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研究生:曾育鍾
研究生(外文):Yu-Chung Tseng
論文名稱:中央鑽孔碳纖維/聚二醚酮複材積層板升溫疲勞之機械性質
論文名稱(外文):Fatigue Response of Centrally Notched APC-2 Composite Laminates at Elevated Temperature
指導教授:任明華任明華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Hwa R. Jen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:動態疲勞靜態拉伸高溫積層板機械性質鑽孔複合材料強度與壽命預估半經驗-半理論
外文關鍵詞:semi-empiricalstrength and Life prediction.elevated temperaturefatiguestaticmechanical propertiesAPC-2notchlaminatecomposite material
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本文主要探討中央鑽孔與無鑽孔APC-2複材積層板在各種升溫環境中有系統地進行靜態拉伸實驗與動態拉伸-拉伸實驗所獲得的機械性質。接著依照統計學分析與濕熱環境對於複材持久度/壽命的影響建立半經驗-半理論之經驗式。
將十六層APC-2預浸布裁切所需疊層之積層板並依最佳化隔膜修正成形法製造。在依序在試片中央鑽孔各種大小的直徑之圓孔後,進行各種升溫環境中的之實驗測試。從所有的參數設定下我們得到重要的結論如下。在相同溫度下十字疊積層板擁有極限強度、疲勞強度及縱向徑度值均高於類似均向疊。鑽孔影響積層板強度減弱,但使徑度值有不規則產生。當測試溫度上升積層板之強度與徑度明顯地降低。結合溫度與鑽孔之影響在各種升溫環境下,我們發現疲勞實驗中十字疊擁有抵抗鑽孔損傷的影響的能力較類似均向疊高。然而類似均向疊擁有原始材料強度之能力均高於十字疊積層板。
最後複迴歸分析顯示濕熱環境影響及循環負載會減低APC-2複材性能。經驗式可靠地預估保守值,可建議被採用於初步設計中。這是本文論文中主要的貢獻所在。對於設計與應用的目標此預估經驗式有效地處理實驗值已代替傳統曲線擬合方法。
This thesis was concerned on the investigation of mechanical properties of centrally notched and unnotched AS-4/PEEK (APC-2) composite laminates due to static tensile and tension-tension (T-T) fatigue tests empirically and systematically. Then, statistical analyses were used to determine and quantify the significant thermomechanical variables that influence the durability/life of the composite laminates.
Typical laminates were made from sixteen prepregs of APC-2 and manufactured by a modified curing process. After drilling one hole with various diameters in the center of the samples respectively, the lay-ups were conducted on tension fracture and T-T fatigue test at different temperatures. From the parametric study we achieved the important results as follows. The cross-ply laminate possesses the higher ultimate strength, fatigue strength and longitudinal stiffness than those of the quasi-isotropic at the same temperature. Notch effect decays the laminate strength seriously, but changes the stiffness irregularly. As test temperature rising both strength and stiffness of lay-ups degrade significantly. Combining both effects of notch and temperature under severe environmental condition, it is found the cross-ply laminate possesses more resistance than that of the quasi-isotropic to cyclic loading. However, the quasi-isotropic laminate is more capable of sustaining the original strength than that of the cross-ply.
Finally, the multiple regression analysis results showed that the hygrothermal environmental effects and cyclic loading were decoupled for APC-2 composite system. A semi-empirical model, reliably set up after the said programs, predicts conservative values, and should be adequate for use in preliminary designs. That is the main contribution in this study. Also, for the purposes of design and application, the predicted models efficiently treat experimental data instead of conventional curve-fitting methods.
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT……………………………………..…………………………………I
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………V
List of Figures………………………………………….…………………………VI
Chapter 1. Introduction…………………………………….………………………1
1-1 Introduction………………………………………………………………...1
1-2 Review of Literature……………………………………………………….3
1-2-1 Notched Factors of Composites…………………………….………….3
1-2-2 The Effects of Temperature on Composites……………………………4
1-2-3 The Research Work at Composite Materials Fatigue and Fracture Laboratory on Mechanical Properties of APC-2 Composites…………………………………………………………….6
1-3 Objectives of Dissertation…………………………………………………8
CHAPTER 2. ARRANGEMENT FOR EXPERIMENT…………………………10
2-1 Materials…………………………………………………………………..11
2-1-1 AS-4 Fiber…………………………………………………………….11
2-1-2 PEEK Matrix…………………………………………………………12
2-2 Forming Method…………………………………………………………..13
2-3 Laminate Preparation……………………………………………………...13
2-4 Static Tensile Tests………………………………………………………...14
2-5 Tension-Tension Fatigue Tests…………………………………………….15
2-6 Experimental Programs……………………………………………………15
2-7 Experimental Procedure…………………………………………………...16
2-7-1 Function Descriptions………………………………………………...16
2-7-2 Set Up and Specimen Loading Procedures…………………………...18
CHAPTER 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS…………………………………….28
3-1 Static Tests in Unnotched and Notched APC-2 Composite Laminates…………………………………………………………………28
3-2 Fatigue Tests in Unnotched APC-2 Composite Laminates………………...29
3-3 Fatigue Tests in Notched APC-2 Composite Laminates…………………...29
3-4 Statistical Analyses and Multiple Regression……………………………...30
3-4-1 The Analysis of Static Tests in Unnotched and Notched APC-2 Composite Laminates at Elevated Temperature…………………………..33
3-4-2 The Analysis of Fatigue Tests in Unnotched APC-2 Composite Laminates at Elevated Temperature………………………………………34
3-4-3 The Analysis of Fatigue Tests in Notched APC-2 Composite Laminates at Elevated temperature…………………………………………………...34
3-5 Failure Modes of APC-2 Composite Laminates…………………………...35
CHAPTER 4. DISCUSSION……………………………………………………..79
4-1 The Influence of Notched Factor at Elevated Temperature on APC-2 Composite Laminates During Static Testing………………………………...79
4-2 The Effects of Elevated Temperature on APC-2 Composite Laminates During Cyclic Loading Test…………………………………………………………84
4-3 The Influence of Notch and Temperature on APC-2 Composite Laminates During Thermo-Cyclic Loading……………………………………………..86
4-4 Generalization for Durability/Life to AS-4 Fiber/PEEK Matrix Composites…………………………………………………………………..90
4-5 Failure Modes of APC-2 Composite Laminates……………………………...95
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION and FUTURE WORK……………………………98
5.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….98
5.2 Future Work…………………………………………………………………...99
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………..101
APPENDIX 1……………………………………………………………………109
APPENDIX 2……………………………………………………………………110
VITA……………………………………………………………………………..115

List of Tables
Table 2-1 Property data of APC-2 composite…………………………………….19
Table 3-1 Mechanical properties of various lay-ups at room moisture and temperature…………………………………………………………….37
Table 3-2 Mechanical properties of two lay-up specimens W/WO notch at elevated temperature…………………………………………………………….38
Table 3-3 Failure mode and mechanism of two lay-ups W/WO notch at elevated temperature as depicted in Figure 3-1 schematically………………………………………………………...39
Table 3-4 The ultimate strength and longitudinal stiffness in variously notched cross-ply laminates at different temperature…………………………..40
Table 3-5 The ultimate strength and longitudinal stiffness in variously notched quasi-isotropic laminates at different temperature…………………….42
Table 3-6 The data of load vs. cycles at various temperatures in cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………………………44
Table 3-7 Dynamic stiffness of unnotched cross-ply laminate at elevated temperature…………………………………………………………….45
Table 3-8 Dynamic stiffness of unnotched quasi-isotropic laminate at elevated temperature…………………………………………………………….45
Table 3-9 Mechanical properties of unnotched cross-ply and quasi-isotropic specimens at elevated temperature……………………………………46
Table 3-10 Mechanical properties of notched cross-ply and quasi-isotropic specimens at elevated temperature (d = 4 mm) ………………………47
Table 3-11 The data of load (stress) vs. cycles at various temperatures in notched cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………48
Table 3-12 Curve fitting plot with second-order polynomial by drilling a central hole of 4mmψ in cross-ply and quasi-isotropic specimens…………50
Table 3-13 Semi-empirical models of APC-2 composite laminates………………51

List of Figures
Figure 2-1 Curing process for APC-2 laminates…………………………………..18
Figure 2-2 (a) The prepregs lying on underneath template of hot press……….20
Figure 2-2 (b) The Polyimide film set up between upper template and the prepregs in hot press………………………………………………….21
Figure 2-2 (c) The situation of performing curing process in hot press………..21
Figure 2-3 (a) The geometry of the APC-2 composite laminate………………..22
Figure 2-3 (b) The dimensions of the APC-2 composite laminate……………...22
Figure 2-4 The diamond-blade cutting machine with cooling water way……...23
Figure 2-5 The high-speed-counterclockwise drilling machine with a tungsten head……………………………………………………………………23
Figure 2-6 The geometry and dimensions of a specimen…………………………24
Figure 2-7 The MTS-810 servohydraulic computer-controlled universal material testing machine……………………………………………………….25
Figure 2-8 MTS-651 hot chamber………………………………………………..26
Figure 2-9 The 25.4 MTS-634.11F-25 extensometer for elevated temperature……………………………………………………………27
Figure 3-1 Schematic failure mode and mechanism in two lay-ups with notch…………………………………………………………………...52
Figure 3-2 The ultimate strength in variously notched cross-ply laminates at elevated temperature…………………………………………………...53
Figure 3-3 The ultimate strength in variously notched quasi-isotropic laminates at elevated temperature…………………………………………………...53
Figure 3-4 (a) The longitudinal stiffness in variously notched cross-ply laminates at elevated temperature…………………………………………………...54
Figure 3-4 (b) The longitudinal stiffness in variously notched quasi-isotropic laminates at elevated temperature……………………………………………….……………54
Figure 3-5 (a) The change of normalized strength in notched cross-ply laminates at elevated temperature…………………………………………………...55
Figure 3-5 (b) The change of normalized strength in notched quasi-isotropic laminates at elevated temperature……………………………………………….……………55
Figure 3-6 (a) The change of normalized stiffness in notched cross-ply laminates at elevated temperature…………………………………………………..56
Figure 3-6 (b) The change of normalized stiffness in notched quasi-isotropic laminates at elevated temperature……………………………………………………………56
Figure 3-7 (a) The strain in variously notched CP laminates at elevated temperature…………………………………………………………….57
Figure 3-7 (b) The strain in variously notched QI laminates at elevated temperature……………………………………………………………57
Figure 3-8 (a) Experimental data of strain with variously notched hole at elevated temperature in comparison with the predictive model of cross-ply laminates………………………………………………………………58
Figure 3-8 (b) Experimental data of strain with variously notched hole at elevated temperature in comparison with the predictive model of quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………………………………………58
Figure 3-9 (a) The S-N curves at various temperatures in cross-ply laminates………………………………………………………………59
Figure 3-9 (b) The S-N curves at various temperatures in quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………………………………………59
Figure 3-10 The fatigue strength vs. temperature of cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………………………………………60
Figure 3-11 The dynamic stiffness’s ratio vs. temperature of cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………………………60
Figure 3-12 (a) The dynamic stiffness’s ratio vs. cycles of cross-ply laminates………………………………………………………………61
Figure 3-12 (b) The dynamic stiffness’s ratio vs. cycles of quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………………………………………61
Figure 3-13 (a) The ultimate tensile strength versus temperature of unnotched and notched cross-ply specimens……………………………………….…62
Figure 3-13 (b) The ultimate tensile strength versus temperature of unnotched and notched quasi-isotropic specimens……………………………………62
Figure 3-14 (a) The longitudinal stiffness versus temperature of unnotched and notched cross-ply specimens……………………………………………………………..63
Figure 3-14 (b) The longitudinal stiffness versus temperature of unnotched and notched quasi-isotropic specimens…………………………………………..…………………63
Figure 3-15 (a) The S-N curves of notched cross-ply specimens at different temperatures………………………………………………………...…64
Figure 3-15 (b) The S-N curves of unnotched cross-ply specimens at different temperatures…………………………………………………………...64
Figure 3-16 (a) The normalized stress vs. cycles curves of notched cross-ply specimens at different temperature……………………………………65
Figure 3-16 (b) The normalized stress vs. cycles curves of unnotched cross-ply specimens at different temperatures…………………………………..65
Figure 3-17 (a) The S-N curves of notched quasi-isotropic specimens at different temperatures……………………………………………………………66
Figure 3-17 (b) The S-N curves of unnotched quasi-isotropic specimens at different temperatures……………………………………………………………66
Figure 3-18 (a) The normalized stress vs. cycles curves of notched quasi-isotropic specimens at different temperatures…………………………………...67
Figure 3-18 (b) The normalized stress vs. cycles curves of unnotched quasi-isotropic specimens at different temperatures…………………………………..67
Figure 3-19 (a) Data points of normalized stress vs. d/W at elevated temperature in comparison with the modified predictive model of cross-ply laminates………………………………………………………………68
Figure 3-19 (b) Data points of normalized stress vs. d/W at elevated temperature in comparison with the modified predictive model of quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………………………………………68
Figure 3-20 (a) The generalized predictive models of cross-ply laminates at different temperatures……………………………………………………………69
Figure 3-20 (b) The generalized predictive models of quasi-isotropic laminates at different temperatures…………………………………………………69
Figure 3-21 (a) The normalized stress vs. d/W curves at different temperatures in notched cross-ply specimens by the generalized predictive model………………………………………………………………….70
Figure 3-21 (b) The normalized stress vs. d/W curves at different temperatures in notched quasi-isotropic specimens by the generalized predictive model………………………………………………………………….70
Figure 3-22 (a) The normalized stress vs. cycles curves at different temperatures in notched cross-ply specimens by the generalized predictive model………………………………………………………………….71
Figure 3-22 (b) The normalized stress vs. cycles curves at different temperatures in notched quasi-isotropic specimens by the generalized predictive model…………………………………………………………………..71
Figure 3-23 (a) The T-N curves at various temperatures in cross-ply laminates…...72
Figure 3-23 (b) The T-N curves at various temperatures in quasi-isotropic laminates………………………………………………………………72
Figure 3-24 (a). The T-N curves of notched cross-ply specimens at different temperatures…………………………………………………………..73
Figure 3-24 (b). The T-N curves of unnotched cross-ply specimens at different temperatures…………………………………………………………...73
Figure 3-25 Specimen diagram of fibers direction…………………………………74
Figure 3-26 Fracture photograph of various unidirectional nanocomposite specimens, such as [0]16, [30]16, [45]16, [60]16, and [90]16, from top to bottom………………………………………………………………….74
Figure 3-27 (a) Fracture photograph of cross-ply nanocomposite specimens at elevated temperature, such as 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150℃, from left to right……………………………………………………………………75
Figure 3-27 (b) Typical picture of notched CP specimens under impending failure at different temperatures…………………………………………………75
Figure 3-28 (a) Fracture photograph of quasi-isotropic nanocomposite specimens at elevated temperature, such as 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150℃, from left to right……………………………………………………………………76
Figure 3-28 (b) Typical picture of notched QI specimens under impending failure at different temperatures…………………………………………………76
Figure 3-29 (a) Typical picture of unnotched AP specimens under impending failure………………………………………………………………….77
Figure 3-29 (b) Typical picture of notched AP specimens under impending failure………………………………………………………………….77
Figure 3-30 (a) SEM photograph of cross-ply at normal temperature for 0-degree ply……………………………………………………………………..78
Figure 3-30 (b) SEM photograph of cross-ply at normal temperature for 90-degree ply……………………………………………………………………..78
Figure 3-31 (a) SEM photograph of cross-ply above Tg for 0-degree ply…………79
Figure 3-31 (b) SEM photograph of cross-ply above Tg for 90-degree ply……….79
Figure 3-32 (a) SEM photograph of quasi-isotropic at normal temperature for 0-degree ply…………………………………………………………...80
Figure 3-32 (b) SEM photograph of quasi-isotropic at normal temperature for 45-degree ply………………………………………………………….80
Figure 3-32 (c) SEM photograph of quasi-isotropic at normal temperature for 90-degree ply…………………………………………………………..81
Figure 3-33 (a) SEM photograph of quasi-isotropic above Tg for 0-degree ply…...81
Figure 3-33 (b) SEM photograph of quasi-isotropic above Tg for 45-degree ply….82
Figure 3-33 (c) SEM photograph of quasi-isotropic above Tg for 90-degree ply….82
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