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研究生:黃進益
研究生(外文):Ching-yi Huang
論文名稱:柏林之後:價值多元主義的理論意涵
論文名稱(外文):After Berlin:The Theoretical Implications of Value Pluralism
指導教授:曾國祥曾國祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Roy Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:215
中文關鍵詞:柏林保守主義自由主義實用主義價值多元主義
外文關鍵詞:Isaiah Berlinpragmatismliberalismvalue pluralismconservatism
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自從柏林開始使用價值多元主義以支持自由主義之後,在當代政治理論的論述脈絡之中,價值多元主義倫理學與自由主義政治理論之間的聯繫已被視為理所當然,非但如此,於二十世紀,柏林所引領的價值多元主義更成為一股蔚為風潮的運動,廣為受到注目,但是,於近十年來,價值多元主義與自由主義之間的連結關係卻受到持續的質疑。
許多價值多元主義的支持者認為,由於價值多元主義的不可共量性之意涵,將使得價值多元主義不僅無法支持自由主義,還侵蝕了自由主義的普遍地位,造成兩者之間存在著無法化解的矛盾,從價值多元主義尚可推論出有別於自由主義的政治方案;由於反對聲浪層出不窮,使得許多支持價值多元主義與自由主義的政治理論家,便開始思索如何才能重新修補柏林式的價值多元主義與自由主義之間的緊密關係。
本文的主要目的便是整理諸多價值多元主義者的不同觀點,探究價值多元主義內部所產生的重大爭議,並分別整理他們的論證,審視不同的價值多元主義者所偏好的政治方案,究竟價值多元主義可以推論出何種理論意涵?是支持自由主義?或反對自由主義?還是有其他的含意?如果價值多元主義支持自由主義,那麼又是何種自由主義?闡述於柏林之後,當代價值多元主義的理論發展便是本文最大的意圖。
Since Isaiah Berlin employed his now classic notion of value pluralism for the justification of liberalism, the correlation between the two ideas has long been presumed in the field of political theory during the second half of the twentieth century. However, this Berlinian assertion has aroused a significant amount of criticism in the past ten years.

Many supporters of value pluralism argue that due to its “incommensurability” presupposition, value pluralism not only cannot serve as the foundation of liberalism, it will also endanger the universal status of the latter, and hence produce irresolvable theoretical inconsistency. Instead of using value pluralism to justify liberalism, some theorists are convinced that different types of political projects can be induced from value pluralism. On the other hand, liberals who endorse value pluralism also try to fill the lacunae between Berlinian pluralism and liberalist doctrine.

The purpose of this thesis is to summarize the scope of theoretical differences among value pluralists, explore the controversies surrounding value pluralism, and examine different political projects preferred by various value pluralists. Throughout the essay, the following questions will be answered: What are the theoretical implications of value pluralism? Does it contradict with liberalist doctrine? If not, what account of liberalism does it approve of? In short, this thesis tries to map out the theoretical development of value pluralism since Isaiah Berlin.
緒論........................................................................................................................1
第一章 價值多元主義與自由主義:朋友還是敵人?………………………….....5
第一節 什麼是價值多元主義?………………………………………………6
一、普遍價值的存在……………..………………………………..…………10
二、價值的多元性………...………………………………………………….14
三、價值的不可共量性……..………………………………………………..15
四、價值衝突的不可避免……..……………………………………………..16
第二節 柏林的論證…………..………………………………..……………..18
一、柏林的自由概念………..…………………..............................................19
二、柏林的論證及其問題……..……………………………………………..22
第三節 爭議的產生…………………………………………………………..28
一、當代自由主義的類型……..……………………………………………..28
二、價值多元主義的爭議……..……………………………………………..36
第二章 從價值多元主義到反自由主義:實用主義的觀點………………………41
第一節 價值多元主義對自由主義的批判…………………………………..42
一、啟蒙自由主義的特色……..……………………………………………..42
二、當代自由主義的侷限……..……………………………………………..50
第二節 從價值多元主義到實用主義………………………………………..57
一、價值多元主義與自由主義之間的分離……..…………………………..57
二、暫訂協議的實用主義……..……………………………………………..62
第三節 實用主義的問題……………………………………………………..69
一、文化之間是不可共量的?……..………………………………………..69
二、暫訂協議的問題……..…………………………………………………..72
第四節 結論…………………………………………………………………..75
第三章 從價值多元主義到反自由主義:保守主義的觀點……………………..79
第一節 價值多元主義與自由主義之間的矛盾……………………………..80
一、哲學保守主義……..……………………………………………………..80
二、不可相容性……..………………………………………………………..87
三、自主性的批判……..……………………………………………………..92
第二節 多元主義的保守主義………………………………………………..97
一、化解衝突的途徑……..…………………………………………………..97
二、多元主義的保守主義……..……………………………………………105
第三節 兩個回應……………………………………………………………115
一、傳統與脈絡之詮釋……..………………………………………………115
二、相容性問題……..………………………………………………………121
第四章 從價值多元主義到自由主義:多元主義的自由主義…………………128
第一節 歧異性之論證………………………………………………………129
一、價值多元主義、歧異性與自由主義….….……………………………..129
二、歧異性之容納………..…………………………………………………138
第二節 價值多元主義與合理的異議………………………………………145
第三節 德行之論證…………………………………………………………155
一、德行之間的連結……..…………………………………………………155
二、何種自由主義……..……………………………………………………168
第四節 結論…………………………………………………………………185
第五章 結論:重新思考價值多元主義…………………………………………189
圖錄
表一…...………………………………………...............................................31
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………192
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