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研究生:吳長舉
研究生(外文):Chang-Ju Wu
論文名稱:利用GPS載波相位觀測執行KGPS與姿態角判別之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Real-Time Kinematic Positioning and Attitude Determination Using GPSCarrier Phase
指導教授:黃國興黃國興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Guo-Shing Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立勤益技術學院
系所名稱:資訊與電能科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:差分式GPS即時動態GPS未定值函數搜尋法擴充式卡爾曼濾波器擴充式資訊濾波器載波相位姿態角決定
外文關鍵詞:DGPSKGPSAFMEKFEIFCarrier PhaseAttitude Determination
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全球衛星定位系統廣泛的使用在導航與量測系統中,而在導航系統中常要求能更有效處理姿態與定位問題,傳統GPS在系統中只提供位置與速度資料,至於姿態問題必須與慣性導航相結合使用,而本篇論文在不使用慣性導航系統的情況下,利用GPS載波相位觀測提供導航所需的定位與姿態資料。在定位方面,藉由整數最小平方法來決定週波未定值,並當做卡爾曼濾波器初始值,再利用卡爾曼濾波器執行即時動態GPS定位。在姿態角方面,使用兩種演算法解得載具姿態角,一為未定值函數法,另一為增廣訊息濾波器。本論文同時設計一機械機構,用以模擬載具姿態的變化,利用此機構驗證所發展的演算法解算姿態角之正確性。
The GPS has been widely used in navigation and survey systems. In the long-range navigation system is further required to be more capable in dealing with the attitude and position problems. However, GPS is usually used to provide absolute position information. In the attitude problems, the GPS must be combined with Inertial Navigation System. In this thesis, the main purpose is to use the GPS carrier phase to observe the real-time kinematic GPS and attitude determine. In the real-time kinematic GPS, we aim at setting up a real time kinematic GPS positioning algorithm using a single frequency L1 carrier phase measurement equation, and the integer least square method to determine the accurately initialized value of the extended Kalman filter technique, and then efficiently solve a positioning problem with the extended Kalman filter approach. In the attitude determine, two kinds of methods are proposed to find the attitude of vehicle. One is an ambiguity function method, the other is an extended information filter. A mechanical platform has been designed in order to emulate the rotation of vehicle. The three-degree-of-freedom rotating mechanism is used to test and verify the accurate performance of the system by the proposed attitude determination algorithms.
中文摘要 -------------- i
英文摘要 ----------- ii
誌謝 ------------- iii
目錄 --------------- iv
表目錄 --------------- vi
圖目錄 --------------- vii
符號說明 ------------ ix
一、緒論----------------- 1
1.1前言----------------------- 1
1.2研究動機與目的--------------- 2
1.3論文架構--------------------- 4
二、GPS定位基礎----------------- 6
2.1載波相位接收----------------- 6
2.2虛擬距離接收量---------------- 8
2.3誤差來源與分析---------------- 9
2.3.1電離層干擾(Ionosphere delay effect) ---------- 10
2.3.2對流層干擾(Troposphere effect) --------------- 11
2.3.3多重路徑(Multi-path )傳送誤差------------------ 12
三、KGPS定位解算----------------------------------- 13
3.1KGPS理論與推導..-------------------------------- 13
3.2整數最小平方法----------------------------------- 16
3.3卡爾曼濾波器------------------------------------- 17
四、姿態角的理論推導--------------------------------- 19
4.1基線旋轉(Baseline Rotation Method)理論推導-------- 19
4.1.1地球固定座標----------------------------------- 19
4.1.2本地水平系統----------------------------------- 20
4.1.3機身座標系統----------------------------------- 21
4.1.4機身天線座標----------------------------------- 21
4.1.5座標轉換-------------------------------------- 22
4.2最佳化方法-未定值函數法(AFM)---------------------- 28
4.3增廣訊息濾波器----------------------------------- 30
五、實驗與成果分析---------------------------------- 34
5.1KGPS系統實驗結果與應用--------------------------- 34
5.1.1KGPS系統架構---------------------------------- 34
5.1.2KGPS軟體程式流程------------------------------ 38
5.1.3KGPS演算法解算過程----------------------------- 39
5.1.4KGPS靜態測試---------------------------------- 41
5.1.5KGP動態測試----------------------------------- 43
5.2姿態角實驗實際測試結果---------------------------- 48
5.2.1姿態角系統架構--------------------------------- 48
5.2.2軟體程式流程---------------------------------- 50
5.2.3姿態角測試------------------------------------ 51
六、結論與未來發展---------------------------------- 59
6.1結論------------------------------------------- 59
6.2未來發展---------------------------------------- 60
參考文獻 --------------------------------------- 64
作者簡介 --------------------------------------- 67
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