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研究生:羅昱淳
研究生(外文):Yi-Chun Lou
論文名稱:以粒線體去氧核醣核酸之12S核醣體核醣核酸序列探討鯊形總目魚類的親緣關係
論文名稱(外文):Phylogenetic Relationships of Selachomorpha Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA 12S Ribosomal RNA Sequences
指導教授:陳哲聰陳哲聰引用關係林坤龍林坤龍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Che-Tsung ChenKun-Lung Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄海洋科技大學
系所名稱:漁業生產與管理研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:鯊形總目親緣關係粒線體去氧核醣核酸核醣體核醣核酸聚合酶連鎖反應
外文關鍵詞:SelachomorphaPhylogenyMitochondrial DNARibosomal RNAPolymerase Chain Reaction
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鯊形總目(Selachomorpha)隸屬於軟骨魚綱(Chondrichthyes)的板鰓亞綱(Elasmobranchii),下含八個目。已往對其親緣關係及分類上的瞭解皆是基於形態上的證據且尚未得到定論。此外,目前首目及目間之分類系統仍有爭議,因此本研究使用DNA序列為工具重建鯊形總目之分子親緣關係。
本研究採集期間自2004年9月至2005年8月,以南方澳、成功漁港為主要採集地點。利用聚合酶連鎖反應(PCR)方法,以粒線體DNA之12S rRNA序列探討台灣周邊海域產鯊形總目間之親緣關係,並討論其生殖上與演化之關聯。以黑線銀鲛為外群,分析10目24科44種共計117尾樣本,所得結果如下: (1)鼠鮫目、鬚鮫目及白眼鮫目均為一單系群;鼠鮫目與異齒鮫目為同一群;鋸鮫目為最早衍化群;白眼鮫目為最晚衍生群。(2)在白眼鮫目中丫髻鮫科為一單系群及丫髻鮫科為最晚衍生群;在鼠鮫目中鯖鮫科與狐鮫科均為一單系群,食人鮫屬的姊妹群為鼠鮫屬+鯖鮫屬,深海狐鮫的姊妹群為狐鮫+淺海狐鮫,砂鮫屬為最早衍化群,鯖鮫屬為最晚衍生群。
Taxonomically, Selachomorpha is included in subclass Elasmobranchii under class Chondrichthyes, being divided 8 order. The phylogenetic relationships within Selachomorpha are still in vague. Furthermore, the systematics of First order and order remains controversial, we reconstruct their molecular phylogeny by using mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Most of the specimens were collected in Nan-Fang-Ao and Cheng-kung Port from September 2004 to August 2005 in this study. Using PCR methods to obtain mtDNA 12S rRNA sequencing inferred phylogenetic relationships of Selachomorpha with their reproductive evolution in the surrounding waters of Taiwan. Forty-four species, 24 families, 10 order and 117 specimen were analyiszed in this study. The results show (1) Lamniformes, Orectolobiformes, Carcharhiniformes can be respectively a monophyletic group; Lamniformes and Heterodontiformes can be the same group; Pristiophoriformes can be the most earlist devired group; Carcharhiniformes can be the latest devired group. (2) Sphyrnidae can be respectively a monophyletic group and can be the latest devired group in Carcharhiniformes; Alopiidae and Lamnidae can be respectively a monophyletic group, Carcharodon is considered as the sister group of Isurus and Lamna, Alopias superciliosus is considered as the sister group of Alopias superciliosus and Alopias vulpinus, Eugomphodus can be the most earlist devired group, Isurus can be the latest devired group in Lamniformes.
中文摘要…………………………………………...……………….. .….....I
英文摘要…………………………………………………...…………..…III
誌謝…………………………………………………...……………….…..V
目錄…………………………………………………..………………….VII
表目錄………………………………………………...…………………..IX
圖目錄……………………………………………...……………………...X
前言………………………………………………...………………….…...1
(一) 軟骨魚類的概述………………….……………..….…......1
(二) 粒線體DNA特性………………….….……………..........4
(三) 軟骨魚類的生殖模式………………..……………………..…...6
(四) 軟骨魚類的分子親緣關係研究回顧……..………………..…….7
(五) 研究目的……………………………..……………..………..……9
材料與方法………………………………...…………………….……….11
(一) 標本採集……………….………………………………….11
(二) 粒線體DNA之定序……….………..…...…………….…….…...11
1. 粒線體DNA之萃取……………………..………………..…...11
2. 引子(Primer)之設計…………………..…………………..…..13
3. 粒線體DNA片段之大量增幅…………..…………………….14
4. 資料分析……………………………...…………………….…15
結果………………………………………………...…………….……….17
(一) DNA序列的分析…………………………...…………….……....17
1. 鹼基的組成…………………………...…………………….....17
2. 遺傳距離……………………………...………………….……18
(二) 鯊形總目的親緣關係…………………..…………………..…....20
(三) 演化時間的推估…………………………..……………………..21
討論………………………………………………...….……………….....23
(一) 分子演化上的訊息……………………………..………………..23
(二) 鯊形總目各目間的親緣關係…………………..…………..……24
(三) 鯊形總目各目內各科間的親緣關係…………..…………..…....26
(四) 親緣關係與其生殖演化及棲息環境間的關聯性……........…....27
參考文獻………………………………………………………………….29
表……………………………………………………………...…….…….37
圖…………………………………………………………...…..…………68
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