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研究生:陳怡瑾
研究生(外文):Yi-Jing Chen
論文名稱:育成後期限飼對商用紅羽母土雞的生長、產蛋與血液之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Feed Restriction During the Later Rearing Period
指導教授:趙清賢趙清賢引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:動物科學系研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:產蛋限飼紅羽母土雞輸卵管型態
外文關鍵詞:Egg productionFeed restrictionFemale red-feathered Taiwan Country ChickenMorphology of oviduct
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本研究目的在瞭解育成後期限飼對紅羽母土雞生長、產蛋性能及血液性狀之影響。依目前商用紅羽種土雞場挑選種母雞的方式,選擇180隻經任飼飼養至13週齡的小母雞,進行任飼與限飼的餵飼處理。逢機將90隻小母雞飼養於個別產蛋母雞籠(籠飼),另90隻則飼養於9個地面雞欄(平飼)。在14 – 20週齡間,籠飼與平飼小母雞都安排任飼、餵飼三天停飼一天(RF3-1)及隔日給飼(RF1-1)等3種餵飼處理。在21週齡以後,所有試驗母雞則皆給予定量餵飼。記錄餵飼處理期間每日飼料消耗量,並隔週秤量個別雞隻體重。血液學分析在9 至25週齡隔週測量,之後則每四週測量至37週齡。籠飼母雞於49週齡犧牲屠宰,取輸卵管與濾泡供形態學分析。試驗結果如下:
RF3-1與RF1-1限飼母雞於14 – 20週齡的每日飼料消耗量分別為任飼母雞的91與82%,但體重則僅分別減少2與11%。兩個限飼處理對母雞32週齡以後的體重沒有顯著的影響。死亡率在餵飼處理間沒有顯著差異(P > 0.10),但RF3-1的平飼母雞表現較高的脫肛比例(P < 0.05)。任飼母雞較RF3-1與RF1-1母雞早達到產蛋高峰(P < 0.05)。籠飼母雞的高峰產蛋率高於平飼母雞(P < 0.05)。RF3-1母雞的隻日產蛋率高於任飼母雞(P < 0.05)。初產日齡、高峰產蛋率、隻舍產蛋數、或不正常蛋數在餵飼處理間沒有差異(P > 0.10)。在49週齡,腹脂、輸卵管、與濾泡總重量或輸卵管型態在餵飼處理間皆沒有差異(P > 0.10)。無論是何種餵飼處理,寡產或休產母雞的腹腔內有顯著較多的卵墜,且卵巢內有顯著較多的閉鎖濾泡數(P < 0.05)。籠飼母雞的血球容積比高於平飼母雞(P < 0.05)。血球容積比或紅血球數目在餵飼處理間則無差異(P > 0.10)。RF1-1母雞的異嗜球與淋巴球比例有較高的趨勢(P < 0.10)。由以上結果顯示,紅羽小母雞任飼至13週齡後才開始限飼,並無法改善紅羽母土雞的產蛋能力及卵巢異常的情形。限飼或開始產蛋皆有可能會造成母雞生理的緊迫。而紅羽土雞產蛋性能不佳主要是由於腹腔內卵墜與卵巢內的閉鎖濾泡所造成。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction during the later rearing period on growth, egg production, and haematology of female red-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken (Red-TCC). Following the method used by breeders of Red-TCC, 180 pullets that were ad libitum fed to 13 wk of age, were given either ad libitum or restricted feeding treatments. Ninety randomly selected pullets were assigned to individual laying cages, and the remaining 90 pullets were allocated to 9 floor pens. From 14 to 20 wk of age, both caged and floor pullets were given one of the three feeding treatments, i.e., ad libitum (AL), 3 d feeding - 1 d fasting (RF3-1), and skip-a-day (RF1-1). From 21 wk of age, all birds were given the same amount of feed. During the feeding treatment, feed consumption was recorded daily and individual body weights were measured biweekly. Haematology analyses were conducted biweekly from 9 to 25 of age and then every 4 week until 37 wk of age. At 49 wk of age, all caged hens were sacrificed and the oviducts were taken for morphological analysis. The results were as follow:
Feed consumption of RF3-1 and RF1-1 pullets during the 14 to 20 wk of age period were respectively about 91 and 82% of the AL pullets, but their body weights only reduced 2 and 11%, respectively. None of the feed-restriction treatments had any affect on the body weight after 32 wk of age. There were no significant mortality difference among feeding treatments (P > 0.10), but the RF3-1 pullets raised in floor pens showed higher percentage of prolapsed cloaca (P < 0.05). The AL pullets reached peak of egg production earlier than those of RF3-1 and RF1-1 (P < 0.05). Pullets raised in cages had a better rate of lay at peak of egg production than those in floor pens (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found for age at first egg, rate of lay at peak of egg production, hen-housed egg production, or number of abnormal eggs among feeding treatments (P > 0.10). At 49 wk of age, there was no significant difference in total weights of abdominal fad pad, oviduct, and follicles, or in the morphology of oviduct among feeding treatments (P > 0.10). Both of the pullets with low egg production and those stopped laying had a large number of internal ovulation in the abdominal cavity and atretic follicles in the ovary (P < 0.05), regardless of feeding treatments. Blood of pullets raised in cages had a significantly higher packed-cell volume (PCV) than those in floor pens (P < 0.05). No significant difference in PCV or total number of erythrocyte was found among feeding treatments (P > 0.10). The RF1-1 pullets tended to have a higher heterophils to lymphocytes ratio than AL pullets (P < 0.10). Results of the present study indicated that, feed restriction (RF3-1 or RF1-1) from 14 to 20 wk of age could not improve egg production or reduce abnormal ovary conditions of Red-TCC pullets which had been given ad libitum feeding to 13 wk of age. Either feed restriction or the onset of laying might be a physiological stressor to pullets. The major factors of poor egg production in Red-TCC were internal ovulation in the abdominal cavity and atretic follicles in the ovary.
壹、中文摘要…………………………………………………………….1
貳、前言………………………………………………………………….3
參、文獻檢討
一、台灣養雞事業的發展..................................................................4
二、台灣肉用雞的分類、生長與產蛋表現
(一)白肉雞之種源及生長選拔成果……………………….....6
(二)有色肉雞的分類、生長及屠體表現…………………….7
(三)台灣土雞的產蛋性能…………………………………….9
(四)肉用種雞生長選拔後造成的生理疾病及繁殖障礙……10
三、種雞飼養管理模式
(一)台灣土雞的飼養模式 …………………………………. 14
(二)限飼的目的及方法 ……………………………………..15
四、母雞的生殖發育
(一)母雞激性腺素的分泌……………………………………18
(二)卵巢濾泡的發育…………………………………………19
(三)濾泡類固醇的生成………………………………………21
(四)排卵週期…………………………………………………25
(五)卵巢異常之表現…………………………………………26
(六)影響產蛋表現的因素……………………………………30
五、限飼對種母雞之效應
(一)生長性狀 ………………………………………………..36
(二)繁殖性狀…………………………………………………37
(三)血液性狀…………………………………………………41
六、限飼與動物福利
(一)緊迫生理機制……………………………………………42
(二)生理學的測定方法………………………………………43
(三)血液學的檢測……………………………………………44
(四)H/L比例的測定………………………………………….46
(五)H/L比例的應用……………………………………….....48
(六)限飼對於母雞之生理影響……………………………....49
肆、材料與方法
一、試驗動物及場地.........................................................................52
二、飼糧.............................................................................................52
三、光照計劃.....................................................................................53
四、防疫計劃.....................................................................................53
五、測定項目
(一)生長性狀 ………………………………………………..53
(二)產蛋性能…………………………………………………54
(三)腹脂、輸卵管與卵巢濾泡性狀....................................…54
(四)血液性狀…………………………………………………56
六、統計分析…………………………………………….…………60
伍、結果與討論
一、生長性狀
(一)飼料消耗量………………………………..……………..62
(二)體重及體增重....................................................................70
(三)死亡率................................................................................71
二、產蛋表現
(一)性成熟………………………………..…………………..78
(二)產蛋曲線............................................................................81
(三)產蛋率................................................................................82
三、腹脂、輸卵管與卵巢濾泡性狀
(一)活體重及腹脂重..................................................................86
(二)輸卵管及濾泡總重..............................................................86
(三)卵巢濾泡型態......................................................................87
四、血液性狀
(一)血球容積比、平均血球容積及紅血球總數……………..96
(二)白血球總數..........................................................................98
(三)異嗜球與淋巴球比例.........................................................103
陸、結論………………………………………………………..………...108
柒、參考文獻…………………………………………………..………...109
捌、英文摘要.............................................................................................126

表次
表1 商用紅羽母土雞在98 – 137日齡每日飼料消耗量之最小平方平均值............................................................................................................66
表2 商用紅羽母土雞各週齡體重之最小平方平均值.................................75
表3 商用紅羽母土雞各週齡體增重之最小平方平均值.............................76
表4 商用紅羽母土雞試驗期間的死亡率及脫肛比例.................................77
表5 商用紅羽母土雞初產日齡、高峰產蛋週齡及產蛋率和初產至40週齡 產蛋性能之最小平方平均值................................................................80
表6 商用紅羽母土雞在49週齡之活體重、腹脂、輸卵管、濾泡總重與卵巢濾泡數................................................................................................89
表7 商用紅羽母土雞在49週齡之卵巢體系濾泡參數...............................90
表8 商用紅羽母土雞的產蛋能力.................................................................93
表9 高、寡及休產母雞在49週齡之活體重、腹脂、輸卵管、濾泡總重與卵巢濾泡數..............................................................................................94
表10 高、寡及停產母雞在49週齡之卵巢體系濾泡參數...........................95
表11 商用紅羽母土雞各週齡血球容積比、紅血球及白血球總數之最小平方平均值.....................................................................................................99
表12 商用紅羽母土雞各週齡異嗜球、淋巴球數目及H/L比例...............106


圖次
圖1 母雞卵巢濾泡形態............................................................................21
圖2 母雞卵巢濾泡之結構........................................................................22
圖3 母雞卵巢濾泡之分類........................................................................55
圖4 紅血球及白血球計數........................................................................58
圖5 雞隻血液中的紅血球、異嗜球及淋巴球........................................59
圖6 商用紅羽母土雞各日齡之平均每日飼料消耗量............................65
圖7 商用紅羽母土雞在有餵飼日之平均飼料消耗量............................67
圖8 餵飼三天停飼一天之商用紅羽母土雞在有餵飼日之每日飼料消耗量.......................................................................................................68
圖9 隔日給飼之商用紅羽母土雞在有餵飼日之每日飼料消耗量........69
圖10 商用紅羽母土雞在各週齡之體重與飼料消耗量............................73
圖11 商用紅羽母土雞在各週齡之體增重................................................74
圖12 商用紅羽母土雞之產蛋曲線(隻日產蛋率) ....................................84
圖13 商用紅羽母土雞之蛋重曲線............................................................85
圖14 商用紅羽母土雞卵墜、卵巢內濾泡閉鎖及輸卵管異常的情形....91
圖15 商用紅羽母土雞各週齡之血球容積比...........................................100
圖16 商用紅羽母土雞在各週齡之紅血球總數.......................................101
圖17 商用紅羽母土雞在各週齡之白血球總數.......................................102
圖18 商用紅羽母土雞在各週齡之H/L比例...........................................107
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