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研究生:劉靜茹
研究生(外文):Ching-ju Liu
論文名稱:從拉岡讀小川樂《歐巴桑》中的歷史及創傷經驗
論文名稱(外文):History and Trauma: A Lacanian Reading of Joy Kogawa’s Obasan
指導教授:陳淑卿陳淑卿引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:歷史創傷經驗族裔沉默主體性拉岡真實界
外文關鍵詞:historytraumainternment experiencesilencesubjectivityLacanthe Real
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小川樂的《歐巴桑》描寫日裔加拿大人在二次世界大戰後的創傷經驗。由於歷史創傷與個人創傷經驗是密不可分、息息相關的。因此,我主要應用拉岡心理分析的架構去談論歷史創傷是如何透過孩童之身及眼來被體驗及觀看,並且探討小說中的主人翁娜歐蜜(Naomi),在當時年幼無知時,遭受到性騷擾與種族主義的迫害,面對母親的消失、空間及地方的不斷變遷、流離失所與親人的來去無蹤的情況之下,所造成的主體形成困難。娜歐蜜及其大部分的族人在面對痛苦創傷經驗時,都選擇了沈默以及遺忘。我借用卡如絲(Cathy Caruth)的理論來論述創傷從沈默亦或夢境中發聲的可能性。在一連串的創傷經驗開始時,娜歐蜜僅是一個四歲的小女孩,在無法了解更別提處理突如其來的震驚及恐怖的狀況下,她似乎童言童語將所遭受到的苦難用日常最熟悉的語言—童話故事來呈現。這些變調的童話故事中,有的是一種夢幻結構(fantasy structure)來幫助娜歐蜜在一切的不堪痛苦中想像一個美好的世界, 用以支撐主體使其不至於崩潰。然而,有些童話卻清楚的呈現了一種弔詭的壓抑的重返(the return of the repressed),在娜歐蜜的身上縈繞不退(haunting)。此篇論文目的在探討娜歐蜜的童年創傷如何影響其主體性的形成,以及在童年時期中,沈默、夢境和童話想像如何用以支撐主體使其不至於崩潰。
Joy Kogawa’s postwar novel Obasan, concerning the traumatic experiences, has been widely discussed from the perspectives of history, memory and trauma. I will probe into the issue of trauma, both collective and personal ones, and its aftermath on the protagonist Naomi since her childhood. I employ Lacan’s concept of subject formation and its relation to trauma especially when a catastrophic incident occurs ghastly enough to shatter one’s subjectivity along with the notion of jouissance to exemplify Naomi’s case. Naomi’s mother’s disappearance, the enforced “mobility” to different detainment camps, the sudden vanishment of family members, and the sexual/racial harassment that plague on her during those harsh years certainly have caused her the difficulty in identification and subjectivity formation. Not only Naomi but also most Japanese Canadians bury themselves deep in amnesia and silence in confrontation with the unbearable traumatic experience. I apply Cathy Caruth’s view of trauma to argue that trauma still cries out to be heard through silence and compulsive repetitions. Being young, Naomi is incapable of dealing with the incomprehensible horrors and shock; however, trauma can be detected not only from her silence but also the recurring nightmares and the fairy tales she recalls. Naomi’s world seems to be composed of fairy tale plots that she envisions. Some of the fairy tales serve as a fantasy structure for Naomi to imagine a better world; however, the other fairy tales distinctly reveal the haunting of the return of the repressed. This thesis aims to investigate into how Naomi’s childhood traumas have influenced her throughout her life, and how she manages to survive the catastrophes as a whole.
Table of Contents

Acknowledgement--------------------------------------i
English Abstract-------------------------------------ii
Chinese Abstract-------------------------------------iii
Table of Contents------------------------------------iv
Introduction-----------------------------------------1
Chapter One: Trauma Theories ------------------------9
I. The Imaginary, the Symbolic and the Real----------10
II. The Real and the sinthome------------------------12
III. The Real and Trauma-----------------------------17
Chapter Two: Silence, Trauma, and History------------25
I. History and Representation------------------------26
II. The Multiple Functions of Silence----------------31
Chapter Three: Childhood Trauma and Subject Formation--
-----------------------------------------------------43
I. A Doomed Fragmented Subjectivity------------------44
II. The Haunting of Dreams and the Uncanny Employment
of Fairy Tales---------------------------------------53
Conclusion-------------------------------------------70
Works Cited------------------------------------------76
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