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研究生:陳彥合
研究生(外文):Yan-Ho Chen
論文名稱:矮小基因對於雞之肌肉發育與肉質的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Sex-Linked Dwarf Gene on Muscle Growth and Meat Quality of Chickens
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:矮小基因肌肉生長肉質
外文關鍵詞:dwarf genemuscle growthmeat quality
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長期選拔體重較高之雞隻一直是育種公司改進肉雞生產效率最常使用的方法,雖然肉用雞的體型和生產效率越來越大,但也造成繁殖性能低下,同時緊迫的敏感性相對越高,也間接對肉質有不良的影響。目前已知矮小基因能讓肉用雞隻體型減小30~40%,且能增加產蛋等繁殖性能,然而矮小基因對於肉質的影響的了解甚少,為了解兩者間肌肉生長的差異,以及探討矮小基因對於肉質是否有改進的效益,因此研究矮小雞隻的肌肉發育情形和肉質特性實屬重要。因此本試驗旨在研究同一品系中,矮小和正常雞隻在不同週齡下的肌肉發育,以及藉由測量pH值、色澤、一般化學分析、肉汁流失率、蒸煮失重、截切值分析等方法來探討矮小基因對於肉質是否有改進的效益。

以法國農業科學院選拔產蛋週期長度品系之性聯遺傳矮小公雞(dw/dw)配種國立中興大學育成土雞L2品系母雞(Dw+/-),所得子代公雞(F1,Dw+/dw)進行回交L2品系母雞,繁殖F2世代母雞作為本試驗使用雞隻,在試驗使用F2世代母雞中,正常和矮小雞隻分別為251和207隻。體重和腳脛長度從出生後至20週齡每2週測量一次。肌纖維性狀從出生後至20週齡每4週測量一次。屠體性狀4至20週齡每4週測量一次。肉質特性則是在16和20週齡測定。

在矮小和正常雞隻生長性狀方面,矮小基因對體重的影響在2週齡後就達到極顯著的情形,其體重差異程度在10和20週齡分別達到30%和37.4%。而矮小基因對腳脛長度的影響同樣在2週齡後就達到極顯著的情形,但差異程度並未如體重般之高,在10和20週齡分別達到19.4%和21.7%。矮小基因對於肌纖維的影響在12週齡後開始有極顯著的情形,然而肌纖維數目則無顯著差異。

在屠體性狀方面,矮小雞隻屠宰率、腿部、腳部百分比會有較低的情形,而羽毛重、頭頸部、翅部、肌胃、肝臟百分比(16週齡前)會有較高的情形,至於血重、背部、胸部、心臟、腹脂百分比的差異性則不顯著,矮小基因在8週齡以前似乎對於骨骼發育的影響較大,而對於肌肉發育的影響主要發生在8~12週齡之間。

在比較矮小和正常雞隻的肉質特性後,可以發現矮小雞隻胸肉色澤a*值和b*值會較高,顯現出較紅、較黃的色澤,且若在週齡較早或是未性成熟時屠宰則矮小雞隻肉汁流失率會較高,而烹煮後矮小雞隻的胸肉和腿肉失重程度會較大,肉塊硬度方面則無顯著差異。而pH值變化情形並無顯著差異,矮小雞隻肉塊水分較多,蛋白、脂肪含量較低,灰分有稍高的情形。
Selection for heavy body weight was the method employed by the broiler breeding companies to improve the production efficiency of chickens. Although the body size and the production efficiency were improved, it also resulted in a lower reproductive performance. Furthermore, the bird became more susceptible to stress, which would be harmful to the meat quality. It is well known that the sex-linked dwarf gene can reduce the body size of chicken by 30-40%. It is widely used by the broiler breeder to reduce the body size and thus, to improve the reproduction of normal broiler chicks. However nobody have study whether the sex-linked dwarf gene will affect chicken’s meat quality. Therefore, the purposes of this study were on the effects of the sex-linked dwarf gene on the growth, carcass as well as meat quality traits of chickens during the growing period.
Chickens studied were 251 normal and 207 dwarf pullets from mating of heterozygote (Dw+/dw) males with normal (Dw+/-) females of Taiwan Country chicken. Body weight and shank length were measured biweekly from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Muscle fiber traits were measured every four weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Carcass traits were measured every four weeks from 4 to 20 weeks of age. Meat quality traits were measured at 16 and 20 weeks of age.
The effect of dwarf gene on chicken’s body weight was highly significant from 2 weeks of age. The reduction of body weight by the dwarf gene reached 30 and 37.4% of normal chickens at 10 and 20 weeks of age respectively. The effect of dwarf gene on shank length was also highly significant from 2 weeks of age. Although it’s influence was not as great as on the body weight, the reduction of shank length reached 19.4 and 21.7% of the normal chicken at 10 and 20 weeks of age respectively. The significant effect of dwarf gene on single muscle fiber cross-section area of dwarf chickens was found from 12 weeks of age. However, dwarf gene had no effect on the total number of muscle fibers.
The proportional size to body weight of carcass, leg and foot of the dwarf chicken were smaller, but that of feather, head-neck, wing, gizzard and liver were larger than the normal chicken. Comparing the effects of dwarf gene on different carcass traits at different ages revealed that the sex-linked dwarf gene had more influence on skeleton than muscle before 8 weeks of age, and the main influence on muscle growth was from 8 to 12 weeks of age.
The measurement of breast meat color indicated that dwarf chickens had higher a* and b* values, which means their meat have more yellowish and reddish color. The meat of dwarf chickens at 16 weeks of age had higher drip loss. The cooking loss of breast and leg meat of dwarf chickens were also significantly higher than that of normal chicken. There was no significant difference in tenderness and postmortem pH between dwarf and normal chickens. In chemical composition, the meat of dwarf chickens had higher moisture and lower crude fat and crude protein than normal chickens.
壹、 中文摘要……………………………..………………1
貳、 前言……………………………………………..……3
參、 文獻檢討……………………………………..………5
一、 肉質特性的定義………………………………………5
(一) 物理性分析………………………………….……...5
1. 保水性測定……………………………………………5
2. 肉色測定………………………………………………5
3. 物性分析………………………………………………7
4. 官能品評分析…………………………………………9
5. 肉品切面形相測定……………………………….…10
(二) 化學性分析……………………………….…………13
1. 一般組成分析……………………………….………13
1. 水分…………………………………………….....13
2. 蛋白質………………………………………….....13
3. 脂肪…………………………………………….....13
4. 灰分...……………………………………………..14
2. 脂肪酸分析……………………………..……….…14
3. pH測定…………………..………………………….15
二、 肌纖維發育和遺傳選拔的影響…………………….17
(一) 肌肉的構造和組成……………………..……….…17
1. 肌肉組成的結構和功能………………..……….…17
2. 肌纖維型態…………………..………………….…20
(二) 出生前後的肌肉發育…………..……………….…22
(三) 選拔的影響………..…………………………….…24
三、 性聯遺傳矮小基因對雞隻生長和生產的影響…….25
(一) 對於胚胎時期的影響……………………….………27
1. 胚胎期發育………………….………………………27
2. 授精率和孵化率……………………….……………27
(二) 對於生長時期的影響………………………….……28
1. 體重……………………………………….…………28
2. 體組成………………………………………….……29
3. 飼料效率和飼料需求量………………………….…29
4. 死亡率和缺點………………………………….……30
(三) 對於產蛋時期的影響………………………….……30
1. 產蛋量………………………………………….……30
2. 蛋組成………………………………………….……32
(四) 生理方面矮小基因對雞隻生長的影響…….…..…32
(五) 矮小基因的應用…………………….…..…………33
肆、 材料與方法…………….…………………...…….35
一、 試驗動物……………………………………….....35
二、 飼養管理……………………..….…….………….36
三、 測量項目和方法…………..………..…………….37
(一) 基因型鑑定………………………..…………….…37
(二) 體重和腳部長度……………………..………….…41
(三) 屠體性狀……………………..…………………...41
(四) 肌肉組織切片………………..………………….…44
(五) 腿肉和胸肉之屠後pH變化………………..……….48
(六) 胸肉之肉塊色澤……………………..………….…48
(七) 腿肉和胸肉之肉汁流失率……………..……….…49
(八) 腿肉和胸肉之蒸煮失重率…………..…………….49
(九) 腿肉和胸肉截切值分析……………….....….….50
(十) 腿肉和胸肉之一般化學組成…………………..….50
1. 水分………………………………………………...51
2. 粗脂肪…………………………………….………..51
3. 灰分………………………………………….……..51
4. 粗蛋白……………………………………………...52
四、 統計分析……………………………………….....52
伍、 結果與討論……………………………….....……54
一、 生長性狀分析………………………………….....54
(一) 體重………………………………………………...54
(二) 腳部長度…………………………………………...54
(三) 肌纖維發育………………………………………...62
二、 屠體性狀分析……………………………………...71
(一) 屠宰率、血重和羽毛重百分比…………………...71
(二) 頭頸部百分比……………………………………...75
(三) 背部百分比………………………………………...75
(四) 胸部百分比………………………………………...75
(五) 翅部百分比………………………………………...79
(六) 腿部百分比………………………………………...79
(七) 腳部百分比………………………………………...82
(八) 心臟百分比………………………………………...82
(九) 肝臟百分比………………………………………...82
(十) 肌胃百分比………………………………………...86
(十一) 腹脂百分比………………………………………...86
三、 物理性肉質分析…………………………………...91
(一) 色澤………………………………………………...91
(二) 肉汁流失率………………………………………...96
(三) 蒸煮失重率………………………………….…….100
(四) 截切值…………………………………….……….100
四、 化學性肉質分析………………………..……....104
(一) pH…………………………………………………..104
(二) 一般化學組成……………………………………..104
陸、 結論……………………………………………....111
柒、 參考文獻………………………………………....112
捌、 英文摘要………………………………………....125
玖、 附錄………………………………………........127
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