跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.220.44.148) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/21 17:06
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:洪銚亨
研究生(外文):Chao-Hung Hung
論文名稱:機車用兒童安全座椅之設計與分析
論文名稱(外文):Development of Child Safety Seats on Motorcycle
指導教授:黃才烱黃才烱引用關係
指導教授(外文):TJ Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:迷你滑車測試人偶兒童安全座椅機車
外文關鍵詞:Mini Sled TestDummyChild Safety SeatMotorcycle
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:1603
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:141
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
  由於機車在台灣的佔有率非常高,尤其速克達更是許多人通勤的交通工具,所以機車發生事故的頻率也比較高。目前只有安全帽能在意外發生時,避免機車騎士頭部傷害,然而對於兒童而言,在事故中只靠安全帽的保護是不夠的。所以本研究提出了一種新的機車用兒童全座椅,以提高對兒童騎乘機車時的保障。
  本研究為驗證座椅的安全性,提出簡化的三自度人偶數學模型,利用能量法解析運動方程式,求出人偶模型頭部加速度與頭頸部擺動角度,比對生物力學資料確定人偶具有生物真實性。再根據模擬結果,利用頭部傷害準則(HIC)來評估判斷兒童騎乘機車的安全性。
  同時,本研究使用以簡化模型為基礎的兒童人偶,透過迷你滑車系統的測試平台,檢驗新座椅的功能性。利用迷你滑車固定的衝擊環境,做為前撞測試的模擬,以三自由度兒童人偶描述碰撞過程中的運動反應,評估座椅於機車發生事故時,能否穩固不脫落而確實保護兒童。
  文末歸納了本研究的總結,並提出合理的機車用兒童安全座椅設計需求以供日後相關研究發展,希望能讓機車安全座椅提供兒童更多保護,以減少兒童的傷亡。
  Motorcycles especially for scooters do have a large number in Taiwan and a great portion of Taiwanese do use them as everyday transportation tools. That is why the accidents relative to motorcycles happen frequently in Taiwan. Currently, helmets are the only protection for scooter riders to avoid injury during collision. To protect the child riding on scooter, the helmet might be insufficient. Therefore, the thesis proposes and designs a new child safety seat on motorcycle to increase the protection for child riders.
  In order to verify the child safety seat, a simplified 3-DOF child mathematical model based on the energy method is developed in the study. For biofidelic validation of this model, the head accelerations and angles were compared with a set of biomechanical data.
According to the results from simulations, the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) can be estimated and applied to evaluate the safety of the child on the motorcycle.
  In addition, a 3-DOF child dummy based on this simplified model is established. A series of mini-sled tests by using this child dummy were set up to validate the effectiveness of this newly designed seat. The mini sled test can simulate a constant impulse which could make the child dummy in a frontal impact situation. The reactions of the dummy from the tests were recorded. The results show the stability of the child safety seat which might prevent the child rider from injury during impact.
  Finally, the discussion and summary for this study are presented. Furthermore, some suggestions and design concepts for motorcycle child safety seat are provided to create a more safety environment for children on motorcycles.
摘要......................................................I
Abstract .................................................II
誌謝......................................................III
目錄......................................................IV
表目錄....................................................VI
圖目錄....................................................VII
符號......................................................X
第一章 緒論...............................................1
1.1 前言..................................................1
1.2 研究背景與動機........................................1
1.3 文獻回顧..............................................5
1.4 論文架構..............................................7
第二章 理論基礎...........................................8
2.1 三自由度模型..........................................8
2.2 累積變異率...........................................16
2.3 頭部傷害指標.........................................17
第三章 研究方法......................................... 19
3.1 機車用兒童安全座椅設計...............................19
3.2 人偶的建模...........................................23
3.3 實體人偶製作.........................................26
3.4 環境設定.............................................27
3.5 滑車實驗設計.........................................30
第四章 研究結果......................................... 35
4.1 生物真實性驗證.......................................35
4.2 模擬結果.............................................40
4.3 迷你滑車實驗結果.....................................55
第五章 結果討論......................................... 58
5.1 人偶生物真實性.......................................58
5.2 模擬結果.............................................58
5.3 滑車實驗.............................................61
第六章 總結............................................. 63
6.1 結論.................................................63
6.2 未來工作.............................................64
附錄A 兒童機車安全座椅設計............................. 70
A.1 設計內容.............................................70
A.2 設計辦法.............................................71
附錄B 模擬設定值....................................... 76
附錄C SAE J211 濾波規範................................ 78
自述.................................................... 80
Chawla, A., Mukherjee, S., Mohan, D., Bose, D., Rawat, P., Nakatani, T., and Sakurai, M. (2005) "FE Simulations of Motorcycle–Car Frontal Craches, Validation Adn Obsercations," International Journal of Crashworthiness, Vol. 10, pp. 319-326
Cheng, H., Obergefell, L. and Rizer, A. (1994) “Generator of Body Data (GEBOD) Manual,” Armstrong Lab. Report #AL/CF-TR-1994-0051, Wrigjt-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
Deguchi, M. (2003) “Modeling of a Motorcycle for Collision Simulation,”18th ESV-000157
Elliott, M. A., Baughan, C. J., Broughton, J., Chinn, B., Grayson, G. B., Knowles, J., Smith, L. R., and Simpson, H. (2003) “Motorcycle Safety: A Scoping Study,” TRL report TRL581, ISSN 0968-4107
Huston, R.L. (1990) Multi-body Dynamics, Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann. International Standard ISO 13232:1996(E) Motorcycles –Test and analysis
procedures for research evaluation of rider crash protective devices fitted to motorcycle, Parts 1 to 8, International Standards Organizations, Geneva, 1996
Irwin, A. and Mertz, H. J. (1997) "Biomechanical Basis for the CRABI and Hybrid III Child Dummies," SAE paper 973317
Ivarsson, J., Viano, D. C., Lövsund, P., and Parnaik, Y. (2003) "Head Kinematics in Mini-Sled Tests of Foam Padding: Relevance of Linear
Responses From Free Motion Headform (FMH) Testing to Head Angular Responses," Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol. 125, pp. 523-532
Kallieris, D., Otte, D., Mattern, R., and Wiedmann, P. (1995) "Comparison of Sled Tests with Real Traffic Accidents," SAE paper 952707
Malott, A., Parenteau, C., Arbogast, K., and Mari-gowda, S. (2004) “Sled test results using the Hybrid III 6 year old: An evaluation of various restraints and crash configurations,” SAE World Congress Detroit, Michigan March 8-11
Mertz, H. J., Jarrett, K., Moss, S., Salloum, M. and Zhao, Y. (2001) "The Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Dummy," SAE paper 2001-22-0014
McHenry, R.R. and Naab, K.N. (1966) “Computer Simulation of the Automobile Crash Victim in a Frontal Collision – A Validation study,”Report No. YB-2126-V-1, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Buffalo, New York
Mohan, D., Bowman, B. M., Snyder, R. G.,and Foust, D. R. (1979) "A Biomechanical Analysis of Head Impact Injuries to Children," ASME, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol. 101, pp. 250-260
Morgan, M.R., Marcus, J.H., Eppinger, R.H. (1981) “Correlation of Side Impact Dummy/Cadaver Test,” Proc. 25th STAPP Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper 811008
Mukherjee, S., Chawla, A., Mohan, D., Singh, M., Sakurai, M., and Tamura, Y. (2001) "Motorcycle-Car Side Impact Simulation," IRCOBI Proceedings, October 2001, pp. 133-141
Nahum, A. M. and Melvin, J. W. (1993) Accidental Injury – Biomechanics and Prevention, 1st Ed., Springer-Verlag New York Inc., pp. 32-36
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), U.S. Department of Transportation, http://www.nhtsa.gov
Nieboer, J. J., Wismans, J., Versmissen, A. C. M., and Slagmaat, M. T. P. (1993) "Motorcycle Crash Test Modelling," SAE paper 933133
Ono, K., Kaneoka, K., Inami, S. and Hayashi, K. (1999) “Motion Analysis of Cervical Vertebrae During Whiplash Loading,” Spine, Vol. 24: 763-770.
Philippens, M., etc. (2002) “Comparison of the Rear Impact Biofidelity of BioRID II and RID2,” SAE 2002-22-0023 SAE J211. Instrumentation for impact test (A.) In 1990 SAE Handbook, Volume 4. Society of Automotive Engineers, pp 34, 185-191, Warrendale, PA, 1990
Sporner, A., Langwieder, K., and Polauke, J. (1989) “Risk of Leg Injuries to Motorcyclist, Present Situation and Countermeasures,” 12th ESV Conference, Goteborg, Sweden
Thunnissen, J. and Wismans, J. (1995) “Human Volunteer Head-Neck Response in Frontal Flexion: A New Analysis,” SAE 952721
Weaver, J.R. (1968) “A Simple Occupant Dynamics Model,” J. Biomechanics, Vol. 1, Pergamon Press, pp. 185-191.
內政部警政署 (2006) "93 年道路交通事故分析," http://www.npa.gov.tw/NPAGip/wSite/public/Attachment/f1146476550516.pdf
王茂駿、王明揚、林昱呈 (2002) 台灣地區人體計測資料庫手冊,中華民國人因工程學會
台大醫院小兒科 (1999) "小孩的正常生長曲線," http://med.mc.ntu.edu.tw/~ped/health/he10.htm
交通部統計處 (2006, 3) "機動車輛登記數," http://www.motc.gov.tw/motor/200603_c4050.xls
全國法規資料庫 (2004) "小客車附載幼童安全乘坐實施及宣導辦法,"
http://law.moj.gov.tw/Scripts/Query4A.asp?FullDoc=all&Fcode=K0040038
吳正宇 (2003) “機車氣囊防護衣之防護效益評估和機車車禍之電腦模擬,”國立陽明大學醫學工程研究所碩士論文
吳芳瑜 (2005) “台灣地區六歲與十歲孩童之碰撞模擬,”國立成功大學機械工程所碩士論文
張立東、蔡明哲、張冠諒、李國彰、黃才烱、洪銚亨 (2005) “機車碰撞之現場重建及騎士頭臉部傷害之研究,”國科會計畫報告,NSC93-2218-E-041-005
張立東、張志涵、張冠諒 (2000) “機車安全帽標準於頭臉部防護能力之探討,”中華醫學工程學刊,Vol. 20,No.3,p.151-158.
張志涵、張立東、黃繼振、黃世疇、張冠諒 (1998) “機車安全帽之動態有限元素分析,”中華醫學工程學刊,Vol. 18,No.4,p.225-231.
陳月枝等 (1997) 兒科護理學,空中大學
曾文龍 (2003) “多體動力人偶應用於腳踏車碰撞之探討,”國立成功大學醫學工程研究所士論文
蔡宛真 (2002) “台灣地區兒童頭部外傷之探討,”臺北醫學大學傷害防治學研究所碩士論文
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top