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研究生:吳文敬
研究生(外文):Wen-Jing Wu
論文名稱:高屏海域沉積物中黑碳含量分布及特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Distribution and characteristics of black carbon insediments of Kao-ping Coastal Areas
指導教授:李宗霖李宗霖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chon-Lin Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:黑碳輸出量高屏海域沉積物岩心沉積通量愛河高屏溪口前鎮河多環芳香烴
外文關鍵詞:Love RiverChianjen RiverloadingKao-ping coastal areacoresedimentfluxpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsblack carbonKao-ping estuary
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本研究藉由分析愛河、前鎮河、高雄港區、高屏溪口及近岸海域沉
積物、高屏峽谷岩心、高屏峽谷之沉積物收集器樣品及高屏溪河口水樣
中黑碳之含量,以調查黑碳空間與時間上之分布,並判斷可能來源。另
外,也藉由高屏峽谷之沉積物收集器樣品、岩心及高屏溪口等樣品,初
步推估高屏溪在黑碳的輸出量及沉積通量之貢獻。
研究結果發現,愛河、前鎮河與高雄港區沉積物黑碳濃度範圍介於
0.44-3.29 mg g-1 dry wt,黑碳來源屬於原油燃燒或是使用在交通工具上
的柴油及汽油之引擎燃燒與草、木頭及煤之熱裂解(pyrolysis)。高屏溪
及近岸海域沉積物黑碳濃度範圍介於0.38-1.80 mg g-1 dry wt,其中林園
大排(L1)與海域D2 站之黑碳主要來源是原油燃燒或是使用在交通工具
上的柴油及汽油之引擎燃燒所產生之燃燒來源。而高屏峽谷黑碳之時間
分布上,沉積物中黑碳與多環芳香烴在1970 年後之增加趨勢,推測與
台灣戰後經濟產業發展有關。將本研究沉積物中黑碳濃度與文獻比較,
本研究結果(0.38-3.29 mg g-1)與亞洲地區海域(0.15-2.53 mg g-1)相似,
而較低於美洲地區海域(0.09-9.70 mg g-1)及歐洲地區海域(0.18-17.0
mg g-1)。另外,本研究沉積物結果較低於美洲地區及歐洲地區湖泊沉積
物濃度範圍(0.22-27.5 mg g-1)。
由相關性分析結果高屏溪鄰近海域之沉積物中總多環芳香烴、燃燒
性多環芳香烴與黑碳、總有機碳及粒徑彼此呈顯著之相關性(p<
0.05)。另外,粒徑與總多環芳香烴、燃燒性多環芳香烴與黑碳及總有機
碳在其餘區域則無呈現顯著相關性(p>0.05),由此推測其餘區域中沉
積物含碳有機顆粒的含量對於多環芳香烴吸附之影響比起粒徑因素來
得大。且黑碳與燃燒性多環芳香烴(R=0.511)較黑碳與總多環芳香烴
(R=0.268)有良好之相關性,可能因為黑碳為燃燒所產生之物質,而總多
環芳香烴濃度除了燃燒性多環芳香烴,還有包含了其他來源,如石油性
來源。
經由群集分析,將表層沉積物分成前鎮河、高屏溪與高屏溪鄰近海
域、愛河與高屏溪附近漁港等三個群集。關於主成分(Principal
Component,簡稱PC)分析之結果中,其中PC 1 可以解釋35 %的總變異
程度。PC 1 之化合物負荷是以高分子量多環芳香烴組成為主,而且PC
1 與黑碳呈現正相關,顯示該PC 與燃燒來源有關。
將沉積物收集器與岩心S1 及S37 之黑碳表層沉積通量作比較,沉積
通量呈現沉積物收集器>岩心37>岩心S1 之情形,可能由於離岸遠近
所造成之結果,離岸較近之地點,其顆粒沉積較快。另外,高屏峽谷岩
心與國外表層黑碳濃度及沉積通量之研究文獻比較,近似於國外近岸海
域測值,但較低於Mouth of Providence River、Palos Verdes Shelf 及New
England Harbors 之測值,而遠高於太平洋大洋中之測值。另外,本研究
初步估計高屏溪之黑碳輸出量為33-1765 kg day-1,平均為602 kg day-1,
而高屏溪黑碳年輸出為29.55 萬噸。
The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal
distribution of black carbon (BC) and possible sources by analyzing BC contents
in core and sediment trap samples collected from Kao-ping submarine Canyon and
surficial sediments collected from Love River, Chianjen River, Kaohsiung Harbor,
Kao-ping River and adjacent coastal area. In addition, sediment core and trap
samples of Kao-ping submarine Canyon, and suspended solids of Kao-ping
estuary were analyzed to estimate the BC loading from Kao-ping River and the
flux in Kao-ping submarine Canyon.
The concentrations of BC ranged from 0.38 to 3.29 mg g-1 in this study. The
results we found in coastal sediments were comparable to those in Asia, but lower
than those in America and Europe. Black carbon found in surficial sediments of
D2, L1 and of stations from Love River, Chianjen River and Kaohsiung Harbor
were contributed from vehicle emission or coal combustion. Correlation
coefficients of BC versus total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)
concentrations, combustion PAHs, total organic carbon (TOC) and grain size were
significant in the sediments of Kao-ping River adjacent coast.
Regrading to the temporal distribution of BC in Kao-ping submarine Canyon,
BC and PAHs increased in the deposited sediment after 1970, that was probably
related to prosperous industrial activities for last decades in Taiwan.
Surficial sediments could be grouped into three clusters by hierarchical cluster
analysis (HCA). Results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed principal
component 1 (PC 1) could explain 35 % of total variances. Significant PC 1
compound loadings were found mostly from high molecular weight PAHs which
derived mainly from combustion processes. This result was supported by the
significant correlation (p<0.05) of PC 1 scores versus BC concentrations which
were also mainly derived from combustion.
BC fluxes for sediment cores, S1 and S37, and sediment trap of Kao-ping
submarine Canyon, 0.59 g m-2 yr-1, 2.03 g m-2 yr-1 and 23 g m-2 yr-1, respectively,
were comparable to those reported for surficial sediments in literature. However,
BC fluxes in this study were lower than those in the sediments from Mouth of
Providence River, Palos Verdes Shelf and New England Harbors, but higher than
those in pelagic sediments of the Pacific Ocean. In addition, we also measured BC
concentrations in suspended solid samples to estimate loadings of Kao-ping
estuary which ranged from 33 to 1765 kg day-1 with an average of 602 kg day-1.
Annual BC loading of Kao-ping River was roughly estimated as 29.55×104 tons
which was lower than that of the Mississippi River.
目錄
摘要
Abstract
目錄................................................................................................................................ I
圖目錄..........................................................................................................................III
表目錄...........................................................................................................................V
附表目錄......................................................................................................................VI
第一章緒論...................................................................................................1
1-1 前言....................................................................................................1
1-2 黑碳....................................................................................................3
1-2-1 黑碳定義..................................................................................3
1-2-2 黑碳之形成..............................................................................3
1-2-3 黑碳特性..................................................................................4
1-2-4 黑碳之量測方式.......................................................................5
1-2-5 黑碳與多環芳香烴同分異構物比例(PAH isomer ratios) ..........6
1-3 研究區域簡述.....................................................................................7
1-3-1 高屏溪口及其近岸海域.............................................................7
1-3-2 愛河、前鎮河及高雄港區.........................................................8
1-4 研究內容..........................................................................................10
第二章研究方法..........................................................................................17
2-1 材料與儀器.......................................................................................17
2-1-1 材料.......................................................................................17
2-1-2 儀器設備................................................................................17
2-2 試藥及器具前處理............................................................................17
2-3 樣品之採樣與保存............................................................................18
2-4 樣品前處理.......................................................................................19
2-5 分析方法..........................................................................................20
2-5-1 粒徑分析................................................................................20
2-5-2 總有機碳分析方法..................................................................20
2-5-3 黑碳分析方法.........................................................................20
2-5-4 鹽度校正................................................................................21
2-6 品保及品管(QA╱QC).....................................................................21
2-6-1 重複分析................................................................................21
2-6-2 標準查核樣品分析..................................................................22
2-6-3 方法偵測極限.........................................................................22
2-7 群集分析法.......................................................................................22
2-8 主成分分析法...................................................................................23
第三章結果與討論.......................................................................................37
3-1 沉積物黑碳含量分布.........................................................................37
3-1-1 愛河、前鎮河及高雄港區沉積物............................................37
3-1-2 高屏溪口及近岸海域沉積物...................................................38
3-1-3 高屏峽谷岩心與沉積物收集器(sediment trap)樣品...............39
3-2 黑碳含量與文獻測值比較.................................................................41
3-3 黑碳與多環芳香烴、總有機碳及粒徑等相關性分析..........................42
3-4 黑碳可能來源...................................................................................45
3-5 群集分析(HCA)結果........................................................................46
3-6 主成分分析(PCA)結果.....................................................................47
3-7 岩心樣品中黑碳與多環芳香烴之時間分布........................................48
3-8 高屏峽谷黑碳之沉積通量.................................................................50
3-9 高屏溪黑碳傳輸負荷之初步推估.......................................................51
第四章結論與建議.......................................................................................86
4-1 結論..................................................................................................86
4-2 建議..................................................................................................89
參考文獻........................................................................................................90
附表..............................................................................................................100
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