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研究生:陳宗霖
研究生(外文):Zong-Lin Chen
論文名稱:微小化定位平台之控制器設計
論文名稱(外文):Controller Design of Small-Size Positioning Stage
指導教授:陳昭亮
指導教授(外文):Jau-Liang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:定位平台壓電致動器類神經網路
外文關鍵詞:positioning stagepiezoelectric actuatorneural network
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
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本研究主要是針對一個雙軸三自由度、整體平台尺寸在150mm×150mm×10mm以內的精密定位平台設計適合的控制器。所使用的驅動器為壓電致動器(PZT),優點有解析度佳、反應速度快等。而平台的結構是由撓性結構所組成,且為了改善壓電致動器行程短的缺點,更加入了放大機構來增加平台的行程。
在控制元件方面,採用電腦架構搭配AD/DA訊號處理卡來進行運算處理及訊號的傳遞;在控制法則的部份,以往使用PID控制器時,其控制參數為了更符合實際情況,皆必須使用試誤法來加以修正。而在本文中,將利用對角遞迴式類神經網路(DRNN)控制器來當作前饋補償器,以補償因系統模型不精確、磁滯現象與相位落後等因素所造成的誤差量,並避免反覆找尋PID參數所花費的時間與人力。
定位平台的實驗結果,在步階定位實驗中,X軸、Y軸與θ軸的誤差最大不超過20nm與0.15μrad;而在斜坡軌跡追蹤實驗中,X軸、Y軸與θ軸的誤差皆小於30nm與0.3μrad;在循圓測試實驗中,X軸與Y軸的誤差皆小於55nm。
The objective of this research was to design the suitable controller for small-size positioning stage. The whole size of the positioning stage is within 150mm×150mm×10mm with three degree of freedoms. Piezo-electric actuators which have good resolution and fast response speed were used to drive the positioning stage. The stage is constructed by flexure structures. In order to improve the short stroke of PZT, simple-levers are added to the structures.
The control signal was processed by a PC based controller, and transformed through the AD/DA card. For a control strategy, a PID control rule has been widely used. But in actual application, a trial and error method was often used to get a better parameter for PID control. In this study, a diagonal recurrent neural networks (DRNN) controller is added to the system with aim to reduce the effect causes by the hysteresis, inaccurate system model and phase lag, and to save time of adjusting parameter for PID control.
Form the experimental results, it shows that the position error for the X-axis, Y-axis, and θ-axis of stepping test was less than 20 nm and 0.15 μrad. For the ramp tracking test, the tracking error was less than 30 nm and 0.3 μrad. And for the circular tracking test, the tracking error was less than 55 nm.
致謝............................................i
摘要...........................................ii
Abstract......................................iii
目錄...........................................iv
圖目錄.......................................viii
表目錄.........................................xv
符號說明.....................................xvii
第一章、緒論....................................1
1-1、前言.......................................1
1-2、文獻回顧...................................2
1-3、研究目的與內容.............................5
第二章、定位平台組成元件與原理..................7
2-1、壓電致動器.................................8
2-1-1、逆壓電效應...............................9
2-1-2、磁滯現象(開迴路操作下)..................10
2-1-3、潛變(開迴路操作下)......................11
2-1-4、負載下的伸長量..........................12
2-1-5、使用PZT時的注意事項.....................14
2-2、位移感測器:電容式感測器..................14
2-2-1、電容式感測器的基本原理..................16
2-2-2、安裝與操作要點..........................17
2-3、控制元件:電腦架構(PC-Based)..............18
2-4、訊號元件:AD/DA訊號處理卡.................18
2-5、傳動元件:撓性結構與正槓桿機構............20
2-5-1、平板式撓性結構..........................21
2-5-2、割痕式撓性結構..........................22
2-5-3、槓桿式放大器............................23
2-6、定位平台整體架構..........................23
第三章、平台設計與推導.........................25
3-1、平台設計..................................25
3-2、平台各軸向靜態與動態推導..................26
3-2-1、X軸運動分析.............................26
3-2-2、Y軸運動分析.............................29
3-2-3、θ軸運動分析.............................32
3-2-4、平台尺寸參數與特性參數..................35
3-3、理論驗證..................................36
3-3-1、有限元素分析............................36
3-3-2、頻譜分析實驗............................37
3-4、受控場的系統模型推導......................41
3-5、系統模型的模擬............................43
第四章、控制理論...............................46
4-1、PID控制器.................................46
4-2、對角遞迴式類神經網路控制器(DRNN)[22]......51
4-2-1、DRNN的動態倒傳遞計算....................53
4-2-2、計算DRNI的權重修正式....................55
4-2-3、計算DRNC的權重修正式....................55
4-3、控制流程..................................57
第五章、控制實驗結果與討論.....................58
5-1、平台最大位移測試..........................59
5-2、電容式感測器靜態測試......................61
5-3、平台開迴路連續步階測試....................61
5-4、平台閉迴路連續步階測試....................62
5-4-1、X軸的連續步階測試.......................63
5-4-2、Y軸的連續步階測試.......................67
5-4-3、θ軸的連續步階測試.......................70
5-4-4、連續步階測試的實驗結果討論..............72
5-5、平台閉迴路斜坡測試........................73
5-5-1、X軸的斜坡測試...........................73
5-5-2、Y軸的斜坡測試...........................77
5-5-3、θ軸的斜坡測試...........................80
5-5-4、斜坡測試的實驗結果討論..................83
5-6、平台閉迴路循圓測試........................84
5-6-1、100nm循圓測試...........................84
5-6-2、500nm循圓測試...........................86
5-6-3、1000nm循圓測試..........................88
5-6-4、3000nm循圓測試..........................89
5-6-5、循圓測試的實驗結果討論..................91
第六章、結論與未來展望.........................95
6-1、結論......................................95
6-2、未來研究建議..............................96
參考文獻.......................................98
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