Presence of Natural Persons (Mode 4), (Dec. 8, 1998).
38. S/C/W/79, Express Delivery Services (Dec. 8, 1998).
39. S/C/W/99, Structure of Commitments for Mode 1, 2, and 3, (Mar. 3, 1999).
40. S/C/W/180, Proposal for Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation between the WTO and the Univeral Postal Union (Nov. 23, 2000).
41. S/CSC/W/2, Developing in International Services Classification Systems and Implications for Negotiations under the Gneneral Agreement on Tade in Service (Sep. 13, 1996).
42. S/CSC/W/34, Additional Commitments under Article XVIII of the GATS (Jul. 16, 2002).
43. S/CSS/W/26, Express Delivery Services (Dec. 18, 2000).
44. S/CSS/W/61, GATS 2000: Postal/Courier Services (Mar. 23, 2001).
45. S/CSS/W/68, Logistics and Related Services (Mar. 28, 2001).
46. S/CSS/W/73, GATS 2000: Postal/Courier Services (May 4, 2001).
47. S/CSS/W/108, Postal Services (Sep. 26, 2001).
48. S/CSS/W/115, Negotiating Proposal for Postal/Courier Services (Nov. 6, 2001).
49. S/GBT/4, Report from the Group on Basic Telecommunications (Feb. 15, 1997).
50. Special study No. 6-Market Access: Unfinished Business - Post Uruguay Round Inventor (Apr. 2001).
51. TN/S/O/ARE (Jul. 4, 2005).
52. TN/S/O/BHR (Apr. 29, 2003).
53. TN/S/O/BHR/Rev.1 (Jun. 2, 2005).
54. TN/S/O/CAN (Apr. 4, 2003).
55. TN/S/O/CHE (Apr. 11, 2003).
56. TN/S/O/CHN (Sep. 15, 2003).
57. TN/S/O/EEC (Jun. 10, 2003).
58. TN/S/O/EEC/Rev.1 (Jun. 29, 2005).
59. TN/S/O/HKG (Apr. 23, 2003).
60. TN/S/O/JOR (Oct. 14, 2004).
61. TN/S/O/JPN (Arp. 7, 2003).
62. TN/S/O/JPN/Rev.1 (Jun. 24, 2005).
63. TN/S/O/KOR (Mar. 31, 2003).
64. TN/S/O/NZL (Mar. 31, 2003).
65. TN/S/O/QAT (Jul. 7, 2005).
66. TN/S/O/SVK (Aug. 21, 2003).
67. TN/S/O/URY (Apr. 4, 2003).
68. TN/S/O/USA (Apr. 9, 2003).
69. TN/S/O/USA/Rev.1 (Jun. 28, 2005).
70. TN/S/W/26, Postal/Courier: Proposal for a Reference Paper (Jan. 17, 2005).
71. TN/S/W/30, Guidelines for Scheduling Commitments Concerning Postal and Courier Services, Including Express Delivery (Feb. 15, 2005).
72. Understanding the WTO (3rd ed. Aug. 2003).
73. WT/COMTD/W/77, Implementation of Special and Differential Treatment Provisions in WTO Agreements and Decision (Oct. 20, 2000).
74. WT/DS8/R , WT/DS10/R, WT/DS11/R, Japan - Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, Report of the Panel (Jul. 11, 1996).
75. WT/DS27/AB/R, European Communities – Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas, Appellate Body Report, (Sep. 9, 1997).
76. WT/DS204/R, Mexico – Measures Affecting Telecommunications Services, Report of the Panel (Apr. 2, 2004).
77. WT/L/304, Preferential Tariff Treatment for Least-Developed Countries, Decision on Waiver (Jun. 17, 1999).
78. WT/WGTCP/W/114, the Fundamental WTO Principles of National Treatment, Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment and Transparency (Apr. 14, 1999).

(二) 萬國郵盟
1. Alverno, Anthony, A Brief Analysis of GATS and its Implications for Measures Related to Extraterritorial Offices of Exchange, Submission for the Management of the Work of the Union Working Group on Extraterritorial Offices of Exchange (2003).
2. Alverno, Anthony, Postal Administrations and GATS: Implications for 2002 and Beyond, Submission for Workshop on Postal Regulation and Universal Postal Service, Nairobi, Kenya (Jul 24-26, 2002).
3. Amendments to the UPU Acts and Major Decisions Taken by the 23rd UPU Congress (2004).
4. Ascher, Bernard, Classification of Express Delivery Services, Presentation Prepared for “The Classification Debate” (Oct. 23, 2002).
5. Background Note on Terminal Dues for the World Trade Organization (Mar. 4, 2001).
6. CA 2000-Doc 15.Annex 2 (May 9, 2000).
7. CA 2001-Doc 18 (Sep. 7, 2001).
8. CA 2002-Doc 16 (Nov. 1, 2002).
9. CA EP REL OMC 2003-Doc 2 (Oct. 21, 2003).
10. CA GC 2003.2-Doc 3b, Contribution to the Preparation of the Bucharest World Postal Strategy from Private Sector Members & UPU Advisory Group (Sep. 24, 2003).
11. CEP GAFT 2002.1-Doc 11 (Apr. 2, 2002).
12. Congr�嫳-Doc 72.Add 1.Annexe 1 (May 4, 1999).
13. CS Pres 2002 Doc 15, A New Post in a New Market, Contribution by Mr. Julian Oliver (Oct. 21, 2002).
14. CS Pres 2002 Doc 44, WTO Initiatives on Postal Sector Liberalization, Contribution by Mr. Abdel-Hamid Mamdouh (Oct. 21, 2002).
15. Module I Foundation of Reform, in GUIDE TO POSTAL REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT (Oct. 2004).
16. Postal Market 2004-Review and Outlook (Sep. 2004).
17. Resolution C 9/1999, International Law in the Field of Trade in Services, WTO-UPU Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation (1999).
18. Resolution C 44/2004, Extraterritorial Offices of Exchange (ETOEs) (2004).
19. Sinclair, Scott, the GATS Implication for Postal Services, Remarks Prepared for Universal Postal Union Seminar “Mind the GATS: Defining UPU Developing Country Interests in GATS Negotiations” (Apr. 9, 2002).
20. Study of the Various Proposals Concerning the Classification of Postal Services and Courier Services Submitted to the World Trade Oraganization (WTO) (May 4, 2005).

(三) 聯合國及其附屬機構
1. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/86, Manaul on Statisticas of International Trade in Services (2002).
2. UNCTAD/EDM/Misc.232/Add.31, Dispute Settlement-World Trade Organization 3.13 GATS (2003).

(四) 經濟合作暨發展組織
DAFFE/CLP(99)22, Promoting Competition in Postal Services (Oct.1, 1999).

(五) 歐洲聯盟
1. Commission of the European Coomunities, Communication from the Commission to the Council-The Universal Postal Union Congress 2004 (May 27, 2004).
2. Le Comit�� Europ�縹n de R�縵ulaton Postale (CERP), A Discussion Paper on “Postal Service” Definitions, Report from the CERP WG RI Project Team “Definitions” (Apr. 2002).
3. T.M.C Asser Instituut, the Study of the Relationship between the Constitution, Rules and Practice of the Universal Postal Union, the WTO Rules (In Particular the GATS), and the European Community Law (Jun. 30, 2004).
(六) 歐洲快捷協會
1. EEA Draft Position Paper Postal Liveralization (Dec. 2001).
2. EEA Position Paper on GATS: Classification of Postal and Express Delivery Servcies & Introducing Competitive Safeguard (Jun. 13, 2005).
3. Market Access Barriers by Country Analysis (Mar. 24, 2003).
4. Special Services: The Key to Postal Innovation (May 21, 2001).

五、 參考網站
1. 中華郵政全球資訊網:www.post.gov.tw
2. 中華經濟研究院台灣WTO中心:www.wtocenter.org.tw
3. 自由時報電子新聞網:www.libertytimes.com.tw
4. 國立政治大學國際經貿組織暨法律研究中心:www.tradelaw.nccu.edu.tw
5. 經濟部國貿局:cweb.trade.gov.tw
6. Center for International Environmental Law: www.ciel.org
7. DHL:www.dhl.com.tw
8. European Express Association: www.euroexpress.org
9. European Services Forum: www.esf.be
10. European Union: europa.eu.int
11. Express Delivery & Logistics Association: www.aircour.org
12. Federal Express: www.fedex.com
13. International Monetary Fund: www.imf.org
14. Le Comit�� Europ�縹n de R�縵ulaton Postale: www.cept-cerp.org
15. LexisNexis: web.lexis-nexis.com/universe
16. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: www.oecd.org
17. PostEurop: www.posteurop.org
18. Post Insight: www.postinsight.pb.com
19. TNT: www.tnt.com
20. United Nations: www.un.org
21. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: www.unctad.org
22. United Nations Development Programme: www.undp.org
23. United Nations Statistics Division: unstats.un.org/unsd/default.htm
24. United Parcel Service:www.ups.com
25. United States Coalition of Service Industries: www.uscsi.org
26. United States Department of State: www.state.gov
27. United States International Trade Commission: www.usitc.gov
28. United States Postal Service: www.usps.gov
29. United States Trade Representative:www.ustr.gov
30. Universal Postal Union: www.upu.int
31. World Customs Organizations: www.wcoomd.org
32. World Trade Organization: www.wto.org

六、 其他
1. Appleton and Associates, Notice of Intent to Submit A Claim to Arbitration under Section B of Chapter 11 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (Jan. 19, 2000).
2. Battelle Science & Technology International, Final Report Joint Study on Article 43 Prepared for the United States Postal Service, the United States Department of State, and the Postal Rate Commission (May 9, 2002).
3. Datamonitor Plc., European Express Benchmark 2004-Europe’s Leading Express and Parcel Providers (Mar. 2005).
4. Krajewski, Markus, Public Services and the Scope of the General Agreements on Trade in Services (GATS), Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL), at 11 (May 2001).
5. Leong, Joy M. et al., ETOEs-Arbitrageurs or Vehicles of Change in Postal Liberalization? (2004).
6. Oxford Economic Forecasting, the Economic Impact of Express Carriers in Europe (Oct. 2004).
7. Sinclair, Scott, the GATS and Canadian Postal Services (Mar. 2001).
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