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研究生:游欣怡
研究生(外文):Hsin-Yi Yu
論文名稱:中央政府機關危機溝通管理運作
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Crisis Communication Management of Taiwan Central Public Sectors
指導教授:陳以亨陳以亨引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Heng Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:傳播管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:危機管理危機公關危機傳播危機溝通
外文關鍵詞:crisis communicationcrisis public relationcrisis management
相關次數:
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危機潛伏在我們生活週遭,不論是天災或人隨時隨地都可能發生,並對生命財產或信心造成重大的衝擊,政府組織和企業都免不了遭受危機的挑戰。就政府而言,從九二一大地震、八掌溪事件、土石流災變、納莉風災均一再考驗著政府的危機應變能力。

本研究旨於利用大規模的問卷調查,以中央政府機關公關業務負責人為調查對象,檢視目前我國中央政府機關之危機溝通管理概況,以及探討中央政府組織特性與危機預準備階段以及危機回應階段之溝通管理策略間有何關聯性存在。是故本研究逐以下述各項問題進行探討:

一、瞭解目前我國中央政府機關在危機前預防與準備階段的危機溝通管理概況?
二、瞭解目前我國中央政府機關在危機回應時的危機溝通管理概況?
三、探究中央政府機關各組織之不同組織特性與危機溝通管理手段的關聯性為何?

本研究以社會調查法進行研究,針對我國不同中央政府組織的公共關係業務負責人進行調查訪問,發現以下結論:


一、在危機溝通的預防準備階段中,政府機關的議題管理概況:我國中央政府機關負責公關業務的部門,大多負有執行議題偵測任務的功能,其中又有高達近八成比例的有專人負責蒐集與組織相關的議題,顯見我國中央政府機關相當重視議題偵測的任務執行。

二、在危機溝通的預防準備階段中,政府機關的關係管理概況:我國中央政府機關公關業務負責人,多能自我肯定與利益關係人間之良好關係,達一定程度之水準。

三、危機回應階段政府機關各項溝通機制的設立概況:
(一) 、中央政府機關過去十年內,正逐漸體認危機管理政策對組織的重要性,使得目前政府機關設有危機管理政策比例已提昇至近六成。
(二) 、我國中央政府機關對危機管理小組的機制設立,要比書面或成文的危機管理政策設立更為普遍,且不但多認同以團隊導向共同預防或面對可能遭逢的危機事件,也重視公關從業人員在政府機關危機管理運作過程的參與性。
(三) 、中央政府機關組織中普遍設有危機管理小組運作機制的政府機關,
並重視危機溝通管理之運作,如設立危機的管理中心、掌握有最新媒體名單、普遍設立發言人等。

四、危機回應階段政府機關形象修復策略訊息的傳遞形式概況:在政府機關形象修復策略訊息傳遞形式之「易得性」、「迅速性」與「一致性」三方面,都達到一定水準,其中又以「迅速性」表現又最為優異。

五、危機回應階段政府機關公關人員自主性概況:整體而言,中央政府機關公關業務負責人在此階段溝通自主性尚待提升,但與法務人員的溝通方面,在該危機事件過程中,並無造成衝突而是他們的合作伙伴。

六、組織特性與危機溝通管理關聯性

(一)、組織特性與議題管理關連性:該研究結果顯示組織特性會影響組織的議題管理結果。
(二)、組織特性與關係管理關連性:有獨立公關部門的政府機關,與其最重視利益關人間所維持的關係效果,比無獨立公關部門政府機關表現較佳。
(三)、組織特性與危機溝通管理關連性:通過預算越多、員工人數愈多以及設有獨立公關部門的中央政府機關,設有危機管理政策的比例較高;通過預算愈多的中央政府機關,有愈高比例設立危機管理小組機制;有計畫執行公關運作與公營行政機關的政府機關,有愈高比例能掌握最新媒體名單;公營行政機關在組織中設有危機通訊中心溝通機制的比例,明顯高於公營事業機關;組織成立歷史越久的政府機關,有愈高比例有媒體發言人;有獨立公關部門的政府機關,有較高比例的媒體發言人曾受過媒體應對訓練。
(四)、組織特性與形象修復策略訊息傳遞形式關連性:組織規模與公關專業有助於提昇組織在形象修復策略訊息傳遞形式上的表現。
Crises lurk around our daily life. Disasters happen any time and they always make a huge impact on the life, property or people’s confidence whether the crises are natural or man-made. However, both government and enterprise can not get rid of the challenge of the crisis. As far as the government organization is concerned, each of the disasters challenges the ability of facing crisis towards the authority concerns such as the 921 earthquake, the Bajhang River event, the debris flow disaster and the Typhoon Nari.

This research wants to examine the current circumstance of the crisis management in the central public sector by using a large amount of the questionnaires which target the people who are in charge of the public relationship service. This research also wants to discuss the relationship between the organization characteristics of the central public sector and the strategies of the communication management in the crisis response stage. Hence, this research probes into these topics by the following items:

1. To realize the circumstance of the prevention before the crisis and the preparation stage of the crisis communication management in the central public sector.
2. To realize the circumstance of the crisis response from the crisis communication management in the central public sector.
3. To research the relationship of the organization characteristics and the crisis communication management method that differentiates from the different central public sector.

This research proceeds with the methodology of social survey and have the investigation towards the different persons in charge of the public relationship service in the varied central public sectors. Some conclusions are conducted such as below:

1. In the prevention stage of the crisis communication, the circumstance of the issue management is that most of the public relationship service departments of the central public sector are capable of issue monitoring.
2. In the prevention stage of the crisis communication, the circumstance of the relation management can be concluded as: most of the people who are in charge of public relationship in the central public sector can be self affirmative and make a decent relationship with stakeholders.
3. The circumstance of the communication mechanism in the crisis response stage in the government departments:
a. Within the past ten years, the central public sector has been aware of the importance of the crisis management policy by degree and it makes the percentage of setting crisis management police raised up to 60 %.
b. It is more popular to build up the crisis management team than setting the article of the crisis management policy. Moreover, most of them agree to prevent or to be against the crisis event by using a team and emphasize on the participation of the public relationship service in charge.
c. The government office, e.g. crisis management center, that sets up the mechanism of the crisis management team and emphasizes on the operation of the crisis communication management would have the latest media list in hand and set up a spokesperson in general.
4. The image restoration strategies in the crisis response stage
The circumstance of the message delivering form: the image restoration strategies reach a considerably plane from the aspect of the availability, the quickness and the consistency for the government office. Furthermore, the quickness is the most distinguished one.
5. The communication autonomy of the people who are in charge of the government public relationship in the crisis response stage: In general, the communication autonomy for the people who are in charge of the government public relationship needs to be improved. But, there are no communication conflicts with the law staff during the crisis event. On the contrary, they become a team to work together.
6. The relationship between the characteristics of the organization and crisis communication management.
a. The relationship between the characteristics of the organization and issue management: this research shows result that the characteristics of the organization may have some influences to the issue management.
b. The relationship between the characteristics of the organization and the relations management: the government office that has an independent public relationship service performs the better results than the office that does not have the independent pubic relationship service towards the most respected people.
c. The relationship between the characteristics of the organization and the crisis communication management: the central public sector that has more budget approved, more employees and also set up an independent public relationship department may have high percentage to set up crisis management policy; The central public sector that has more budget approved may have high percentage to have the mechanism of building up the crisis management team; The government department that sets schedule to perform public relationship and it is also a government staff unit may have high percentage to have the latest media list in hand; It obviously has the high percentage to set up crisis management communication center in the government staff unit than the national corporations; The government department that has long history may have high percentage to hold a spokesman; A government department has independent public relationship office may have high percentage to have disciplined spokesman to communicate with mass media.
d. The relationship between the characteristics of the organization and the message delivering form: the scale of the organization and the public relationship discipline improve the image restoration strategies in the message delivering form.
表 次 XI
圖 次 XIII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 危機相關概念界定 5
一、危機的定義 5
二、危機的特性 7
三、危機的類別: 8
第二節 危機溝通管理的重要性 9
第三節 危機管理的階段論 11
第四節 危機溝通相關理論 14
一、危機溝通四模式(公關四模式) 14
二、危機公共關係模式 16
三、GONZALEZ-HERRERO & PRATT 之整合對等危機溝通模式 18
四、危機溝通管理與公共關係 21
五、小結 23
第五節 危機溝通的預防與準備 24
一、議題管理 25
二、關係管理 29
第六節 危機溝通回應階段 34
一、危機溝通策略 34
二、訊息傳遞模式 39
三、公關人員的自主性 41
第七節 組織特性與危機溝通相關聯性 46
第三章 研究方法 48
第一節 研究觀念性架構 48
第二節 研究方法 50
第三節 研究工具 51
一、危機溝通預防與準備階段的測量變項 51
二、危機溝通回應階段的測量變項 53
三、組織特性與公關人員基本資料 55
第三節資料蒐集程序 56
一、研究母體的確認與問卷前測 56
二、問卷發放 57
三、問卷回收 57
四、資料處理與分析 57
第四章 結果分析 57
第一節 樣本基本資料 58
一、中央政府機關基本資料 58
二、公關負責單位基本資料 59
三、公共關係人員基本資料 60
第二節 組織在危機溝通預防與準備階段的管理概況 61
一、議題管理概況 61
二、關係管理概況 64
第三節 組織在危機溝通回應階段的管理概況 65
一、危機回應階段政府機關各項溝通機制的設立概況 66
二、政府機關形象修復策略訊息的傳遞形式 72
三、政府機關公關人員的溝通自主性 73
第四節 中央政府機關特性與危機溝通管理的關聯性 75
一、組織特性與危機溝通預防與準備的關聯性 75
二、組織特性與危機溝通回應的關聯性 77
第五章 結論 83
第一節 研究發現 83
一、政府機關在危機溝通預防與準備階段的管理概況 84
二、中央政府機關在危機溝通回應階段的管理概況 85
三、組織特性與危機溝通管理關聯性 87
第二節 研究限制 89
第三節 研究建議 90
一、對中央政府機關危機溝通管理運作的建議 90
二、對未來研究的建議 91
參考文獻 92
一、中文參考書目 92
二、西文參考書目 94
附錄:問卷內容 101
一、中文參考書目

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李瑞玉(2001):《重大災難事件中央政府危機溝通策略之研究-以九二一大地震的新聞報導為例》。師範大學大眾傳播研究所碩士論文。

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蘇世欣(2002):《企業危機溝通管理初探:以台灣企業公關業務負責人調查為例》。世新大學傳播研究所碩士論文。

孫本初(1996):〈危機管理策略之探討〉。《人事月刊》,第二十二卷第六期,頁17-29。

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詹中原(1992):美國政府之危機管理:組織發展與政府架構。《美國月刊》,第5卷第5期。

朱愛群(2002):《危機管理:解讀災難謎咒》。臺北:五南圖書。

朱延智(2002) :《企業危機管理》。台北:五南圖書。

蔡樹培(1999):〈關係管理與溝通管理對危機管理之影響— 以肇因於產品缺失之突發性危機為研究重點〉,《民意研究季刊》,209:133-167。

黃如萍(1993):《產業類別、企業文化與公關活動之關聯性研究》,文化大學新聞研究所碩士論文。

黃懿慧(2001):〈危機回應:淺談形象修復策略〉,《公關雜誌》,42:43-46。

黃懿慧(1999):〈西方公共關係理論學派之探討— 90 年代理論的競爭與辯論〉,《廣告學研究》,12:1-38。

張藝芬(1990):《我國不同中央政府組織的公共關係》,國立政治大學新聞研究所碩士論文。

蕭思源(1991):《廠商之行銷公關行為研究-台灣資訊業之實證》,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。

卜正岷(2003)。公共關係:政府公共議題決策管理。

孫曼蘋(2000),〈921 地震政府體系資訊傳布之初探〉,《新聞學研究》,第六十二期,頁165-170。

孫秀蕙(1997):《公共關係:理論、策略與研究實例》。台北:正中。

孫秀蕙(1996),〈公關人員與媒體之間的互動模式對於議題管理策略的啟示—以非營利性的弱勢團體為例〉,《廣告學研究》。第8集,頁153-174。

于鳯娟譯(2001),Otto Lerbinger著。《危機管理》。台北:五南。

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