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研究生:譚振威
研究生(外文):Chan-Vai Tam
論文名稱:台灣地區閃電與降雨的分類及其氣候特徵
指導教授:王國英
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Ying Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:大氣物理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:大氣科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:雲對地閃電雲內/雲間閃電閃電氣候特徵降雨氣候特徵
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
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  • 下載下載:49
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摘要
本研究分析及探討台灣地區1989-2005年間,三種不同天氣系統的閃電和降雨氣候特徵。三種天氣系統分別為颱風型天氣對流系統、局部地區熱力產生近似滯留的深對流型天氣系統(局部熱對流型天氣系統)和其他對流型天氣系統。接著利用個案分析來探討在三種不同的天氣型態之下,閃電跟地面降雨在時間和空間上的相關性。
結果顯示台灣地區閃電發生最密集的區域是在中央山脈西側,發生比較頻繁的月份為5月至9 月。在局部熱對流型天氣系統期間發生的閃電是三種天氣系統之中最多的,並且集中在西部南北向輸電線路的兩側,其-CG跟+CG發生次數的比值(-CG閃電數除以+CG閃電數)約為19,也是最大的。2003-2005年IC跟CG的比例約為20。
在降雨特徵方面,颱風型降雨量佔年總降雨量的比例在1989-2005年間呈現上升的趨勢,從~20%上升至~40%。6月至8月期間在西南部的降雨佔平均年雨量的30%。這三個月的降雨主要是由颱風和局部熱對流型系統產生的。颱風型降雨的時序跟總降雨時序的相關係數為0.79;局部熱對流型系統的是0.13;其他對流型的則是0.72。
個案分析顯示,在局部熱對流型天氣系統個案中,IC閃電與對流型降雨發生的地點與範圍十分一致,CG則是發生在雨量極大值附近。在其他對流型天氣系統的個案中,IC閃電十分稀少,CG只會在局部性強降雨的地方發生。
Abstract
This study discusses the climatological characteristics of lightning and surface rainfall in Taiwan under three different types of weather systems between year 1989-2005. The three different types are typhoon, local thermal convective system and other convective systems. In order to discuss the temporal and spatial correlation between lightning and surface rainfall, three cases from each type of weather system were analyzed.
Lightnings mainly occur at the west part of Taiwan, on the west side of the Central Mountain Range. Lightning occurances are more often during May to September. The greatest part of lightnings happen during the local thermal convective systems and mainly gather up around the north-south oriented power transmission line at the west part of Taiwan. The ratio between –CG and +CG (the number of -CG divided by the number of +CG) during local thermal convective system is about 19, which is the largest among the three types of weather systems. The ratio between IC and total CG during year 2003-2005 is about 20.
The percentage of typhoon rainfall within annual total rainfall exhibits a rising trend between year 1989-2005, from ~20% to ~40%. During June to August, each month contributes about 30% of the annual total rainfall at the south-west part of Taiwan. The rainfall occur during these three months are mainly caused by typhoon and local thermal convective system. The correlation coefficient of typhoon rainfall and annual total rainfall is 0.79, while that of local thermal convective rainfall and other convective rainfall is 0.13 and 0.72 respectively.
In the local thermal convection system case, the area of the occurance of IC lightnings and rainfall are in good agreement, while CG lightnings happen around the maximum of the surface rainfall. In the other convective case, IC lightnings are very rare, and CG lightnings only happen in the area where local heavy rainfall occurs.
目錄
摘要 ---------------------------------------------------- I
誌謝 --------------------------------------------------- IV
目錄 ---------------------------------------------------- V
附表說明 ---------------------------------------------- VII
附圖說明 --------------------------------------------- VIII
第一章 前言 --------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 文獻回顧 ----------------------------------------- 2
1.2 研究動機與目的 ----------------------------------- 5
第二章 研究資料與方法 ----------------------------------- 6
2.1 研究資料的收集 ----------------------------------- 6
2.1.1 閃電資料 ------------------------------------ 6
2.2.2 地面降雨資料 -------------------------------- 7
2.2.3 其他相關資料 -------------------------------- 7
2.2 客觀分析 ----------------------------------------- 7
2.3 颱風型天氣對流系統、局部地區熱力產生近似滯留的深對流(局部熱對流)型天氣系統和其他對流型天氣系統分類的方法 ----------------------------------------------- 9
第三章 結果 -------------------------------------------- 18
3.1天氣系統分類結果 --------------------------------- 18
3.2台灣地區閃電特徵 --------------------------------- 19
3.2.1 總閃電分佈特徵 ----------------------------- 19
3.2.2 颱風型天氣對流系統的閃電特徵 --------------- 22
3.2.3 局部熱對流型天氣系統的閃電特徵 ------------- 23
3.2.4 其他對流型天氣系統的閃電特徵 --------------- 26
3.3台灣地區地面降雨特徵 ----------------------------- 27
3.3.1 總降雨特徵 --------------------------------- 27
3.3.2 颱風型天氣對流系統的降雨特徵 --------------- 29
3.3.3 局部熱對流型天氣系統的降雨特徵 ------------- 31
3.3.4 其他對流型天氣系統的降雨特徵 --------------- 32
第四章 討論 -------------------------------------------- 34
4.1閃電和地面降雨的相關性 --------------------------- 34
4.2颱風型天氣對流系統閃電和降雨的相關性 ------------- 35
4.3局部熱對流型天氣系統閃電和降雨的相關性 ----------- 35
4.4其他對流型天氣系統閃電和降雨的相關性 ------------- 37
第五章 結論與未來展望 ---------------------------------- 39
5.1 結論 -------------------------------------------- 39
5.2 未來展望 ---------------------------------------- 41
參考文獻 ----------------------------------------------- 42
附表 --------------------------------------------------- 46
附圖 --------------------------------------------------- 56
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