(3.230.143.40) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/21 08:00
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳立人
研究生(外文):Li-jen Chen
論文名稱:H.264/AVC與物件編碼
論文名稱(外文):H.264/AVC and Object-Based Coding
指導教授:江明朝
指導教授(外文):Ming-Chao Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:物件
外文關鍵詞:H.264Object-BasedAVC
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:159
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
H.264/AVC 是目前最新的影像編碼標準. 這是由 ITU-T 的 VCEG 跟 ISO/IEC 的 MPEG 兩大組織共同發展的. 這套標準的產生是為了提供更強的壓縮效率和提供更友善的網路影像. 因為H.264/AVC提供了許多壓縮的新方法和新工具, 採用這些可以大大的改善影像編碼的品質. H.264/AVC 可以提供相同的解析度但是壓縮率卻可以比MPEG2高大約50\%. 物件為基礎的編碼是MPEG4的新特色. 採用物件為基礎的編碼可以降低計算的範圍藉以提高運算的速度. 而輸出的影像可以從物件編碼出來的串列重新組合或是藉由合成而得到新影像. 擷取H.264/AVC和物件編碼的優點,編碼將會更快速且更小. 在這篇文
章中, 我們採用H.264/AVC的壓縮方法來完成物件編碼的效果.
H.264/AVC is the latest international video coding standard. It was jointly developed by the Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) of the ITU-T and the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) of ISO/IEC. The goals of this standardization effort were enhanced compression efficiency and network friendly video representation. Because H.264 includes a lot of new characteristics and offers a lot of tools for compression, it can improve the quality of the compressed image greatly. H.264/AVC provides gains in compression efficiency of up to 50\% over a wide range of bit rates and video resolutions compared to previous standards. Object-based coding is the new feature that MPEG-4 supports. The object-based coding can reduce the region of motion estimation; this will increase the speed of coding. The output frame can be combined with the
object-based coding sequence and also can be synthesized with the object-based coding sequence. Taking the advantage of the H.264/AVC and Object-based coding, the coding will be faster and the sequence will be smaller. In this thesis, we adopted the H.264/AVC video coding standard to implement the object coding.
Acknowledgments iv
List of Tables iv
List of Figures v
List of Listings vii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Organization of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 2 Video Coding Standard 4
2.1 The release of standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2 ISO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3 ITU-T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4 JVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5 H.261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6 H.263 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.7 H.264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 3 Digital Image 12
3.1 Capture and Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.1 The Digital Video and Video Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.2 Video Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
i
3.1.3 Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1.4 Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2 Color Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2.1 RGB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2.2 YCrCb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3 Video Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.4 Video Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.5 Differential Plus Code Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.6 Motion Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.7 Transform Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.7.1 DCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.7.2 DWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.8 Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Chapter 4 H.264/AVC 29
4.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2 H.264 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2.1 H.264 Video Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2.2 Coded Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2.3 Profiles and Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.2.4 Macroblocks and Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.3 Coding Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Chapter 5 Baseline Profiles of AVC 37
5.1 Slice Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.1.1 Arbitrary Slice Order (ASO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.1.2 Flexible Macroblock Ordering (FMO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.2 Macroblock Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.2.1 Intra Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.2.2 Inter Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3 Motion Vector Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
ii
5.4 Transform and Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.5 Entropy Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.6 In-loop Deblocking Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.7 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Chapter 6 Object-based Coding and Experimental Result 46
6.1 Video Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.2 Implementation and Experimental Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Chapter 7 Conclusion and Future Works 64
7.1 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.2 Future Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Appendix A The functions of the JVT software JM 10.1 68
[1] “Video codec for audiovisual services at px64 kbit/s,” March. 1993.
[2] “Information technology8coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital
storage media at up to about 1.5 mbit/s,” 1993.
[3] “Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information8part 2: Video,”
Sept. 1994.
[4] “Video coding for low bit rate communication,” Nov. 2000.
[5] “Information technology8coding of audiovisual objects8part 2: visual,” 2000.
[6] “Coding of audiovisual objects8part 10: Advanced video coding,” 2003.
[7] Terms of reference for joint video team activities. [Online]. Available: http:
//www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com16/jvt/
[8] I. E. G. Richardson, Video CODEC Design: Developing Image and Video Compression-
Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
[9] Yuv 4:2:0 video sequence. [Online]. Available: http://trace.eas.asu.edu/yuv/index.html
[10] O. Ghanbari, “Standard codecs: Image compression to advanced video coding,” 2003.
[11] W. B. Pennebaker and J. L. Mitchell, JPEG: Still Image Data Compression Standard.
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002.
[12] R. C. Gonzalog and R. E. Woods, Digital Image processing, 2nd Edition. New Jersey:
Prential-hall, 2002.
67
[13] B. Horn and B. G. Schunk, “Determining optical flow,” Artificial Intelligence, pp. 185–
203, 1981.
[14] T. Acharya and P.-S. Tsai, JPEG2000 Standard for Image Compression: Concepts, Algorithms
and VLSI Architectures. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
[15] I. E. G. Richardson, H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression. John Wiley & Sons,
2003.
[16] W. T., Sullivan, G.J., Bjntegaard, and G. L. A., “Overview of the h.264/avc video coding
standard,” Circuits Syst. Video Technol., pp. 560–576, July 2003.
[17] D. Marpe, H. Schwarz, and T.Wiegand, “Context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding
in the h.264/avc video compression standard,” Circuits Syst. Video Technol., pp.
620–636, July 2003.
[18] P. List, J. L. A. Joch, G. Bjontegaard, and M. Karczewicz, “Adaptive deblocking filter,”
Circuits Syst. Video Technol., pp. 614–619, July 2003.
[19] M. Karczewicz and R. Kurceren, “A proposal for sp-frames,” January 2001.
[20] A. Smolic, B. Makai, and T. Sikora, “Real-time estimation of long-term 3-d motion
parameters for snhc face animation and model-based coding applications,” Circuits Syst.
Video Technol., pp. 255–263, Mar 1999.
[21] H. Li and R. Forchheimer, “Two-view facial movement estimation,” Circuits Syst. Video
Technol., pp. 276–287, Apr 1994.
[22] Jvt reference software unofficial version jm10.1e. [Online]. Available: http:
//bs.hhi.de/ suehring/tml/download/
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔