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研究生:陳美君
研究生(外文):Chen Mei-chun
論文名稱:羅斯.麥唐納的<冷山>和<睡美人>中的妒嫉和權力衝突
論文名稱(外文):Jealousy and Power Conflict in Ross Macdonald’s The Chill and Sleeping Beauty: A Symbiotic Approach to Criminal Behavior
指導教授:歐司迪
指導教授(外文):Stephen Ohlander
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:羅斯. 麥唐納冷山睡美人
外文關鍵詞:Ross MacdonaldThe ChillSleeping Beauty
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提及冷硬派偵探小說,世人馬上想到的是戴許.漢密特(1894-1961)和雷蒙.錢德勒(1888-1959),乃至於後來的羅斯.麥唐諾(1915-1983). 漢密特是「冷硬派偵探小說」的開創者,與錢德勒共同打造了美國偵探小說的新世代。 若說此二人是整個美國冷硬派偵探小說的靈魂,那麼麥唐納即代表冷硬派書寫哲學的最高體現,寫出冷硬派可能的最美好面向. 因此,若將他們的作品只當是簡單的推理偵探小說來讀,將會使你錯過最好的部分,非常可惜. 事實上,他們和福克納、海明威一樣好,禁得住你當偉大的小說來讀。
麥唐納小說中最耀眼、最值得仔細閱讀的部分,首先當然是劉亞契(菲力普‧馬羅的接班人). 他筆下的偵探,一個艱辛鑿刻打造出來的高貴之人,聰明、堅定、極其強硬, 卻有著太敏感太正直所挾帶而來的必然脆弱。 麥唐納賦予他一個黃金色澤的騎士心靈,卻也給他一個浮世之中潦倒私家偵探的不體面職業,並把他悍然拋擲在一九三0~五0這個英雄世代逐步傾斜向平凡現代社會的詭譎接攘時間,於是我們看到了不可免的奮戰和堅持,看到了必然的剝落和消失,同時看到了希望和絕望同在的古怪圖像, 如人性的碎片散落在窮巷垃圾堆裡堅定的閃著寒光. 就在這裡,我們會見識到偵探小說未曾有過的動人深奧。
此論文主要藉由傅科在<性意識史>所闡述的權力概念來探討在<冷山>和<睡美人>中麥唐納所揭露之險惡妒忌和權力衝突. 通常人們將權力理解為壓制(傅柯簡稱為Reich’s hypothesis),但當傅柯以解析權力間的轉移、契約關係、異化為研究方向,即揭示權力關係生產的維持方式時,權力就以鬥爭、衝突及戰爭的形式出現(他稱為尼采式的權力鬥爭)。 傅科提到權力機構如何將先將性放在法律位置(juridico-discursive)上,而後以現代權力技術,透過技術、正常化、與控制,無孔不入地滲透在各個角落。 在<性意識史>裡,傅科也清楚地描述權力的特質與運作,如權力是不平等、流動的關係;權力並非一個二元系統中的元素;它是具目的但無主體的;權力與抵抗是同時存在的,抵抗並不外於權力。
<冷山>及<睡美人>中的女性角色亦是引人深思的焦點所在,這不僅是好萊塢電影「黑色女人」的起源,更重要的是,我們會看到走出傳統社會框架、拋開柔弱女性特質,和男性平等扮演犯罪主體的聰明狡詐女性背後的脆弱和艱辛——我們從女性敗壞的開始,同樣看到了她們對愛情及權力之迷戀. 她們所展現的不再屈服之決心貫穿了整部小說。 透過亞契的眼睛和思索,故事背後那一整座龐大並不斷生長高聳的城市,以及這樣一座城市所隱喻的一整個時代,永遠是麥唐納揮之不去的關懷主題,對於今天站在台灣這一方土地看著城市如變形蟲生長、時代強風不停歇打擊身上的讀者而言,尤其會有更深沉的感同身受。
Kenneth Millar (1915-1983), under the pen name of Ross Macdonald, arguably forms the third point of what is now considered the Holy Trinity of hard-boiled detective fiction (Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler and Ross Macdonald). Hard-boiled crime fiction is a unique American style pioneered by Dashiell Hammett, refined by Raymond Chandler, and immensely glorified by Ross Macdonald. Hard-boiled fiction is most commonly associated with detective short stories and novels. The name comes from a colloquial phrase of understatement. For an egg, being hard-boiled is comparatively tough. The counterpart detective would be stylistically referred to as a “tough detective” and are considered “more human” in contrast with traditional ones. Under the portrayal of hard-boiled writing, they do not have to deal with the darker themes of deceit and violence in a direct manner.
Macdonald’s The Chill and Sleeping Beauty reveal the burning jealousy that wives harbor toward their husbands as well as other women whom their husbands prefer. Macdonald tells the reader how those jealous wives manage to kill other women to get power over their husbands. Besides, looking over Shakespeare’s Othello and Ford’s ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore, we can derive the discrepancy in males’ and females’ rebound to infidelity from a comparison between Macdonald’s revengeful women and Shakespeare’s and Ford’s envious men. These different codes in sexuality make a close connection with various forms of power that are exercised.
Michel Foucault, a French great thinker, also has interpreted the concept of power in his major works. According to Michel Foucault, the practice of sexuality has a close connection with power which may lead to extreme jealousy when the gap between the dominative and the submissive is too big. Inspired by Macdonald and Foucault, I hope to scrutinize the subtle dynamic interaction between jealousy and power conflict in this thesis. Power conflict between unfaithful husbands and revengeful wives are plotted in The Chill and Sleeping Beauty. This story differs in many ways from the traditional version of older man/younger woman, within which there is a powerful parallel. When the power gap between two persons is too big, when one person has all the power, the dependent partner finds it increasingly difficult to handle his/her envy.
And that’s what I want to do in my thesis: I will look deep into the essence of jealousy and investigate the connection between jealousy and power/ sexuality and power. I will focus on pathological jealousy referring exclusively to a feeling towards another person in which a sexual relationship is involved. What’s more, I want to scrutinize the crucial factors which cause different reactions to infidelity between genders and crimes triggered by extreme jealousy. The power conflict within is the key factor in jealousy, featuring warring couples; jealousy caused by power unbalance is really the secret of domestic violence such as spouses’ physical fighting, shouting matches, and blooding murder for the worst .
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