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研究生:周湘宏
研究生(外文):Shang-Hung Chou
論文名稱:非對稱性傳輸特性對無實體架構無線網路繞送之影響
論文名稱(外文):Impact of Asymmetric Transmission on MANET Routing
指導教授:童曉儒
指導教授(外文):Sheau-Ru Tong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:資訊管理系
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:無實體架構網路非對稱傳輸單向路徑
外文關鍵詞:MANETAd HocAsymmetric Transmissionunidirectional link
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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在Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET)中,單向連結普遍存在於鄰近的網點之間,主要是由於設備的異質性,產生非對稱性的傳送功率與接收靈敏度。本論文發現這樣的非對稱性傳輸現象將明顯的衝擊大多數MANET繞送演算法的執行效率,這主要肇因於在這些繞送演算法中,多採用flooding的方式進行路徑探勘,而其中每個網點在接收到的訊息時,沒有檢查返回至訊息來源者的反向連結是否存在,即進行訊息轉送,結果,由於反向路徑不存在而導致路徑無法成功的建立。為了解決這個問題,我們提出了一套power-aware的方法,基本原理為,在flooding訊息中,我們加入傳送功率與接收靈敏度的資訊,當網點收到某一訊息時,會利用此資訊計算反向連結是否存在,只有當存在時再考慮是否轉送訊息,否則忽略訊息。從模擬結果中我們觀察到,非對稱性傳輸現象會嚴重的危害到MANET繞送演算的正常運作(如:AODV或DSR),而加入power-aware的功能,能顯著地降低路徑探勘的延遲達數十甚至數百倍之多。
In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET), unidirectional links commonly exist between a pair of neighboring nodes if they are heterogeneous devices and showing asymmetric transmission power or reception sensitivity. In this thesis, we show that such asymmetric transmission phenomenon significantly impacts the efficiency of most of the existent routing algorithms proposed for MANET. This is because they usually employ a flooding mechanism for route discovery, where a node forwards a received message to others without checking the reversibility of the link from which that message was received. Consequently, we may fail to establish the route because of absence of reverse links. To solve this problem, we introduce a power-aware scheme. In principle, information of transmission power and reception sensitivity is carried in a flooding message, and upon receiving the message, a node can use this information to figure out whether the reverse link exists or not. Only when the reverse link exists, the node will consider forwarding the message, otherwise ignore it. From the simulation result, we observe that the asymmetric transmission may seriously jeopardize the MANET routing (such as AODV and DSR) and the proposed power-aware scheme can significantly reduce their route discovery latency in the order of several magnitudes.
摘要.……………………………………………………………………….I
Abstract..………………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
誌謝 ..…………………………………………………………………….Ⅲ
目錄 ……………………………………………………………………. Ⅳ
圖索引….…………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
表索引…………………………………………………………………….Ⅷ
1.緒論………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究背景……………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究動機……………………………………………………………4
1.3 研究目的…………………………………………………………….6
1.4 論文架構 ..…………………………..……………………………. 8
2.文獻探討………………………………..………………………………10
2.1 MANET 繞送協定 …..………………………....………..………..10
2.2 Flooding 機制對網路影響…..…………………..…………………12
2.3 單向路徑對AODV的影響.………………………………………..16
2.4 單向路徑對DSR 的影響…………………………………………..18
2.5 無線傳輸非對稱性的原因探討 .………………………………….21
3.研究方法 ……………………..……….…………………………….....27
- V -
3.1 單向路徑偵測機制…………………………………………………28
3.2Power-Aware Routing..…..……….…………………….…………31
3.3 路徑維護….…………………..…….…………………….…..……33
4.模擬….….…………………………………………………………35
4.1 模擬環境及參數設定 .………………………………………….…36
4.2 模擬結果 ……………………………………………………….…39
4.2.1 來源端點非對稱傳輸對繞送徑建立之影響 …….………….39
4.2.2 非對稱傳輸在路徑上節點的模擬結果………………………42
4.2.3 模擬實際非對稱網路對繞送路徑建立之影響………………45
4.3 模擬結果討論………………………………………………….…50
5.結論….……….…………………………………………………………52
6.未來研究.……………………………………………………………….54
6.1 Echo Message.……………..……………………………………….54
6.2 非對稱路徑探討………………………..………………………….54
參考文獻..…..…………………………………………………………….57
作者簡介..…..…………………………………………………………….60
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[2] Bao, Lichun and Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J. "Link-state Routing in Networks with Unidirectional Links". In Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (IC3N), pages 358–363, 1999.
[3] Chen,Yuh-Shyan., Kao,Tai-Chien. Sheu, Jang-Ping. and Chinag, Chao-Yu "A Mobile Scaffolding-Aid-Based Bird-Watching Learning System", IEEE 2002.
[4] Cavilla, Andrés Lagar, Baron, Gerard, Hart, E. Thomas, Litty, Lionel and Lara, de Eyal "Simplified Simulation Models for Indoor MANET Evaluation are not Robust", IEEE 2004.
[5] Das, R. Samir, Perkins, E.Charles, and Royer, M. Elizabeth "Performance Comparison of Two On-Demand Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks" IEEE Personal Communications, February 2001.
[6] Duros, E. , Dabbous, W., Izumiyama, H., Fujii, N. and Zhang, Y." A Link-Layer Tunneling Mechanism for Unidirectional Links. " RFC 3077, 2001.
[7] Green, D.B. and Obaidat, M.S. " “Modeling and simulation of IEEE 802.11 WLAN mobile ad hoc networks using topology broadcast reverse-path forwarding (TBRPF) " Computer Communications Page 1741–1746, 2003.

[8] Hassanein, Hossam and Zhou, Audrey " Load-aware destination- Controlled routing for MANETs " Page 1551–1559 Computer Communications, 2003.
[9] Hu, Chunyu, Hong, Yifei and Hou, Jennifer "On Mitigating the Broadcast Storm Problem with Directional Antennas" IEEE Communications, 2003.
[10] Johnson, B. David, Maltz, A. David and Hu,Yih-Chun "The dynamic source Routing protocol for mobile Ad Hoc Networks ", IETF internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-10.txt, 19 July 2004.
[11] Lee, Sing-Ju and Gerla, Mario. "AODV-BR: Backup Routing in Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE WCNC, Chicago, IL 2000.
[12] Marina, K. Mahesh and Das, R. Samir. " Routing Performance in the Presence of Unidirectional Links in Multihop Wireless Networks", Proc. ACM MobiHoc 02, pp. 12-23, 2002.
[13] Moy, J. "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.
[14] Ni, Sze-Yao, Tseng, Yu-Chee, Chen, Yuh-Shyan and Sheu, Jang- Ping "The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network", ACM Wireless Networks Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 153-167, March 2002.
[15] Ogier, R.G, Lewis, M., and Templin, F. "Topology Broadcast based on Reverse Path Forwarding (TBRPF)," IEEE RFC 3684 Feb 2004.
[16] Perkins, E. Charles, Belding-Royer, M. Elizabeth, and Das, R. Samir " Ad Hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) Routing", draft-ietf-manet-aodv- 13.txt, IETF internet draft, 17 FEB 2003.
[17] Ramasubramanian, Venugopalan, Chandr, Ranveer and Moss´e, Daniel." Providing a Bidirectional Abstraction for Unidirectional Ad Hoc Networks". In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, 2002.
[18] Remondoa, David, Niemegeers, G. Ignas "Ad Hoc Networking in future wireless communications", Computer Communications, pp. 36–40, 2003.
[19] Saigala,Vikrant , Nayakb, K. Ajit, Pradhanc, K. Sateesh and Mall, R. " Load balanced routing in mobile ad hoc networks " Page 295–305 Computer Communications, 2004.
[20] Yang, Chun-Chuan and Chen, Chao-Yu "A Reachability-Guaranteed Approach for Reducing Broadcast Storms in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks" Proceedings of IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-2002), 2002.
[21] "The Network Simulator GLOMOSIM",http://pcl.cs.ucla.edu/ projects /glomosim /, 2002.
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