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研究生:黃柏堅
研究生(外文):Po-Chien Huang
論文名稱:考量環保之多項式同步工程產品設計分析法
論文名稱(外文):A set-based concurrent engineering approach for environment-conscious product design
指導教授:高信培高信培引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:工業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:多項式同步工程事件驅動流程圖多屬性決策方法斐式圖
外文關鍵詞:Petri NetEvent-driven process chainSet-based concurrent engineering
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近年來各國之間注重環保的聲音越來越大,政府之間開始規定法規,規定製造商必須處理它們生產出來的所被廢棄的物品。像是廢電子電機設備指令(Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) 和禁用有害物質條款(Restrictions on the use of certain Hazardous Substances)都會影響以代工電子產品為主要產業活動的臺灣。
在環保的主題,主要有二塊領域在探討著。一塊是設計具有環保要素的產品;另一塊是研究回收材料的技術領域。本文所研究的會針對於設計環保要素的產品上面。過去傳統只考慮到產品的生產時間以及製造成本,在本文之中,加入了產品回收之後的處理成本和時間考量。在此考量之下,原本在製造時間成本較具有競爭性的產品設計方案,也許會被其它考慮到回收階段的產品設計方案所打敗。
本文的主要架構是建構在多項式同步工程之下,在此架構之下,製造商將會有一群的產品設計方案。本文將會利用事件驅動流程圖(Event-driven process chain)來規畫產品的整個生命周期,並且利用作業成本制(Activity-based costing)來分析產品所需要的成本以及資源;接著,我們將會利用斐式圖(Petri Net)來模擬產品的整個生命週期流程,進而得之產品在各個階段的時間和成本。最後,我們會利用多屬性決策方法(TOPSIS)評估所有的產品設計方案,並且找出最適合的產品方案。
Recently, countries and society pay more and more attention to improve environment. For example, Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing and Product Recovery (ECMPRO) has become an obligation to the environment and enforced primarily by governmental regulations. RoHS (Restrictions on the use of certain Hazardous Substances) and WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) are set up in Europe, and it will affect the electronic industry especially in Taiwan.

Considering environment issue, there are two commonly accepted primary objectives have been gaining momentum. One is creating environment products, and the other is developing techniques for product recovery and waste management. This research focuses on creating environment products. At designing product stage, designer consider many factors to gain the lowest time and cost. In traditionally, a designer estimates forward logistics issue and this research will extend the scope that includes reverse logistic.

Propose of this research is building a decision support framework. Scheme of this research is developing a Set-based concurrent engineering approach for environment product design. SBCE seeks to regions of the design space, characterize boundaries of current capabilities and discover where these boundaries can be expanded. There are two benefits of applying SBCE. One is firms could get more competitively product alternative by intensifying competition between the design teams. The other is the unselected design alternatives can keep on record to reuse for future if business condition changes.

This research will accord several steps to model this decision support framework with SBCE for environment-conscious product design. We will model the process according the product life cycle, and apply the Activity-based costing to calculate the cost. Finally, we simulate this model by Petri net and evaluate by TOPSIS.
Table of Content
Table of Content VI
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables X
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivation 3
1.3 Propose 3
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Review of Environment-conscious product design 6
2.1.1 Life Cycle Analysis or Assessment (LCA) 6
2.1.2 The steps of Activity-Based LCA 7
2.1.3 Cost issues in each stage of life cycle design 8
2.2 Design for environment (DFE) 9
2.2.1 Strategies of Design for environment 9
2.3 Reverse logistics 10
2.3.1 Information flow within the reverse distribution channel 11
2.4 Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) 15
2.5 Overview of Set-based Concurrent Engineering 17
CHAPTER III MODELING FRAMEWORK AND TOOLS 19
3.1 Framework of SBCE_EC product design 19
3.1.1 The stage of Generation of design alternative 21
3.1.2 The stage of Evaluation of design alternative: 21
3.1.3 The stage of Prioritization of design alternative: 22
3.2 Methodology and application tools 23
3.2.1 Event-driven Process Diagram 23
3.2.2 High Level Petri Nets 24
3.2.3 Activity-Based Costing 29
3.2.4 Technique for order Preference by similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) 32
CHAPTER IV IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL 33
4.1 Processing Modeling 34
4.1.1 Product Assemble process 36
4.1.2 Product use process 38
4.1.3 Used Product collect process 38
4.1.4 Remanufacture process 44
4.1.5 Recycle process and Disposal process 46
4.2 Cost Model 48
4.2.1 Activity-based costing model 48
4.3 Petri Net Model 54
4.3.1 EPC with ABC model translates to Petri Net 56
4.4 TOPSIS for EC-product design 58
4.4.1 Criteria in Environment conscious product design 58
4.4.2 Steps of TOPSIS 59
CHAPTER V CASE STUDY 62
5.1 Cell phone industries 62
5.1.1 Cellular Phone Waste 62
5.1.2 Requirements of the WEEE for cellular phones 63
5.2 Construct the simulation model 63
5.2.1 Introduction to CPN-tools 63
5.2.2. Important points in model with CPN-tool 65
5.3 Case Description 73
5.3.1 0th level Petri Nets 76
5.3.2 1st level Petri Nets 76
5.3.3 2nd level Petri Nets 86
5.4 Simulation 95
5.5 TOPSIS 99
5.6 Improving Case – Module in product design 103
5.6.1 Advantages of modularity 103
5.6.2 2nd level Petri Nets in design alternative 3 105
5.6.3 Simulate result of design alternative 3 109
5.6.4 TOPSIS include design alternative 3 110
5.7 Summary 111
CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 112
6.1 Conclusions 112
6.2 Recommendations for Future Study 113
Reference 114
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http://www.motorola.com/EHS/environment/products/
http://www.daimi.au.dk/CPnets/intro/
OSD Comptroller iCenter, http://www.dod.mil/computroller/icenter
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