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研究生:蔣育承
研究生(外文):Yu-Chen Chiang
論文名稱:以視覺為基礎之機器人導航及應用
論文名稱(外文):A Vision-Based Robot Navigation System and Its Applications
指導教授:蘇木春蘇木春引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mu-Chun Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:機器人導航室內定位
外文關鍵詞:robotnavigationlocalization
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:532
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:106
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
機器人在導航時,在環境中的定位是困難但是卻基本必須的工作。本論文提出一個機器人定位以及地圖建構之系統,透過此演算法及系統,機器人能自動探索巡邏已學習之環境,或是規劃最短路徑來到達使用者事先指定的地點。
首先機器人要學習環境資訊前,會先進入探索模式。在探索模式中,機器人使用其視覺與紅外線感測器,建構一個包括節點與邊所表示的圖形地圖。節點代表一個特定地點(如岔路等),而節點間可到達之路徑則由邊所相連。在每個節點上,會將其環境影像作為訓練資料集。當探索結束回到原點時,這些訓練資料集會用來訓練一個多層感知機來記憶環境資訊。探索模式結束後會建立一環境地圖,接著會進入操作模式。
在操作模式中,機器人能自動巡邏環境且讓使用者能在遠端監控影像,或是執行使用者給予的特定地點巡邏。在導航過程中,機器人能夠依照之前所訓練的多層感知機,得知所在位置。最後,我們訓練SONY 所出產的愛寶(AIBO)機器狗來在居家環境中實際導航,來驗證我們的演算法與系統。
Robot localization has been a very challenging task in mobile robotics since it in essential for a broad range of mobile robot tasks. This thesis proposes a new vision-based robot localization and map-building algorithm. Via the proposed algorithm, a robot can automatically patrol the environment whose environment information has been learned or plan a shortest path to visit some particular locations pre-specifies by the user.
To learn a new environment, a robot must first proceed to the exploration procedure (EP). In EP, a robot uses its vision and an infrared sensor to build a map of the unknown environment. The map is represented as a graph which consists of vertexes and edge. When a robot in navigating, a vertex is generated whenever a distinct environment (e.g. intersections, blind alleys, etc.) is detected and an edge is used to connect these vertex. At each vertex or particular location, images of the environment will be stared in a training data set. After the robot have finished the navigation tour and go back to the original starting position, a two-layer perceptron is trained to memorize the environment using the collected training data set. After the robot has built the environment map after the end of the EP, it enters the operation procedure (OP).
In OP, the robot may automatically patrol the environment and transmit images to remote clients via a web browser or execute a particular patrolling task assigned by the user. During a navigation tour, the robot knows its location by contract a match between the observation and the expectation as derived from the database. The match is computed by feeding the observation to the trained MLP. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by training a SONY AIBO to navigate a home environment.
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目標 1
1.3 論文架構 2
第二章 相關研究與硬體介紹 3
2.1 導航相關介紹 3
2.1.1 環境定位(Localization) 3
2.1.2 避障(Obstacle Avoidance) 5
2.2 硬體介紹 6
第三章 系統架構與研究方法 8
3.1 初始與校正 9
3.1.1 RGB與HSV色彩空間轉換 9
3.1.2 樣版影像位移比對 (Template Matching) 12
3.1.3 基於樣版影像比對之轉向計算 13
3.1.4 邊緣偵測與絕對方向校正判斷 15
3.1.5 原點定位 22
3.2 探索模式 24
3.2.1 路寬計算 26
3.2.2 道路偵測 26
3.2.3 地圖表示方式 27
3.2.4 訓練地點選擇 29
3.2.5 取得環境影像特徵向量資訊 30
3.2.6 地點訓練 31
3.3 操作模式 32
3.3.1 路徑規劃 33
3.3.2 地點歸屬度的取得 35
3.3.3 地點判定 36
3.3.4 行走方向決策 39
3.3.5 目標方向計算 41
3.3.6 返回原路徑絕對方向計算 42
3.3.7 避障方向計算 43
第四章 實驗結果 46
4.1 系統架構簡介 46
4.2 運作狀態實驗 46
4.2.1 實驗環境 47
4.2.2 直走測試實驗 47
4.2.3 轉向測試 48
4.2.4 地點辨識率與地點歸屬度測試 51
4.3 探索模式實驗 54
4.3.1 地圖大小與地點誤差 54
4.3.2 地點到地點之角度誤差 56
4.4 操作模式測試 57
4.4.1 實驗結果 57
4.4.2 實驗示意圖 58
4.5 實驗與問題探討 64
4.5.1 探索模式討論 64
4.5.2 操作模式討論 64
第五章 結論與展望 65
參考文獻 67
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