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研究生:朱戊杉
研究生(外文):Wu-Shan Chu
論文名稱:以粒線體之12S核醣體核醣核酸探討白眼鮫目之親緣關係
論文名稱(外文):Phylogenetic Relationships of Carcharhiniformes Inferred from Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal RNA Sequences
指導教授:陳哲聰陳哲聰引用關係林坤龍林坤龍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Che-Tsung ChenKun-Lung Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄海洋科技大學
系所名稱:漁業生產與管理研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:白眼鮫目粒線體親緣關係單系群並系群姊妹群。
外文關鍵詞:CarcharhiniformesMitochondrialphylogeneticmonophyleticparaphyleticsister group
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白眼鮫目一般分為8科,包含貓鮫科、原鮫科、擬貓鮫科、平滑鮫科、細鬚雅鯊科、半鋸尾鮫科、白眼鮫科及ㄚ髻鮫科。其各科間親緣關係仍有些爭議問題,因此本研究以粒線體DNA 12S rRNA鹼基序列分析,希望能提供更多的證據,來釐清白眼鮫目各科間的親緣關係。樣本採集期間自2004年9月至2005年8月,以宜蘭大溪、南方澳漁港為主要採集地點,採集白眼鮫目5科14屬27種,共95尾樣本。其序列長度為952至968個鹼基。研究對象包含貓鮫科、原鮫科、平滑鮫科、白眼鮫科及ㄚ髻鮫科,以黑線銀鮫為外群利用相鄰法、最大相似法、最大簡約法重建親緣關係演化樹,其結果如下:(1)白眼鮫目分為8科;(2)貓鮫科、平滑鮫科為並系群;(3)ㄚ髻鮫科為單系群;(4)白眼鮫科為並系群;(5)貓鮫科中光尾鮫屬與鋸尾鮫屬為姊妹群;(6)白眼鮫屬是並系群;(7)貂鮫屬為單系群;(8)鼬鮫是白眼鮫類的姊妹群;(9)鼬鮫是白眼鮫科+ㄚ髻鮫科的原始種。此外,亦討論了白眼鮫目的生殖模式與演化的關係。
Taxonmically, Carcharhiniformes has 8 family included Scyliorhinidae, Proscylliidae, Pseudotriakidae, Leptochariidae, Triakidae, Hemigaleidae, Carcharhihidae and Sphyrnidae. The relationship of each family still has some controversial problems. Thus, the research is in terms of analysis of base pair of DNA 12S rRNA and hope that can provide more evidence to figure out the relationship of each family.Most of the samples were collected in Dasi and Nan fang ao from Septmeber 2004 to Augest 2005. Five family, 14 genera, 27 species and 95 samples in carcharhiniformes were analyzed. Using mitochondrial 12S ribosomal gene inferred phylogenetic relationships within Carcharhiniformes. The mitochondrial aligned sequence are 952~968 bp long. This study included Scyliorhinidae, Proscyllidae, Triakidae, Spyrnidae and Carcharhinidae, as well as Chimaera phantasma is served as the outgroup. We use Neighbor-joining、Maximum likelihood and Maximum parsimony method to reconstruction phylogentic tree and the results are showed (1) Carcharhiniforms divides 8 family; (2) Scyliorhinidae and Triakidae can be paraphyletic; (3) Spyrnidae can be monophyletic; (4) Carcharhinidae can be paraphyletic; (5) Apristurus and Galeus in Scyliorhinidae are sister group; (6) Carcharhinus can be paraphyletic; (7) Mustelus can be paraphyletic; (8) Galeocerdo is the sister group with the Carcharhinids; (9) Galeocerdo is the base in Carcharhinidae and Spyrnidae.
摘要……………………………………………………….........……Ⅰ
英文摘要............................................................................................ Ⅱ
謝辭…………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
目錄……………………………………………………………….... Ⅵ
表目錄……………………………………………………………...Ⅷ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………….Ⅸ
前言….……………………………..…………………………..………….1
一、 軟骨魚類的概述…………………………………………………1
二、 白眼鮫目之分類系統……………………………………………2
三、 白眼鮫目之生殖模式……………………………………………6
四、 軟骨魚類之分子親緣關係研究回顧……………………………7
五、 研究目的…………………………………………………………8
材料方法…………………………………………………………………12
一、樣的採集…………………………………………………………12
1.粒線體DNA之萃取……………………………………………...12
2.引子(primer)之設計…………………………………………...14
3. 粒線體DNA 12S rRNA之大量增幅(amplification)……....14
二、DNA序列分析……………………………………………………15
1. 序列整理與校對………………………...……………………….15
2. 序列排序(alignment)……………………………………………16
3. 序列特性與親緣關係樹(phylogentic tree)的構建……………..17
結 果……………………………………………………………………...18
一、 DNA序列整理與分析………………………………………….18
1. 核苷酸序列組成…………………………………………………18
2. 遺傳距離(genetic distance)……………………………………18
二、白眼鮫目之親緣關係…………………………………………….20
三、演化時間的推估………………………………………………….21
討 論……………………………………………………………………...22
一、白眼鮫目遺傳距離……………………………………………….22
二、白眼鮫目的親緣關係…………………………………………….22
三、白眼鮫目生殖模式與演化關係………………………………….26
四、推估白眼鮫目演化時間………………………………………….27
參考文獻………………………………………………………………….28
附表……………………………………………...………………………..34
附圖……………………………………………...……………….……….61
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