跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.222.218.145) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/03/04 17:47
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:孟慶葦
研究生(外文):Ching-Wei Meng
論文名稱:衛可對白蝦養成及其免疫抗病之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Virkons on the Growth and Immune Resistance of White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
指導教授:翁韶蓮翁韶蓮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Saou-Lien Wong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:白蝦衛可生長趨勢緊迫酚氧化酵素超氧離子血球超氧歧化酵素吞噬作用清除作用攻擊試驗
外文關鍵詞:White ShrimpVirkonsgrowth ratestressphenoloxidase activityrespiratory bursthemocytesuperoxide dismutase activityphagocytic activityclearance efficiencysusceptibility
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:1849
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
白蝦暴露在0、0.3、0.6、1及5 mg l-1不同濃度下的衛可 16 天,分析在其免疫抗病方面的影響,包括酚氧化酵素活性、超氧離子活性、總血球數、超氧歧化酵素活性、攻擊試驗、吞噬活性、清除效率能力等。由實驗結果發現,在免疫抗病方面,酚氧化酵素、超氧離子活性、總血球數、超氧歧化酵素活性、攻擊試驗、吞噬活性、清除效率等項目在統計學上皆沒有顯著性差異。這結果顯示5 mg l-1以下的衛可處理,將不會造成白蝦之免疫及抗病力下降。
在野外實驗方面,實驗組暴露在 0.3 mg l-1濃度衛可 90 天,其平均之體重、體長、生長趨勢及活存率均有顯著性地提高。而養殖池水的水質監測因子,除濁度在後期實驗組有明顯升高外,其他因子與對照組相較並無差異性,因此判斷衛可對於養殖環境無顯著性的影響。
White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei were exposed to different concentrations of Virkons (0、0.3、0.6、1 and 5 mg l-1) for 16 day. The effects of Virkons were determined by measuring, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), the total hemocyte count (THC), superoxide dismutase activity, susceptibility and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency. The results show that all immunological factors were no differences among control and treatments; therefore, the results indicated that the immunity and resistance of shrimp would not be suppressed by lower than 5 mg l-1 Virkons.
In farm experiment, shrimp were exposed at 0.3 mg l-1 Virkons for 90 day. The average weight, body length, growth rate and survival rate of Virkons treated-shrimp were significantly increased than control-shrimp. The water quality between experimental pond and control pond was no significantly difference. It suggested Virkons treatment was not effect on culture environment.
目 錄

摘 要 I
Abstract II
誌 謝 IV
目 錄 V
圖表目錄 X
第1章 緒 言 1
第2章 文獻整理 3
2.1 分類地位分布與習性 3
2.2 白蝦養殖現況 4
2.3 衛可(Virkons)之特性與成分 5
2.4 消毒劑的種類 6
2.4.1 物理性藥劑 6
2.4.2 化學性藥劑 6
2.4.2.1 酸類 7
2.4.2.2 鹼類 7
2.4.2.3 界面活性劑 7
2.4.2.4 醇 7
2.4.2.5 鹵素 8
2.4.2.6 酚 8
2.4.2.7 重金屬 8
2.4.2.8 氧化劑 8
2.4.2.9 醛 9
2.4.2.10 染料 9
2.5 水產常用治療劑 9
2.6 甲殼類免疫系統 10
2.6.1 體液性免疫反應 11
2.6.1.1 沉澱素(precipitins) 11
2.6.1.2 凝集素(agglutinins or lectins) 11
2.6.1.3 抗微生物胜肽(antimicrobial peptides) 12
2.6.1.4 調理素(opsonins) 12
2.6.2 細胞性免疫反應 13
2.6.3 甲殼類血球免疫功能的活化及參與其交互作用的因子 14
2.6.3.1 proPO系統 14
2.6.3.2 76 kDa蛋白質 15
2.6.3.3 β-聚葡萄糖結合蛋白(βGBP) 15
2.6.3.4 Reactive oxygen intermediates(ROIS) 16
2.7 緊迫對甲殼類免疫防禦因子之影響 17
第3章 材料與方法 21
3.1 室內試驗設計 21
3.1.1 不同濃度衛可對白蝦之免疫調節因子影響之測定 21
3.1.2 試驗用蝦 21
3.1.3 試驗用水之調控 22
3.1.4 試驗用衛可藥劑配制方法 22
3.1.5 免疫因子測定 22
3.1.6 血淋巴之抽取 22
3.1.7 酚氧化酵素活性之測定 23
3.1.8 超氧離子產量之測定 23
3.1.9 總血球數之測定 24
3.1.10 不同種類血球數之測定 24
3.1.11 超氧歧化酵素測定 25
3.1.12 吞噬作用及清除作用 26
3.1.12.1 吞噬作用之測定 27
3.1.12.2 清除作用之測定 27
3.1.13 攻擊試驗用病原菌 28
3.1.14 攻擊試驗 28
3.2 衛可應用於白蝦養殖之可行性試驗 29
3.2.1 試驗設計 29
3.2.2 試驗用蝦 29
3.2.3 成長試驗 29
3.2.4 水質分析 30
3.3 統計分析 30
第4章 結 果 31
4.1 衛可對白蝦免疫因子之影響 31
4.1.1 衛可對酚氧化酵素活性之影響 31
4.1.2 衛可對超氧離子活性之影響 32
4.1.3 衛可對總血球數之影響 33
4.1.4 衛可對不同種類血球數之影響 34
4.1.5 衛可對超氧歧化酵素活性之影響 37
4.1.6 衛可對吞噬活性之影響 38
4.1.7 衛可對清除效率之影響 39
4.1.8 衛可對白蝦攻擊試驗之影響 40
4.2 衛可白蝦野外試驗 41
4.2.1 衛可對白蝦育成率影響 41
4.2.2 衛可對體長體重之影響 42
4.2.3 衛可對水質之影響 43
第5章 討 論 45
5.1 衛可對白蝦免疫因子之影響 45
5.2 衛可對白蝦育成率之影響 50
第6章 結 論 53
參考文獻 54
附 錄 71
作者簡介 73

圖表目錄


Fig. 1. Mean(± S.E.)phenoloxidase activity in haemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Each bar represents mean ± S.E.(N = 6). Bars with different letters are significantly different( p < 0.05). 31
Fig. 2. Mean(± S.E.)respiratory bursts in the haemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 32
Fig. 3. Mean(± S.E.)total hemocyte count in haemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 33
Fig. 4. Mean(± S.E.)hyaline cells percent in the total hemocyte count in haemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 34
Fig. 5. Mean(± S.E.)semigranular cells percent in the total hemocyte count in haemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 35
Fig. 6. Mean(± S.E.)granular cells percent in the total hemocyte count in haemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 36
Fig. 7. Mean(± S.E.)superoxide dismutase activity in the haemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 37
Fig. 8. Mean(± S.E.)phagocytic activity in the hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 38
Fig. 9. Mean(± S.E.)clearance efficiency in the hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 48, 96, 192, and 384h. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 39
Fig. 10. Mean(± S.D.)Growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 days. Statistical descriptions are the same as in Fig. 1. 42
Fig. 11. Measurement of water quality factors in outculture experiment of Litopenaeus vannamei which exposed to 0 mg l-1(control)and 0.3 mg l-1(Virkon)different concentrations of virkons at the beginning, and after 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60,70 and 80 days. 44
Table 1. Susceptibility of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons at 27 ± 1 ℃. Data in the challenge groups in the same column with different superscripts significantly differ( p < 0.05)among different treatments. Values are the mean ± S.E. 40
Table 2. Details of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different concentrations of virkons cultured pond. 41
參考文獻

中華民國台灣地區漁業統計年報,2005。行政院農委會漁業署。
王聖予、李麗俐、吳秀玲、周啟馥、陳健和,1998。最新醫用微生物學。藝軒圖書出版社。
王靜嫻,2001。硫酸銅、高錳酸鉀及四級胺對淡水長臂大蝦免疫反應之影響。國立屏東科技大學熱帶農業研究所碩士論文。
何美青,2000。斑節蝦受到外界環境氨與亞硝酸影響下之緊迫反應研究。國立台灣海洋大學水產養殖學系碩士論文。
余俊億,1999。太平洋白蝦感染桃拉症病毒後血漿之分析。國立台灣大學動物學研究所碩士論文。
呂仲論,2001。硫酸銅對白蝦之急慢性毒性影響。國立海洋大學水產養殖系碩士論文。
呂車鳳、況惠星、吳永惠,1982。獸醫藥理與治療學(上、下冊)。藝軒圖書出版社。
宋增淦,2002。皂素、福馬林及地特松於不同濃度下對淡水長臂大蝦生理及免疫影響。國立屏東科技大學熱帶農業研究所碩士論文。
邱泓典,2004。多巴胺與正腎上腺素免疫及生理因子之影響。國立屏東科技大學水產養殖系碩士論文。
張欽泉,2005。地特松對淡水長臂大蝦生理及免疫影響。國立屏東科技大學熱帶農業暨國際合作研究所碩士論文。
張鴻猷,2000。消毒劑對細菌之抑菌效力及對吳郭魚與甲魚之急性毒性研究。國立中興大學獸醫微生物研究所碩士論文。
莊博智,2004。出口白蝦種蝦病毒性疾病之病理學及分子生物學診斷。國立屏東科技大學獸醫學系碩士論文。
陳宏成、吳雅琪,2003。世界蝦類養殖現況、技術更新、每日蝦價與未來前景。養魚世界 320:35-50。
陳宏成、張金豐,1983。甲基藍與孔雀綠對鰻池生物毒性之毒性研究。魚病研究專輯。4:74-85。
陳秀男,沈士新,冉繁華,林清龍,王俊順,黎錦超,2000。蝦類養殖技術實用大全。9-33。
劉文御、蘇茂森、徐崇仁,1999。白蝦(Litopenaeus vannamei)專輯。
劉俊宏,2001。溶氧對淡水長臂大蝦血淋巴生理及免疫反應的影響。國立屏東科技大學熱帶農業研究所碩士論文。
蔡文城,1991。微生物學。藝軒圖書出版社。
鄭文騰,1998。淡水長臂大蝦腸鏈球菌之分離與鑑定及不同環境因子下致病性之研究。國立海洋大學水產養殖研究所博士學位論文。
Adams, A., 1991. Response of penaeid shrimp to exposure to Vibrio species. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 1: 59-70.
Anderson, D. P., 1992. Immunostimulant, adjuvants and vaccine carriers in fish:application to aquaculture. Ann. Rev. Fish Dis. 2: 281-307.
Anderson, R. S., 1996. Production of reactive oxygen intermediates haemocytes. Immunological significance. In: Söderhäll, K., Sadaaki, I., Vasta, G.(eds.), New Directions in Invertebrate Immunology. SOS Publications, Fair Haven. pp. 109-129.
Arason, G. J., 1996. Lectins as defence molecules in vertebrates and invertebrates. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 6: 277-289.
Avault, J. W., 1986. Seven years of pond research with the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Louisiana. Aquacult. Mag., 12: 51-54
Babior, B. M., Kipnes, R. S., Curnette, T., 1973. Biological defence system. The production by leukocytes of superoxide, a potential acetridal agent. J. Clin. Invest. 52: 741-744.
Bachère, E., Mialhe, E., Rodriguez, J., 1995. Identification of defence parameters in the haemolymph of crustacean with particular refernce to the shrimp Penaeus Japonicus(Bate), prospects and application. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 5: 597-612.
Bambang, Y., Thuet, P., Charmantier, D. M., Trilles, J. P., Charmantier, G., 1995. Effect of copper on survival and osmoregulation of various developmental stages of the shrimp Penaeus japonicus Bate(Crustacea, Decapoda). Aquat. Toxicol. 33: 125-139.
Barracco, M. A., Duvic, B., Söderhäll, K., 1991. The β-1,3-glucan binding protein from the crayfish Pacifastacus jeniusculus when reacted withβ-1,3-glucan, induces spreading and degranulation of crayfish granular cells. Cell Tissue Res. 266: 491-497.

Bauchau, A. G., 1981. Crustacean. In:Ratcliffe, N. A., Rowley, A. F.(eds.), Invertebrate blood cell. Academic Press. New York. pp. 387-417.
Bayne, C. J., 1990. Phagocytosis and non-self recognition in invertebrates. Phagocytosis appears to be an ancient line of defense. Bioscience 40: 723-731.
Bell, K. L., Smith, V. J., 1993. In vitro superoxide production by hyaline cells of the shore crab Carcinus maenas(L.). Dev. Comp. Immunol. 17: 211-219.
Bradford, M. M., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein using the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72: 248-254.
Chen, J. Y., Pan, C. Y., Kuo, C. M., 2004. Molecular cloning and sequencing of shrimp(Penaeus monodon) penaeidin-5 cDNA. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 16: 665-670.
Cheng, T. C., 1988. In vivo effects of heavy metals on cellular defense mechanisms of Crassostrea virginica: phagocytic and endocytotic indices. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 51: 215-220.
Cheng, W., Chen, J. C., 1998. Enterococcus-like infections of Macrobrachium rosenbergii are exacerbated by high pH and temperature but reduced by low salinity. Dis. Aquat. Org. 34: 93-101.
Cheng, W., Chen, J. C., 2000. Effects of pH, temperature and salinity on immune parameters of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 10: 387-391.
Cheng, W., Chen, J. C., 2001. Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the haemocyte profile of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 11: 53-63.
Cheng, W., Chen, J. C., 2002. The virulence of Enterococcus to freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its immune resistance under ammonia stress. Fish shellfish immunol. 12:97-109.
Cheng, W., Wang, C. H., 2001. The susceptibility of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to Lactococcus garvieae and its resistance under copper sulfate stress. Dis. Aquat. Org. 47: 137-144.
Cheng, W., Wang, C. H., Chen, J. C., 2003. Effect of potassium permanganate stress on immune resistance and susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Dis. Aquat. Org. 57: 151-155.
DeFur, P. L., Mangum, C. P., Reese, J. E., 1990. Respiratory responses of the blue crab(Callinectes sapidus) to long-term hypoxia. Biol. Bull. Mar. Biol. Lab. Woods Hole. 178: 46-54.
Destoumieux, D., Bulet, P., Loew, D., Van Dorsselaer, A., Rodriguez, J., Bachère, E., 1997. Penaeidins, a eew family of antimicrobial peptides isolated from the shrimp Penaeus vannamei(Decapoda). 272: 28398-28406.
Destoumieux, D., Saulnier, D., Garnier, J., Jouffrey, C., Bulet, P., Bachere, E., 2001. Crustacean immunity-antifungal peptides are generated from the c-terminus of shrimp hemocyanin in response to microbial challenge. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 47070-47077.
Di Guilio, R. T., Washburn, P. C., Wenning, R. J., Winston, G. W., Jewell, C. S., 1989. Biochemical responses in aquatic animals:a review of determinants of oxidative stress. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8: 1103-1123.
Direkbusarakom, S., Danayadol, Y., 1998. Effect of oxygen depletion on some parameters of the immune system in black tiger shrimp(Penaeus moncdon). In:Flegel. T. W.(ed.), Advances in shrimp biotechnology, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 147-149.
Donker, M. H., 1992. Energy reserves and distribution of metals in populations of the isopod Porcellio scaber from metal contaminated sites. Funct. Ecol. 6: 445-454.
Donker, M. H., Zonneveld, C., Van Straalen, N. M., 1993. Early reproduction and increased reproductive allocation in metal-adapted populations of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Oecologia. 96: 316-323.
Doyotte, A., Cossu, C., Jacquin, M. C., Babut, M., Vasseur, P., 1997. Antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation as relevant biomarkers of experimental or field exposure in the gills and digestive gland of the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus. Aquat. Toxicol. 39: 93-110.
Duncan, D. B., 1955. Multiple-range and multiple F test. Biometrics. 11: 1-42.
Duvic, B., Soederhaell, K., 1990. Purification and characterization of a beta-1,3-glucan binding protein from plasma of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 9327-9332.
Duvic, B., Soederhall, K., 1993. Beta-1,3-Glucan-binding proteins from plasma of the fresh-water crayfishes Astacus astacus and Procambarus clarkia. J. Crust. Biol. 13: 403-408.
Ey, P. L., 1991. Phagocytosis in crustacea:The role of opsonins. In: Gupta, A. P.(ed.), Immunology of insects and other arthropods. CRC PRESS, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 201-235.
Farfante, I. P., Kensley, B., 1997. Penaeid and sergestoid shrimps and prawns of the world: Keys and diagnoses. Memoires du Museum National D’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. pp. 341-350.
Flegel, T. W., 1997. Special topic review:Major viral diseases of the black tiger prawn(Penaeus monodon) in Thailand. World J Microbiol Biotech 13: 422-433.
Flegel, T. W., Boonyaratpalin, S., Withyachumnarmkul, B., 1997. Progress in research on yellow-head virus and white-spot virus in Thailand. In: Flegel TW, MacRae IH eds. Diseases in Asian Aquaculture III, 285-295.
Gabriel, G. A., Felipe, A. V., 2000. infections disease in shimp species with aquaculture potential. Resent Res Devl Microbiol 4: 333-348.
Gold, E. R., Balding, P., 1975. Receptor-specific proteins, plant and animal lectins. Excerpta Medica. pp. 251-283.
Gopalan, U. K., Young, J. S., 1975. Incidence of shell disease in shimp in the New York Bight. Mar. pollut. Bull. 6: 149-153.
Herández-López, J., Gollas-Galván, T. S., Vargas-Albores, F., 1996. Activation of the prophenoloxidase system of the brown shrimp(Penaeus californiensis Holmes). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 113C: 61-66.
Holmblad, T. l., Söderhäll, K., 1999. Cell adhesion molecules and antioxidative enzymes in a crustacean, possible role in immunity. Aquaculture. 172: 111-123.
Hose, J. E., Martin, G. G., 1989. Defense functions of granulocytes in the fidgeback prawn Sicyonia ingentis. J. Invert. Pathol. 53: 335-346.
Hose, J. E., Martin, G. G., Gerard, A. S., 1990. A decapod hemocyte classification scheme integrating morphology, cytochemistry, and function. Biol. Bull. 178:33-45.
Johansson, M. W., Keyser, P., Sritunyalucksana, K., Söderhäll, K., 2000. Crustacean haemocytes and haematopoiesis. Aquaculture. 19: 45-52.
Johansson, M. W., Lind, M. I., Holmblad, T., Thörnqvist, P. O., Söderhäll, K., 1995. Peroxinectin, a novel cell adhesion protein from crayfish blood. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 216: 1079- 1087.
Johansson, M. W., Söderhäll, K., 1985. Excytosis of the prophenoloxidase activating system from crayfish hemocytes. J. Comp. Physiol. 156: 175-181.
Johansson, M. W., Söderhäll, K., 1988. Isolation and purification of a cell adhesion factor from crayfish blood cells. J. Cell Biol. 106: 1795-1803.
Johansson, M. W., Söderhäll, K., 1989. Cellular immunity in crustaceans and the proPO system. Parasitol. Today. 5: 171-176.
Khalil , M. A., Donker, M. H., Straalen, N. M. V., 1995. Long-term and short-term changes in the energy budget of porcellio scaber Latreille(Crustacea) exposed to cadmium polluted food. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 31: 163-172
Kobayashi, M., Johansson, M. W., Söderhäll, K., 1990. The 76kD adhension factor from crayfish hemocytes promotes encapsulation in vitro. Cell Tissue Res. 260: 13-18.
Leffler, C. W., 1975. Effects of ingested Mirex and DDT on juvenile Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. Environ.Pollut. 8: 283-299.
Leffler, J. W., 1978. Ecosystem responses to stress in aquatic microcosms. In Thorp, J. H. and Gibbons, J. W.(eds.), Energy and environmental stress in aquatic ecosystems. pp. 102-119.
Le Moullac, G., Haffner, P., 2000. Environmental factors affecting immune responses in crustacea. Aquaculture. 191: 121-131.
Le Moullac, G., Soyez, C., Saulnier, D., Ansquer, D., Avarre, J. C., Levy, P., 1998. Effect of hypoxia stress on the immune response and the resistance to vibriosis of the shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 8: 621-629.
Liao, I. C., Huang, T. L., Katsutain, K., 1969. A preliminary report on artificial propagation of Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Reports of Fish Culture Research Supported by Rockfeller Foundation, JCRR Fish Ser 8: 67-71.
Lightner, D. V., 1996a. A Handbook of shimp pathology and Diagnostic Procedures for Diseases of Culturd Penaeid Shimp. Society, Baron Rouge, LA.:The World Aquaculture.
Lightner, D. V., 1996b. The penaeid shimp viruses IHHNV and TSV: epizootiology, production impacts and role of international trade in their distribution in the Americas. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 15: 579-601.
Marques, M. R. F., Barracco, M. A., 2000. Lectins, as non-self-recognition factors, in crustaceans. Aquaculture. 191: 23-44.
Martin, G. G., Hose, J. E., Omori, S., Chong, C., Hoodbboy, T., Mckrell, N., 1991. Localization and roles of coagulogen and transglutaminase in hemolymph coagulation in decapod crustaceans. Comp Biochem. Physiol. 100B: 517-522.
Matsushita, M., 1996. The lectin pathway of the complement system. Microbiol. Immunol. 40: 887-893.
McCord, J. M., 1979. Superoxide dismutase:occurance function and evolution. Curr. Top. Biol. Med. Res. 3: 1-25.
McCord, J. M., Fridorich, I., 1969. Superoxide dismutase. An enzymic Fuction for reythrocuprein(hemocuprein). J. Biol. Chem. 244: 6049-6055.
Mckim, J. M., Benorr, D. A., 1971. Effects of long-term exposure to copper on survival, growth, and reproduction of brood trout(Salvelinus fontinalis). J. Fish. Res. Board. Can. 28: 655-662.
Meier, R. L., 1972. Communications stress. A. Rev. Ecol. Systemat. 3: 289-314.
Menz, A., Blake, B. F., 1980. Experiments on the growth of Penaeus vannamei Boone. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 48: 99-111.
Mix, M. C., Sparks, A. K., 1980. Hemocyte classification and differential counts in the dungenes crab, Cancer magister. J. Invert. Phathol. 35: 134-143.
Miyata, T., Tokunaga, F., Yoneya, T., Yoshikawa, K., Iwanaga, S., Niwa, M., Takao, T., Shimonishi, Y., 1989. Antimicrobial peptides, isolated from horseshoe crab hemocytes, tachyplesin Ⅱ, and polyphemusins Ⅰand Ⅱ:chemical structures and biological activity. J. Biochem. 106: 663-668.
Mohamed, A. I., Nair, G. A., Abbas, H. L., Kassam, H. M., 1992. Effects of pesticides on the survival, growth and oxygen consumption of Helmilepistus reaumuri(Audouin and Savigny 1826) (Isopoda oniscidea). Trop. Zool. 5: 145-153.
Muñoz, M., Cedeño, R., Rodrìguez, J., van der Knaap, W. P. W., Mialhe, E., Bachère, E., 2000. Measurement of reactive oxygen intermediate production in haemocytes of the penaeid shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. Aquaculture. 191: 89-107.
Muta, T., Miyata, T., Tokunaga, F., Nakamura, T., Iwanaga, S., 1987. Primary structure of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Eur. J. Biochem. 101: 1321-1330.
Naylor, E., Williams, B. G., 1968. Effects of eyestalk removal on rhythmic locomotor activity in Carcinus. J. Exp. Biol. 49: 107-116.
Neves, C. A., Santos, E. A., Bainy, A. C. D., 2000. Reduced superoxides dismutase activity in Palaemonetes argentinus(Decapoda, Palemonidae) infected by probopyrus ringueleti(Isopoda, Bopyridae). Dis. Aquat. Org. 39: 155-158.
Noguchi, H., 1903. A study of immunization-haemolysins, agglutinins, precipitins and coagulins in cold-blooded animals. Centralbl. F. Bakt. Abt. Orig. 35: 352.
Pan, C. H., Chien, Y. H., Hunter, B., 2003. Alterations of antioxidant capacity and hepatopancreatic enzymes in Penaeus monodon(Fabricius) juveniles fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin and exposed to Vibrio damsela challenge. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan. 30: 279-290.
Pickering, A. D., 1981. Introduction: the concept of biological stress. In A.D. Pickering ed., Stress and fish:Atlantic Press, Inc. Ltd. London. pp. 49-76.
Pipe, R. K., Coles, J. A., 1995. Environmental contaminants influencing immune function in marine bivalve mollusks. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 5: 581-595.
Ratcliffe, N. A., Rowley, A. F., Fitzgerald, S. W., Rhodes, C. P., 1985. Invertebrate immunity:basic concepts and recent advances. Int. Rev. Cytol. 97: 183-350.
Ratner, S., Vinson, S. B., 1983. Phagocytosis and encapsulation: Cellular immune response in Arthropoda. Am. Zool. 23: 185-194.
Renwrantz, L., 1986. Lectins in molluscs and arthropods:their occurrence, origin and roles in immunity. Symp. Zool. Soc. London. 58: 81-93.
Rodríguez, J., Le Moullac, G., 2000. State of the art of immunological tools and health control of penaeid shrimp. Aquacuture. 191: 109-119.
SAS, 1988. SAS/STAT user’s guide, 6.03 edition. SAS Institution, Cary, NC, USA.
Smith, V. J., Johnston, P. A., 1992. Differential haemotoxic effect of PCB congeners in the common shrimp, Crangon crangon. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 101C: 641-649.
Smith, V. J., Söderhäll, K., 1983. Induction of degranulation and lysis of haemocytes in the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus, by components of the prophenoloxidase activating system in vitro. Cell Tissue Res. 233: 295-303.
Smith, V. J., Swindlehurst, R. J., Johnston, P. A., Vethaak, A. D., 1995. Disturbance of host defence capability in the common shrimp, Crangon crangon, by exposure to harbour dredge spoils. Aquat. Toxicol. 32: 43-58.
Söderhäll, K., Aspan, A., Duvic, B., 1990. The proPO system and associated proteins: role in cellular communication in arthropods. Res. Immunol. 141: 896-907.
Söderhäll, K., Cerenius, L., 1992. Crustacean immunity. Annual Rev. Fish Disease. 2: 3-23.
Söderhäll, K., Cerenius, L., 1998. Role of the prophenoloxidase activating system in invertebrate immunity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 10: 23-28.
Söderhäll, K., Smith, V. J., 1983. Separation of the hemocyte populations of Carcinus maenas and other marine decapods, and pro-phenoloxidase distribution. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 7: 229-239.
Söderhäll, K., Smith, V. J., Johansson, M. W., 1986. Excytosis and uptake of bacteria by isolated hemocyte populations of two crustacean: evidance for cellular cooperation in the defense reactions reactions of arthropods. Cell Tissue Res. 245: 43-49.
Song, Y. L., Hsieh, Y. T., 1994. Immunostimulation of tiger shrimp(Penaeus monodon)hemocytes for generation of microbicidal substances:analysis of reactive oxygen species. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 18: 201-209.
Stein, E. A., Wojdani, A., Cooper, E. L., 1982. Agglutinins in the earthworm Lumbrious terrestrie: naturally occurring and induced. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 6: 407-421.
Stewart, J. E., Cornick, J. W., Dingle, J. R., 1967. An electronic method for counting lobster(Homarus americanus, Milne Edwards) hemocytes and the influence of diet on hemocyte numbers and hemolymph proteins. Can. J. Zool. 45: 291-304.
Stewart, J. E., Foley, E. M., 1969. A precipitin reaction of the Hemolymph of the lobster Homarus americanus. J. Fish Res. Bd. Can. 26: 1392-1397.
Takahashi, Y., Ltami, T., Kondo, M., 1995. Immunodefense system of Crustacea. Fish Pathol. 30: 141-150.
Thörnqvist, P. O., Johansson, M. W., Söderhäll, L. K., 1994. Opsonic activity of cell adhesion protein and β-1,3-glucan binding protein from two crustaceans. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 18: 3-12.
Truscott, R., White, K. N., 1990. The influence of metal and temperature stress on the immune system of crabs. Funct. Ecol. 4: 455-461.
Tu, C., Huang, T. H., Chuang, S. H., Hsu, J. P., Kou, S. T., Li, N. J., Hsu, T. L., Li, M. C., Lin, S. Y, 1999. Taura syndrome in Pacific white shimp Penaeus vannamei cultured in Taiwan. Dis Aquat Org 38: 159-161.
Vanpatten, K. A., Nunan L. M., Lightner, D. V., 2004. Seabirds as potential vectors of penaeid shimp viruses and the development of a surrogate laboratory model utilizing domestic chickens. Aquaculture 241: 31-46.
Van Straalen, N. M., Verweij, R. A., 1991. Effects of benzo(a) pyrene on food assimilation and growth efficiency in porcellio scaber(Isopoda). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 46: 134 - 140.
Vargas-Albores, F., Jimenez-Vega, F., Soederhaell, K., 1996. A plasma protein isolated from brown shrimp(Penaeus californiensis) which enhances the activation of prophenoloxidase system by beta-1, 3-glucan. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 20: 299-306.
Vargas-Albores, F., Jimenez-Vega, F., Yepiz-Plascencia, G. M., 1997. Purification and comparison of beta-1,3-glucan binding protein from white shrimp(Penaeus vannamei). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 116B: 453-458.
Vargas-Albores, F., Yepiz-Plascencia, G. M., 2000. Beta glucan binding protein and its role in shrimp immune response. Aquaculture. 191: 13-21.
Vasta, G. R., Quesenberry, M., Ahmed, H., O’Leary, N., 1999. C-type lectins and galectins mediate innate and adaptive immune functions: their roles in the complement activation pathway. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 23: 401-420.
Waiwlld, K. G., Beamish, F. W. G., 1978. The effect of copper, handness and pH on the growth of rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri J. Fish. Biol. 13: 591-598.
Wilson, R., Chen, C., Ratcliffe, N. A., 1999. Innate immunity in insects: the role of multiple, endogenous serum lectins in the recognition of foreign invaders in the cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis. J. Immunol. 162: 1590-1596.
Wong, V. L., Burke, J. J., Allen, R. D., 1991. Isolation and sequence analysis of cDNA that encodes pea manganese superoxide dismutase. Plant Mol. Biol. 17: 1271-1274.
Wyban, J., Walsh, W. A., Godin, D. M., 1995. Temperature effects on growth, feeding rate and feed conversion of the Pacific white shrimp(Penaeus vannamei). Aquaculture. 138: 267-279.
Yeaton, R. W., 1981. Invertebrate lectins: II. Disversity of specificity, biological synthesis, and function in recognition. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 5: 535-545.
Young, J. S., Pearce, J. B., 1975. Shell disease in carbs and lobsters from New York Bight. Mar. Pollu. Bull. 6: 101-105.
Yu, C. I., Song, Y. L., 2001. Outbreaks of Taura syndrome Arcier JM, Bonami JR. Experimental infection of European crustaceans with white spot syndrome virus( WSSV). J Fish Dis 24: 377-382.
Zatta, P., 1987. Dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin during hypo-osmotic stress of Carcinus maenas. Mar. Biol. 96: 479-481.
Zou, H. S., Chang, Y. Z., Chen, S. C., Yau, S. M., Shen, Y. L., Lee, C. Y., 2002. Localization of NADPH-diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase activity in the eyestalk of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkia. Zool. Stud. 41: 244-250.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 29. 蕭凱文、楊怡君、洪正哲、譚醒朝、譚家惠,「醫療院所對醫療廢棄物處理方式與費用之探討」,醫務管理期刊,第5卷,第1期,2004頁,79-100頁。
2. 26. 劉美芳、許雅汶、蔡春梅、劉有增、施智源,醫療廢棄物管理,院內感染控制雜誌,第10卷,第6期,2000年,381-392頁。
3. 24. 潘大永、陳金亮,「台灣地區醫院事業廢棄物之處理現況調查研究」,嘉南學報,第23期,1997年,96-107頁。
4. 20. 楊明璧、吳信宏,「醫院貴重儀器投資及更新之決策模式」,醫務管理期刊,第3卷,第3期,2002年,81-100頁。
5. 17. 符樹強,醫療廢棄物管理,研考雙月刊,第22卷,第5期,2000年,100-104頁。
6. 14. 陳惠芳、楊美雪、黃慧娜,「台灣地區醫院總務部門外包利用及原因分析研究」,公共衛生,第25卷,第4期,1999年,233-245頁。
7. 13. 陳春琴、林美惠、唐碧蘭、沈泗澈,「住院病患感染性醫療廢棄物產出量研究-以某醫學中心為例」,醫院,第35卷,第1期,2001年。
8. 12. 袁紹真,「醫院廢棄物的管理」,衛生月刊,第3卷,第11期,1987年,12-16頁。
9. 11. 徐茂陽,「運用網路分析處理(Analytical Network Process; ANP)選擇臺灣電子化電腦補教連鎖企業通路型態之研究」,勤益學報,第21卷,第1期,2003年,263-277頁。
10. 7. 林敏雄,「醫療廢棄物處理與合作社」,合作發展,第23卷,1998年,26-32頁。
11. 5. 宋文娟,「一種質量並重的研究法-德菲法在醫務管理學研究領域之應用」,醫務管理期刊,第2卷,第2期,2001年,11-19頁。
12. 4. 朱日僑、李淑宜,「淺談醫院廢棄物的分類處置」,醫院,第25卷,第1期,66-72頁,1992年。