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研究生:廖美津
研究生(外文):Mei-Chin Liao
論文名稱:雞屠宰場雞肉微生物污染及防治方法之研究
論文名稱(外文):Survey and prevention of microbiological contamination of chicken meat during poultry processing
指導教授:邱文貴邱文貴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Kuei Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:雞屠宰場雞肉燙毛水冷卻水
外文關鍵詞:poultry processingchicken meatscald waterchilling water
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台灣雞肉消費量持續增加,目前佔肉類總消費量20%以上。而雞肉經常受病原菌(pathogens)和其他微生物的污染,因此造成市售生鮮雞肉及雞肉製品引起食物中毒事件發生。為了確保食品安全性,食品衛生控制是必要的。在進行食品微生物控制上,把握食品中微生物危害性,考慮食品原料、製造、流通到消費者手中每個生產流通環節之對策是很重要的。本研究首先調查雞屠宰場分切室微生物污染情形,接著研究在模擬實驗中添加酸於燙毛水中(scalding water),燙毛的時間和微生物數量變化情形,及添加氯、有機酸之冷卻水中,冷卻時間和接種菌株雞肉之微生物變化兩者相關性。最後模擬實驗條件數據實際應用在生產線上探討微生物污染及防止情形。
實驗方法首先使用生菌數標準方法,BGLB、EMB、MLCB等培養方法快速測定雞屠宰場分切室的生菌數、大腸桿菌群、金黃色葡萄球菌、沙門氏菌、彎曲桿菌污染情形。接著模擬實驗中培養沙門氏菌(Salmonella enteritidis) 37℃,24小時,彎曲桿菌(Campylobacter jenuni)、37℃,48小時,使用滅菌生理食鹽水稀釋成106/ml之菌種液或接種於雞屠體(已滅菌處理)。菌種液直接放入添加各種有機酸(醋酸、酒石酸、乳酸和蘋果酸)燙毛槽水中經過0、60、90、120秒處理(pH4.5,溫度59~62℃)後測定菌數。附著菌體之雞屠體也以同樣處理條件處理後測定菌數。另一方面添加100ppm次氯酸鈉冷卻水(溫度1~4℃)和使用醋酸調整pH值成3或4之附著菌體(104~105/㎝2)雞屠體浸漬於上述冷卻水中,經過0、10、30、60分鐘等不同浸漬時間處理,測定菌數。最後實際生產線燙毛水中添加混合有機酸(0.06%醋酸、0.05%蘋果酸、0.05%乳酸,pH4.1~4.3)而冷卻水(pH5.0,溫度1~4℃)含100ppm次氯酸鈉,測定在各個生產工程中微生物(一般生菌數、大腸菌群、彎曲桿菌等)實際污染狀況。
研究結果顯示,直接皮膚採取法的生菌數平均值( )是4.21比玻璃棒法 為3.33還高,特別在冷卻後有明顯的差異。至於大腸菌群結果與生菌數類似,但金黃色葡萄球菌結果卻參差不齊。接著在屠宰及分切工程中,無論衛生指標菌(CFU、大腸菌)和食中毒菌(沙門氏菌、金黃色葡萄球菌、彎曲桿菌)在分切工程(砧板、電子秤、手套)測出數目均比屠宰工程多,顯示個人衛生及交叉污染情形嚴重性。模擬實驗及實際生產工廠使用各種有機酸pH4.3~4.5之燙毛水的燙毛前後病源菌數目降低成原來菌數的1/10~1/100,而添加100ppm次氯酸鈉冷卻水(pH5)也使冷卻前後病原菌數目降低1/2~1/10倍。綜合以上結果顯示添加酸,調整pH值,添加次氯酸鈉在燙毛水、冷卻水中是一實際可防止微生物菌數、病原菌污染之有效方法並能提供衛生安全無慮之生鮮雞肉製品予消費者。
The consumption of chicken increases continuously in Taiwan, account for more than 20% of total volume of consumption of meat at present. Chicken is often polluted by pathogen and other microorganisms. Therefore, the food poisoning was caused by the fresh chicken or processing chicken products. In order to make sure the food safety, the hygiene processing is necessary for chicken or the processing products. In the control of microorganisms, it was important that is to think about every points of the processing, including the chicken source、the processing and the trading. First, the pollute situation at separating room in chicken slaughter house was investigated in this study. And then the organic acid was added into scalding water in simulate experiment, the scald time and the variation of microorganism counts was investigated. And the cold water that contains chlorine、organic acid was added into it, the relationship was studied by the cooling time and the microorganism counts variation that inoculation colony to the chicken. Finally, the simulation experiment condition data would practice to the processing, and then it was done that is to study the situation of the pollution and prevention way by microorganism.
The experiment use the standard method. The pollution situation was tested by BGLB、EMB and MLCB. The Salmonella was cultured at 37℃ for 24 hrs and the Campylobacter was cultured at 37℃ for 48 hrs in simulate experiment. Culture liquid was diluted to 106/ml with physiological saline. The culture liquid was put in scalding water tank with addition of same kinds of the organic acid (acetic acid 、tartaric acid、lactic acid and malic acid), then the microorganism counts was tested after 0,60,90,120 seconds. The culture liquid that attached chicken was tested at the same control condition. On the other hand, the chicken that attached 104-105/ml culture liquid was soaked to the cooling water which added chlorine for 100ppm(1-4℃) and adjustment pH to 3 or 4 with acetic acid for 0,10,30,60 mins, and the counts was tested. Finally, the mixed organic acid (0.06% acetic acid, 0.05% malic acid,0.05% lactic acid)was added to the scalding water that contains 100ppm cooling water in practice processing, and the microorganism including total counts, coliform and Campylobacter was tested at every producing point.
The result showed that direct skin selection method is higher than glass stick method in average value of total counts, especially it had the remarkable different after cooling. The result of coliform was similar to the total counts. But the result of Staphylococcus was unstable. The result of hygiene index bacteria and food pathogen showed the separation processing is higher than slaughter processing in bacteria counts. The result mean that personal hygiene and crossing-pollution was worse situation. Kinds of organic acid was added to scalding water could decrease the bacteria counts to 1/10-1/100 in simulate experiment and the factory. And 100ppm of chlorine was added to cooling water could decrease bacteria counts to 1/2-1/10. Therefore, the addition of acids, chlorine or adjustment of pH value could prevent chicken from bacteria and pathogenic pollution.
目錄

摘要…………………….……………………………………………….Ⅰ
Abstract….………………………………………..…………………. Ⅲ
誌謝…………………………………………………………………….Ⅴ
目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………….Ⅷ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅸ
第一章、前言........………..…………………………………………….1
第二章、文獻回顧……..……….……………………………………….2
2.1雞屠宰場屠宰流程………….………………………………….2
2.2動物屠體的污染途徑…………………………………………..7
2.3 工廠設備與屠體間相互污染之探討…………………………10
2.4器具與屠體間菌數相互污染之探討…………………………..11
2.5設備與器具之清洗消毒………………………………………..12
2.6降低屠體表面污染的方法…………………………………….14
2.7家禽屠體常污染的病原菌及預防方法…………………….…17
第三章、 材料與方法………………………………..…………………19
3.1實驗架構…….…………………………………………….……19
3.2實驗材料…………………………………………………….…20
3.3實驗方法…………………………………………………….…21
3.4雞屠宰場微生物污染情形調查與取樣方法………………….22
3.5燙毛槽水的有機酸和沙門氏菌彎曲桿菌的生殘性之關係….22
3.6已接菌雞翅(Salmonella,Campylobacter)在含次氯酸鈉冷卻
水中與添加醋酸之情形……………..………………………...23
3.7在雞屠宰場,使用有機酸和次氯酸鈉來控制微生物之情
形……………..………………..…………………………….…23
第四章、結果與討論…………………………………………………24
4.1調查雞屠宰場微生物污染情形與不同取樣方法之比較……24
4.2在添加有機酸燙毛曹水沙門氏菌和灣曲桿菌的殘存性……35
4.3沙門氏菌和彎曲桿菌在含次氯酸鈉、醋酸之冷卻水中的殘
存性………………………..…………………………………..41
4.4在雞屠宰場的燙毛槽水和冷卻水中添加有機酸和次氯酸鈉
來控制微生物之情形………………………………..……..44
第五章、結論………………………………………………………47
參考文獻..………………………………………………………………48
作者簡介…………………………………………………………54
表目錄

表1、燙毛水中添加有機酸對沙門氏菌之影響………………………36
表2、燙毛水中添加有機酸對彎曲桿菌之影響……………………….37
表3、接菌過(沙門氏菌)之雞翅浸漬於含有機酸燙毛水之情形…….39
表4、接菌過(彎曲桿菌)之雞翅浸漬於含有機酸燙毛水之情形…….40
表5、含100ppm次氯酸鈉與醋酸之冷卻水對沙門氏菌之影響…….42
表6、含100ppm次氯酸鈉與醋酸之冷卻水對彎曲桿菌之影響….…43
表7、在雞屠宰場的燙毛水與冷卻水中添加有機酸與次氯酸鈉來控
制微生物之情形………………………………………………..46

圖2.1屠宰加工流程圖…………………………………………………..6
圖3.1實驗設計…………………………………………………………19
圖4.1不同取樣方法之屠體表面生菌數之影響………………………25
圖4.2不同取樣方法之屠體表面大腸桿菌群之影響…………………26
圖4.3不同取樣方法之屠體表面金黃色葡萄球菌之影響……………27
圖4.4在加工流程中生菌數與大腸桿菌群之污染情形………………29
圖4.5食中毒菌(沙門氏菌、彎曲桿菌、金黃色葡萄球菌)在加工流
程中之污染情形………………………………………………..30
圖4.6不同部位肉之生菌數於不同季節的檢測情形…………………32
圖4.7不同部位肉之大腸桿菌群於不同季節的檢測情形……………33
圖4.8生產線與器具的微生物污染情形………………………………34
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