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研究生(外文):Ching-Shiang Huang
論文名稱(外文):Development and application of the model of water quality and optical properties in reservoir
指導教授(外文):Ching-Gung WenCheng-Chien Liu
外文關鍵詞:water qualitychlorophyll-a concentrationsuspended solidoptical propertiesphytoplanktondetrituscolored dissolved organic matter (CDOM)remote sensing reflectanceTseng-Wen ReservoirHu-Tou-Pi ReservoirKao-Ping RiverFORMOSAT-2
  • 被引用被引用:15
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為了解台灣水庫水質與光學性質之特徵與分布,本研究於2005年9月至2006年7月期間,於曾文水庫、虎頭埤水庫及高屏溪出海口至外海進行一系列的量測與採樣,量測與分析項目包含葉綠素a(Chl-a)、懸浮固體物(SS)等水質參數及浮游植物 、無生命微粒 與有色溶解性有機物質(CDOM) 吸收係數等光學性質以及水面遙測反射光譜 。研究方法則基於海洋光學原理,探討水庫水質及光學性質之關係,並建立適於各研究地點的半經驗模式。
由於虎頭埤水庫為優養水體,分析而得的水質參數及光學性質都偏高,相對而言曾文水庫較低,高屏溪出海口至外海則更低。曾文水庫光學性質以浮游植物及無生命微粒之吸收比例皆較高,而CDOM之時間分布與浮游植物相似;虎頭埤水庫無生命微粒吸收比例相當高,且偶爾浮游植物會不尋常地大量升高。另外發現SS濃度過高時,會干擾 之量測,導致準確度降低。Chl-a與 為非線性相關,屬於乘冪函數之模式;SS濃度及濁度與 且與 皆為線性相關,屬於線性函數之模式。而由曾文水庫所導出的半經驗模式亦可套用於虎頭埤水庫,將能預測浮游植物吸收係數 的時空分布。
本研究更進一步應用經驗模式,處理福衛二號衛星拍攝曾文水庫之多光譜影像,目的在於取得福衛二號影像之水質分布圖。將 重新取樣以應用於福衛二號可見光範圍的三個波段,成為 ,並以逐步迴歸分析 與Chl-a、SS及濁度,得到的模式之判定係數R2分別為0.790、0.865及0.947。因此本研究的結果具有很大的潛力,能以遙測影像評估水質。
In order to understand the characteristic and distribution of water quality and optical properties of reservoirs in Taiwan, a series of field measurements were conducted at various sites from September 2005 to July 2006, including Tseng-Wen Reservoir, Hu-Tou-Pi Reservoir, the estuary of Kao-Ping River and the margin sea in vicinity. The measurement and analysis include (1) water quality parameters, such as the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) and suspended solid (SS) content, (2) optical properties, such as the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton , detritus and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) , and (3) the spectral values of above-surface remote sensing reflectance . Various approaches based on the theory of ocean optics are employed to derive the relationship between the water quality and optical properties of reservoir, resulting in a semi-empirical model that is particularly valid for those study sites.
Because Hu-Tou-Pi Reservoir is classified as the eutrophication status for most of the time, the parameters of water quality and optical properties all reach the highest values. By contrast, the parameters are lower in Tseng-Wen Reservoir and are much lower in the estuary of Kao-Ping River and the margin sea in vicinity. As to the optical properties, and in Tseng-Wen Reservoir are both high. The temporal distribution of is similar to the temporal distribution of . is even higher in Hu-Tou-Pi Reservoir and some unusual blooming of phytoplankton can be found occasionally in this area too. When SS is too high, the measurement of would be influenced, resulting in a lower accuracy. The non-linear relationship between Chl-a and is found to be a power function, while SS and turbidity are linearly correlated with or , respectively. The semi-empirical model derived in Tseng-Wen Reservoir can be applied to Hu-Tou-Pi Reservoir to estimate the temporal and spatial distributions of .
This research takes a further step to apply the semi-empirical model to process the multi-spectral images of Tseng-Wen Reservoir taken by FORMOSAT-2, with the intention to derive the map of water quality from FORMOSAT-2 imagery. The is resampled to three spectral bands in the visible range of FORMOSAT-2, namely . The approach of stepwise regression is then employed to relate with Chl-a, SS and turbidity. The results show that the coefficient of determination R2 all attain very high values of 0.790, 0.865 and 0.947 for Chl-a, SS and turbidity, respectively. Results from this research would have great potential in assessing the water quality from remote sensing imagery.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 IV
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
照片目錄 XI
表目錄 XII
第一章 前言 1-1
1.1 研究緣起 1-1
1.2 研究目的 1-1
1.3 論文架構 1-3
第二章 水質與光學性質模式之推導 2-1
2.1 水的光學性質 2-1
2.1.1 固有光學性質 2-1
2.1.2 外顯光學性質 2-3
2.2 水中物質之吸收係數 2-4
2.2.1 水本身的吸收係數 2-4
2.2.2 浮游植物吸收係數 2-5
2.2.3 無機懸浮微粒吸收係數 2-7
2.2.4 有色溶解性有機物質吸收係數 2-9
2.3 自然水體之光學分類 2-11
2.4 水質濃度與固有光學性質之關係模式 2-13
第三章 光譜量測與光學性質及水質實驗分析 3-1
3.1 研究地點 3-1
3.1.1 曾文水庫 3-1
3.1.2 虎頭埤水庫 3-3
3.1.3 高屏溪出海口至外海 3-4
3.2 光譜量測及實驗分析儀器與設備 3-7
3.2.1 光譜儀組件 3-7
3.2.2 實驗分析設備 3-9
3.3 現場手持式光譜儀量測 3-12
3.3.1 光譜量測方法 3-12
3.3.2 光譜儀比對校正 3-14
3.4 光學性質及水質實驗分析方法 3-17
3.4.1 懸浮微粒的吸收 3-17
3.4.2 有色溶解性有機物質的吸收 3-21
3.4.3 資料計算處理 3-23
3.4.4 葉綠素a及懸浮固體物 3-26
第四章 實驗量測結果及模式之建立與驗證 4-1
4.1 實驗分析及反射光譜量測之結果 4-1
4.1.1 曾文水庫分析結果 4-1
4.1.2 虎頭埤水庫分析結果 4-5
4.1.3 高屏溪出海口至外海分析結果 4-8
4.2 水庫水質及光學性質之時間分布及特性 4-12
4.2.1 水庫水質及光學性質之時間分布 4-13
4.2.2 水庫水質及光學性質之特性 4-20
4.3 水質濃度與固有光學性質模式之建立 4-27
4.3.1 葉綠素a濃度與浮游植物吸收係數之模式 4-27
4.3.2 SS濃度及濁度與無生命微粒吸收係數之模式 4-31
4.3.3 SS濃度及濁度與總懸浮微粒吸收係數之模式 4-33
4.4 模式驗證 4-35
第五章 遙測反射光譜量測結果與應用 5-1
5.1 高光譜水質資料庫之建立 5-1
5.2 衛星推算水質半經驗式之建立 5-3
5.3 應用福衛二號影像 5-9
第六章 結論與建議 6-1
6.1 結論 6-1
6.2 建議 6-2
參考文獻 7-1
附錄 8-1
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