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研究生:黎遠駿
研究生(外文):Li,Francis
論文名稱:市場進入策略與營運策略之動態性研究-以資訊軟體產業為例
論文名稱(外文):Foreign Market Entry Strategies & Dynamics of Operation Strategies-The Case of Firms in the Software Industry
指導教授:于卓民于卓民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu,Chwo-Ming
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:經營管理碩士學程
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:186
中文關鍵詞:海外市場進入策略營運策略資訊軟體動態性
外文關鍵詞:Foreign MarketEntry StrategiesOperation StrategiesSoftware IndustryDynamics
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隨著全球經濟和社會發展需求的變化,資訊產業的全球性結構調整日益明顯,由硬體主導型的發展轉為向軟體和服務主導型發展。經濟全球化為我國軟體產業發展提供了難得的機遇,我國軟體產業要積極參與國際分工,就必須走向世界,但是在走向世界的同時,也必須仔細思考什麼才是自己國際化的目的、自己企業內部的核心資源是什麼、做好自己的國際化策略或戰略的準備嗎?也因此在國際化動作中,如何選擇正確的海外市場進入策略就顯得格外重要,要採用怎樣的進入策略與企業核心資源、國際化策略、企業服務內容與產品等等之間的關係與互動已不是單純不變的環結,而是隨著市場變動不停變化的,也因此動態性調整就成為一個很重要的課題。
在眼前的日常生活當中,什麼事情已經都脫離不開資訊。也因此作為資訊產業核心的軟體及資訊服務產業,已成為新世紀全球的第一大產業。IDC 在2005年9月的研究報告中顯示全球資訊服務產業在 2003年產值已高達6410億美元,爾後年平均成長率一直保持在 5-9% 之間,可以說是一片欣欣向榮的氣象,到去年 2005年整個產值達到 7400億美元,預期到 2009 年,整個資訊服務產值將到 9250億美元,這也意味著繼工業大革命後的另一個新經濟時代的到來。
在整個產業成長中,又以亞太地區成長最大,從 2003-2009 CGAR 達 9.7%,遠超過全球平均 CGAR 6%。我國因具備良好資訊基礎設施、具備與華人相同語言、文化背景、接近並熟悉亞太市場、充裕資金與高階經營人才、與西方的技術合作經驗、豐富的 PC 軟硬體整合經驗等。充分顯示台灣軟體產業在競爭的市場環境中比起歐美資訊大廠已率先佔據極佳位置。
因此本研究就以進入策略的學術理論做為基礎,再結合個案公司實務上軟體業海外發展經驗,整合一套適於軟體產業的海外市場進入策略供企業參考。以研究結論來看,資訊軟體業因為產品與服務的特性關係,較易偏向採用較高承諾度的資源投入方式,將營業拓展至海外市場;除此之外,在地化的深耕發展也是必需要走的一條路,而且因為隨著地主國市場的投入,對地主國市場的熟悉度也會漸漸增加,也因此會在地主國市場進行一系列動態性的營運策略調整。這裡所謂的營運策略,不僅僅只是產品策略或市場策略,甚至整個市場的進入策略也會隨之調整,譬如說由獨資的進入策略轉變為合資的模式。
As today’s global economic and social development needs continue to change,the Information industry’s global economic requirement change has gradually become more obvious;shifting from a hardware-driven type of development,to software and service-lead development。Economic globalization has brought along excellent opportunities to the development of our national software industries;to actively participate one’s software industry in the international division of labor,one will have to proceed toward the outer world;meanwhile,one must also carefully consider the purpose of one’s internationalization,the core resources of one’s inner enterprise,and whether one is prepared with a proper internationalization strategy。Consequently, knowing how to correctly select suitable foreign markets and entry strategies to be incorporated into the strategy is exceptionally critical in the process of internationalization,and in addition to that,the decision as to how the foreign markets should enter into the strategy,the enterprise’s core competence,internationalized strategy,the service content and product of the enterprise and etc. ,the relationship and interactivity between the each are no longer simple and invariable connections;instead,they are now constantly varied in accordance with the market change,and as a result, dynamic adjustment has became a very important topic today。
In today’s society,our everyday lives have become inseparable from the information technology;therefore,as being the core of information industries,software and information service have become one of the worlds top main industries of the new century。In August,2005,research from IDC have shown,that the global information service industries’ industrial output value in 2003 has increased up to 6410 billion USD;from then on,the output value has successfully maintained an annual average rate of 5-9%。Apparently,that was the sign of a long-term prosperity,as last year (2005) the output value has boosted up to 7400 billion USD。Predictions have been made that the value will continue to rise dramatically in the years to come,and in 2009,the output value for information service industries will reach a height of 9250 billion USD;this also meant the arrival of the age of new economics after the industrial revolution。
Within the whole industrial development in general,the Asia Pacific area stand to have the most rapid growth,with a CGAR rate of 9.7% from the year 2003-2009,which highly exceeded the world average rate of the CGAR of 6%。The reason for our outstanding industrial development is basically due to our possession of a good information infrastructure,similarity of the language and cultural background in Asia, familiarity toward the Asia Pacific market,abundant funds and talented individuals with high management skills,and our rich background experiences with the western technical collaboration,PC hardware and software integrations and etc。These qualities all demonstrated that apparently,in today’s competitive market,Taiwan software industries have already exceeded many of Europe and America’s top information manufacturers。
The following study will use the academic theories for the process of foreign market entry strategies as the fundamental base,and on top of that,the practical aspect based on personal experiences of software industry’s foreign market developments;these will be combined into a set that is applicable to software industries for the foreign market entry strategies,suitable for enterprises’ reference。
謝 辭.................................................. I
論文摘要............................................... II
目 錄.................................................. VI
圖目錄................................................VIII
表目錄.................................................. X
第一章 緒論.............................................. 1
第一節 研究背景........................................... 1
第二節 研究動機........................................... 4
第三節 研究問題與目的...................................... 8
第四節 研究範圍與對象...................................... 9
第五節 研究流程與章節簡介...................................13
第二章 文獻探討........................................... 18
第一節 國際市場進入策略相關文獻探討...........................19
第二節 核心資源相關文獻探討..................................50
第三章 研究方法........................................... 65
第一節 研究架構........................................... 65
第二節 研究方法........................................... 67
第四章 個案描述........................................... 71
第一節 鼎新電腦個案分析.................................... 72
第二節 加拿大康威科技個案分析............................... 98
第三節 中國用友軟件個案分析.................................110
第五章 綜合討論與分析..................................... 131
第一節 個案公司綜合討論................................... 131
第二節 研究發現.......................................... 137
第六章 結論.............................................. 155
第一節 研究結論.......................................... 155
第二節 業者建議.......................................... 162
第三節 後續研究建議....................................... 169
參考文獻................................................ 171
壹、中文部分..............................................171
貳、英文部分..............................................172
附件.................................................... 177
附件一 訪談內容.......................................... 177
附件二 鼎新電腦產品進一步資訊.............................. 180
附件三 用友軟件產品進一步資訊.............................. 183
圖目錄
圖 1-1-1 全球軟體市場規模與預測.............................. 2
圖 1-1-2 全球軟體市場規模與預測(以區域區分)................... 3
圖 1-2-1 中國大陸軟體市場 2004–2009 預測.................... 5
圖 1-2-2 2003-2007 我國資訊軟體市場規模(NT$M).............. 6
圖 1-5-1 研究流程圖....................................... 13
圖 2-1-1 漸進式國際化階段圖................................ 30
圖 2-1-2 國際化動態模型圖.................................. 35
圖 2-1-3 國際化階段模式與改變形式關聯圖...................... 36
圖 2-1-4 Anderson & Gatignon 進入模式決策架構圖............ 44
圖 2-1-5 影響進入模式選擇因素關聯圖......................... 48
圖 2-2-1 資源基礎理論的資源模式架構圖....................... 51
圖 2-2-2 持續競爭優勢架構圖................................ 51
圖 2-2-3 資源與策略轉換架構圖.............................. 52
圖 2-2-4 競爭力範圍圖..................................... 61
圖 3-1-1 軟體企業進入海外市場研究架構圖...................... 65
圖 3-2-1 研究方法的組成元素圖.............................. 67
圖 4-1-1 神州數碼管理系統有限公司組織結構圖.................. 73
圖 4-1-2 鼎新電腦短中期營運策略圖........................... 78
圖 4-1-3 鼎新電腦量化複製說明圖............................. 79
圖 4-1-4 鼎新電腦營業擴張圖................................ 80
圖 4-1-5 鼎新電腦產品建構藍圖.............................. 81
圖 4-1-6 鼎新電腦營運機制孕成圖............................. 82
圖 4-1-7 鼎新電腦人力專業分佈圖............................. 83
圖 4-1-8 鼎新電腦國際化發展策略圖........................... 84
圖 4-1-9 鼎新電腦國際市場經營策略圖......................... 91
圖 4-1-10 鼎新電腦國際化產品與市場策略圖..................... 93
圖 4-1-11 鼎新電腦產品策略孕成圖............................ 94
圖 4-1-12 鼎新電腦中國大陸產品與市場策略圖................... 95
圖 4-1-13 鼎新電腦國際化過程核心資源移轉圖................... 96
圖 4-2-1 康威 Elite32 軟體運作平台 SmartPOS 系統........... 100
圖 4-2-2 康威掌上型無線點菜系統............................ 100
圖 4-2-3 康威整合式餐飲管理系統架構圖...................... 101
圖 4-2-4 康威 Elite32 餐廳管理系統管理畫面範例圖............ 103
圖 4-2-5 康威科技與台灣飛雅高科技策略合作模式圖............. 107
圖 4-3-1 用友軟件 UFware 架構圖........................... 127
圖 6-1-1 地主國環境與國際市場進入模式關係圖................. 156
圖 6-1-2 企業特性與國際市場進入模式關係圖................... 158
圖 6-1-3 企業全球營運資源管理圖............................ 164
圖 6-1-4 企業國際化導入的四步曲圖.......................... 165
圖 A-2-1 鼎新電腦產品系列圖............................... 180
圖 A-2-2 鼎新電腦完整產業e化(ERPII)解決方案圖.............. 181
圖 A-2-3 鼎新電腦企業內外部解決方案圖...................... 182
圖 A-3-1 用友 ERP/NC 整體架構圖........................... 184
圖 A-3-2 用友 ERP/NC 解決方案圖........................... 185
圖 A-3-3 用友 ERP/U8 應用架構圖........................... 185

表目錄
表 1-1-1 2002-2008 年全球軟體出貨表........................ 2
表 1-2-1 台灣資訊軟體 2008 年目標........................... 7
表 1-4-1 台灣軟體產業分類及代表公司......................... 11
表 1-5-1 個案研究主要資料來源優缺點比較表.................... 14
表 2-1-1 國際市場進入動機與目的彙總表....................... 22
表 2-1-2 漸近式國際化理論彙整表............................. 30
表 2-1-3 跳躍式國際化理論彙整表............................. 33
表 2-1-4 完全控制與分享控制進入模式特性表.................... 40
表 2-1-5 相關影響市場進入模式選擇因素研究彙整表............... 42
表 2-1-6 海外進入模式決策架構學派彙整比較表.................. 47
表 2-2-1 相關資源類型之國內外研究彙整表...................... 54
表 3-2-1 不同研究方法要素表................................ 68
表 3-2-2 個案研究方法設計.................................. 69
表 4-1-1 鼎新電腦公司發展沿革表............................. 74
表 4-1-2 鼎新電腦產品及服務項目一覽表....................... 76
表 5-1-1 個案公司背景比較表............................... 131
表 5-1-2 個案公司主要產品比較表............................ 132
表 5-1-3 個案公司營運策略比較表............................ 133
表 5-1-4 個案公司核心資源比較表............................ 133
表 5-1-5 個案公司國際化策略比較表.......................... 134
表 5-1-6 個案公司核心資源與國際化關係比較表................. 136
表 5-1-7 個案公司營運策略動態性調整比較表................... 136
一、 中文部分
IDC,「全球軟體市場規模及預測」,2005年4月19號。
IDC,「中國軟體市場2005-2009年預測與分析」,2005 年。
IDC,「國際數據資訊」,2004年11月29號。
于卓民 (2000) ,國際企業環境與管理,台北:華泰文化事業。
于卓民, 曾浩岳(1997),「台灣廠商出口活動之研究-國際化階段及其影響因素」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
王凱 (2005),「資訊軟體發展現況與趨勢」,台北:資策會資訊市場情報中心。
方至民 (2000), 企業競爭優勢,台北: 前程企管。
司徒達賢 (1995),「資源基礎理論與企業競爭優勢關係之探討」,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計劃成果報告。
艾瑞市場咨詢(iResearch)(2005),「2004年中國網路安全研究報告」。
全球高科技產業研究資料庫 (2001),我國軟體產業環境概論,台北:資策會資訊市場情報中心與工研院電子所聯合出版。
李宗原 (2002),「服務業海外市場進入模式選擇之研究~以台商投資大陸之實證分析」。銘傳大學國際企業學系碩士論文。
李蘭甫(民83),國際企業論,台北:三民書局。
何華倫(2002),「大陸台商資源組合類型對經營績效之影響— 進入策略與組織能力之干擾效應」,大葉大學國際企業管理學系碩士論文。
吳青松(1999),國際企業管理-理論與實務,台北:智勝文化事業。
吳思華 (2000), 策略九說: 策略思考的本質,台北:臉譜。
吳讚庭(2003),「交易成本、制度環境、國際化經驗』對海外進入模式與經營績效之影響-台商赴海外投資之實證研究」。元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。
周書正 (2002) ,「資源基礎觀點探討台商歐洲子公司之經營-以宏碁法國公司為例」,國立中山大學企業管理學系碩士論文。
周意智,「中小企業國際化及多角化歷程與人力資源策略分析- 以台灣保長企業為例」,國立雲林科技大學企業管理系碩士論文。
姚子龍 (2003),「台商進入中國大陸市場時機與模式之研究-以台商食品業為例」,中原大學企業管理學系碩士論文
張東隆 & Philips D. Grub (1991),「台灣資訊業廠商國際化競爭策略之探討」,台灣經濟金融月刊,第27卷,第11期,頁 34-44。
張峻源譯,Cateora and Graham 原著(民88),國際行銷學,台北:西書出版社。
鼎新電腦公司 「93年年報」
葉郁芬(1993),「台灣廠商在東協五國之市場進入策略與國際化過程之研究」,國立政治大學國際貿易研究所碩士論文。

二、 英文部分
Anderson, E. & Gatignon, H. (1986), “Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions”, Journal of International Business Studies, 17(Fall), pp. 1-26.
Atherton, A. and Sear, L. (1997), “Working within the Global Economy: Insights into the Internationalisation Process in the North East England”, Paper presented to the 27th efmd European Small Business Seminar, Rhodes.
Aulakh, Preet S. and Masaaki Kotabe (1997), “Antecedents and Performance Implications of Channel Integration in Foreign Markets”, Journal of International Business Studies 28 (1), pp. 145 - 175.
Barkema H.G. & Vermeulen, F. (1998), “International Expansion through start-up or acquisition: A learning Perspective”, Academy of Management Journal 41, pp. 7-26.
Barney, J. (1991), “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage”, Journal of Management (March), pp. 99-120.
Bartlett, Christopher & Sumantra Ghoshal (1987), “Tap your subsidiaries for global reach”, Harvard Business Review, 64(6), pp. 87-94.
Bartlett & Sumantra Ghoshal. (1991), Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.
Bilkey, Tesar G. (1977), “The export behavior of smaller Wisconsin manufacturing firms”, Journal of International Business Studies, 9, pp. 93-98.
Birkinshaw, J. M. and N. Hood (1998), “Multinational subsidiary development: Capability evolution and charter change in foreign-owned subsidiary companies”, Academy of Management Review 23, pp. 773-795.
Bridoux, Flore, (2004), “A Resource-based Approach to Performance and Competition: An Overview of the Connections between Resources and Competition”, IAG Working Paper, pp. 8.
Brooke, Michael Z. (1986), International Management: A Review of Strategies and Operations, London: Hutchinson.
Buckley, P. J., Newbould, G.D., & Thurwell, J. (1979), “Going international—the foreign direct investment behavior of small UK firms”, Proceedings of Annual Meeting of European International Business Association, Uppsala, Sweden, December, pp. 72-87.
Cavusgil, S. T.(1980), “On the Internationalization Process of Firms”, European Research, 8, pp. 273-281.
Chadwick,M. & Vandermerwe,S. (1989),“The Internationalization of Services”, The Service Industries Journal, pp. 79-93.
Chang S-J.& Rosenzweig PM. (2001), “The choice of entry mode in sequential foreign direct investment”, Strategic Management Journal, 22, pp. 747-776.
Chatterjee, S.& Wernerfelt B. (1991), “The link between resources and type of diversification: theory and evidence”, Strategic Management Journal 12, pp. 33-48.
Chung, Henry. F. L. & Enderwick, Peter (2001), “An Investigation of Market Entry Strategy Selection: Export vs. Foreign Direct Investment Modes: A home-host Country Scenario”, Asia Pacific Journal of Management 18 (4), pp. 443 - 460.
Clark, Timothy & Derek S. Pugh (2001), “Foreign Country Priorities in the Internationalization Process: a Measure and an Exploratory Test on British Firms”, International Business Review 10, pp. 285-303.
Conner, K., & Prahalad, C., (1996), “A resource-based theory of the firm: Knowledge versus opportunism”, Organization Science, 7(5), pp. 477-501.
Contractor,F.J. & Kundu,S.K. (1998),“Model Choice in a World of Alliances: Analyzing Organization Forms in the International Hotels Sector”, Journal of International Business Studies, 29(2), pp. 325-358.
Cuervo-Cazurra Alvaro & Miguel Ramos, (2002), “A Resource-Based Teleological Analysis Of The Internationalization Process”, pp. 6-11.
Cyert R, March J. (1963), A behavioral theory of the firm, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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