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研究生:王國斌
研究生(外文):Kuo-bin Wang
論文名稱:正交分頻多重接取和互補碼分碼多工系統之性能比較
論文名稱(外文):Performance Comparison of OFDMA and Complementary Code Based CDMA Systems
指導教授:陳曉華陳曉華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao-Hwa Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:通訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:正交分頻多工正交分頻多重接取分碼多工
外文關鍵詞:OFDMOFDMACDMA
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本論文主要在探討正交分頻多重接取(OFDMA)系統與使用完全互補碼(complete complementary code)的多載波分碼多工系統兩者的性能比較。
第三代行動通訊的主要技術為CDMA,而使用完全互補碼為展頻碼的CDMA又比傳統的CDMA擁有更多優點。由數個正交矩陣而產生的完全互補碼,是由數個自互補碼組所構成,而自互補碼組之間彼此為互互補碼的關係。而完全互補碼最大的特點在於碼組之間擁有完美的相關性。再者,由於我們所用的展頻碼為完全互補碼,其自相關函數及互相關函數是完美的,即使每個bit都與其它的bit重疊,然而bit之間並不會相互干擾,而用戶與用戶之間也沒有相互干擾的問題存在。
OFDMA已成為第四代行動通訊的核心。因為使用正交載波來傳遞訊,所以用戶和用戶間也沒有相互干擾的問題,但必需對同步更加精準。OFDMA能提供比第三代系統更佳的移動性,因此在本論文中將對這兩個系統做一比較,藉由我們的分析讓我們更能了解在第四代系統使用OFDMA的優點為何。
In this thesis, the performance comparison of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) and complete complementary code based CDMA system is studied.
The complete complementary code is composed of several sets of auto-complementary codes, any two of which are cross-complementary codes. The perfect correlation between code sets is the distinguishing feature of complete complementary code.
OFDMA is used in the 4th. generation Mobile Communication systems. The OFDMA architecture can offer an MAI-free operation in both down-link (synchronous channel) and up-link (asynchronous channel) transmission under the AWGN channel.
中文摘要I
AbstractIII
誌謝V
目錄VII
變數列表IX
圖目錄XI
表目錄XIII
第一章 導論1
1.1 研究動機1
1.2 論文架構3
1.3 參考文獻4
第二章 正交分頻多重接取系統(OFDMA)7
2.1 前言7
2.2 正交分頻多工系統(OFDM)7
2.2.1 OFDM背景與發展現況7
2.2.2 OFDM系統架構 8
2.1.3 載波正交性證明12
2.1.4 OFDM發射信號頻寬14
2.1.5 循環前置(Cyclic Prefix)15
2.1.6 系統模型與分析17
2.1.7 峰值功率對平均功率比值(PAPR)20
2.3 正交分頻多重接取(OFDMA)21
2.4 無線傳輸通道25
2.4.1 通道模型26
2.4.2 通道估測29
2.4.3 無線衰減通道的改善方法30
2.4.3.1 對抗信號失真30
2.4.3.2 改善功率訊雜比(SNR)的耗損31
2.5 參考文獻32
第三章 OFDMA調(Tone)分配與系統容量35
3.1 前言35
3.2 調分配35
3.3 IEEE 802.16e OFDMA 下行系統規格36
3.4 系統容量39
3.5 參考文獻41
第四章 正交分頻多重擷取與互補碼分碼多工系統之性能比較43
4.1 前言43
4.2 互補碼分碼多工系統43
4.2.1 正交完全互補碼43
4.2.2 正交完全互補碼(Orthogonal complete complementary code)性質44
4.2.3 正交完全互補碼產生方法47
4.2.4 系統傳送端架構50
4.2.5 系統接收端架構53
4.2.6 錯誤率分析58
4.3 正交分頻多重擷取系統性能分析60
4.3.1 單一用戶分析60
4.3.2 多用戶分析68
4.4 Matlab結果比較72
4.5 參考文獻74
第五章 結論與建議75
附錄A:討論OFDM訊號在傳送端為何取實部77
A.1 理論分析77
A.2 參考文獻83
Chapter 1
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[2] Turyn, R.; “Ambiguity functions of complementary sequences (Corresp.)”, Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on Volume 9, Issue 1, Jan 1963 Page(s):46 – 47
[3] Taki, Y.; Miyakawa, H.; Hatori, M.; Namba, S.; “Even-shift orthogonal sequences”, Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on Volume 15, Issue 2, Mar 1969 Page(s):295 – 300
[4] Suehiro, N.; Hatori, M.; “N-shift cross-orthogonal sequences”, Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on Volume 34, Issue 1, Jan. 1988 Page(s):143 – 146
[5] Hsiao-Hwa Chen; Jun-Feng Yeh; Suehiro, N.; “A multicarrier CDMA architecture based on orthogonal complementary codes for new generations of wideband wireless communications”, Communications Magazine, IEEE Volume 39, Issue 10, Oct. 2001 Page(s):126 – 135
[6] Hsiao-Hwa Chen; Hsin-Wei Chiu; “Design of perfect complementary codes to implement interference-free CDMA systems”, Global Telecommunications Conference, 2004. GLOBECOM ''04. IEEE Volume 2, 29 Nov.-3 Dec. 2004 Page(s):1096 - 1100 Vol.2
[7] Hsiao-Hwa Chen; Hsin-Wei Chiu; “Generation of perfect orthogonal complementary codes for their applications in interference-free CDMA systems”, Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2004. PIMRC 2004. 15th IEEE International Symposium on Volume 1, 5-8 Sept. 2004 Page(s):734 - 738 Vol.1
[8] Chia-Ming Yang; Pei-Hsuan Lin; Guu-Chang Yang; Kwong, W.C.; “2D orthogonal spreading codes for multicarrier DS-CDMA systems”, Communications, 2003. ICC ''03. IEEE International Conference on Volume 5, 11-15 May 2003 Page(s):3277 - 3281 vol.5
[9]林金賢, “互補碼分碼多工系統之研究,” 國立中山大學電機工程學系研究所碩士論文, 2002
[10] Frank, R.; “Polyphase complementary codes”, Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on Volume 26, Issue 6, Nov 1980 Page(s):641 – 647
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[16] 電信國家型科技計畫,2006年6月
Chapter 2
[1]Richard van Nee, Ramjee Prasad, OFDM wireless multimedia communication, Artech House Boston London, 2000.
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[6] L. Hanzo, W. Webb and T. Keller, Single- and multi-carrier quadratureamplitude modulation – Principles and applications for personal communications, WLANs and broadcasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2000.
[7] B. Hirosaki, “An analysis of automatic equalizers for orthogonally multiplexedQAM system ” IEEE Trans. Comm., Vol. COM-28, pp. 73-83, Jan. 1980.
[8] B. Hirosaki, “ An orthogonally multiplexed QAM system using the discretefourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Comm., Vol. COM-29, pp. 73-83, Jan. 1980.
[9] John A. C. Bingham, ADSL, VDSL, and multicarrier modulation,Wiley-Interscience.
[10] John Terry, Juha Heiskala, OFDM wireless LANs: A theoretical and practical guide, Sams.
[11] Radio broadcasting system: Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) to mobile, portable and fixed receivers. ETS 300 401, ETSI-European Telecommunication Standards Institute, Valbonne, France, Feb. 1995.
[12] Wolfgang Hoeg, Thomas Lauterbach, Digital audio broadcasting: Principlesand applications, John Wiley & Sons.
[13] Robert Goodman, The guide to digital television, second edition, Miller Freeman PSN, Inc.
[14] Digital broadcasting systems for television, sound and data services. European Telecommunication Standard, prETS 300 744 (Draft, version 0.0.3), Apr. 1996.
[15] “IEEE 802.16.2, Recommended Practices to Facilitate the Coexistence of Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Systems: Working Document, Draft 5,”IEEE 802.16.2-00/01r5, 2000.
[16] Khun-Jush J., Malmgren G. and Schramm P. Torsner, J. “Overview andperformance of HIPERLAN type 2-a standard for broadband wirelesscommunications,” Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, 2000. VTC 2000-Spring Tokyo. 2000 IEEE 51st, Vol. 1, pp.112 -117, 2000.
[17] Jim Geier, Wireless LANS, implementing high performance IEEE 802.11 networks, second edition, Sams.
[18] Neil Reid and Ron Seide, 802.11(Wi-Fi) networking handbook, Mc Graw Hill.
[19] IEEE Standards Department, “IEEE 802.11 draft standard for wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specification,”P802.11 D6.1, May 1997.
[20] IEEE P802.11a/D2.0. “Draft supplement to standard for telecommunications and information exchange between systems – LAN/MAN specific requirement-Part II: Wireless MAC and PHY Specifications: High speed physical layer in the 5GHz band,” 1997.
[21]“Universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS); UMTS terrestrialradio access (UTRA); Concept evaluation,” tech, rep., ETSI, TR 101 146, 1997.
[22] Discrete Time Signal Processing ,Oppenheim
[23] sweb.nuu.edu.tw/~m9321509/PDF/ex13.pdf
[24] Bernard Sklar , “Rayleigh Fading Channels in Mobile Digital Communication System Part 2 : Mitigation,” IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 102-109, July 1997
[25] Theodore S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications,” Prentice-Hall, Inc 1996
[26] R. Thomas Derryberry, Steven D. Mihai Ionescu, “Tranmit Diversity in 3G CDMA systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 68-75, April 2002
Chapter 3
[1] IEEE Std 802.16-2004, IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Part16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems. New York: IEEE, June 24, 2004.
[2] IEEE Std 802.16e-2005 and IEEE Std 802.16-2004/Cor 1-2005, IEEE Standard for Localand metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile BroadbandWireless Access Systems Amendment 2: Physical and Medium Access Control Layersfor Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands and Corrigendum 1. NewYork: IEEE, Feb. 28, 2006.
[3] J.G. Proakis, Digital Communications. Fourth Edition, New York:McGraw-Hill 2001
[4] A water-filling based approach for power allocation for multiple-antenna Rayleigh
flat fading systems with partially coherent detection Baccarelli, E.; Biagi,
M.;Vehicular Technology Conference, 2002. Proceedings. VTC 2002-Fall. 2002
I EEE 56th Volume 1, 24-28 Sept. 2002 Page(s):92 - 96 vol.1 Digital Object
Identifier 10.1109/VETECF.2002.1040309
Chapter 4
[1] “展頻與分碼多工通訊理論-數位行動通訊技術叢書”, 陳曉華, 全華出版社
[2] Shu-Ming Tseng, and Mark R. Bell, “Asynchronous multicarrier DS-CDMA using mutually orthogonal complementary sets of sequences,” IEEE Trans. on Communications, vol.48 No.1, Jan, 2000.
[3] Golay, M. “Complementary series,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 7 Issue: 2 , Apr 1961 , Page(s): 82 -87
[4] Turyn, R. “Ambiguity functions of complementary sequences,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 9 Issue: 1 , Jan 1963 , Page(s): 46 -47
[5] Sivaswamy, R. “Multiphase Complementary Codes,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 24 Issue: 5 , Sep 1978 , Page(s): 546 -552
[6] Frank, R. “Polyphase complementary codes,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 26 Issue: 6 , Nov 1980 , Page(s): 641 -647
[7] Suehiro, N.; Hatori, M. “N-shift cross-orthogonal sequences,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 34 Issue: 1 , Jan. 1988 ,Page(s): 143 -146
[8] Hsiao-Hwa Chen; Jun-Feng Yeh; Suehiro, N. “A multicarrier CDMA architecture based on orthogonal complementary codes for new generations of wideband wireless communications,” Communications Magazine, IEEE , Volume: 39 Issue: 10 , Oct. 2001 , Page(s): 126 -135
[9] A. Vahlin and N. Holte , “Use of a guard interval in OFDM on multipath channels,” ELECTRONICS LETTERS 24th November 1994 vol. 30 No.24
[10] P. H. Moose, “A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 2908-2914, oct 1994.
[11] Jianhua Lu, K. B. Letaief, Justin C-I Chuang, “M-PSK and M-QAM BER Computation Using Signal-Space Concepts”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1999
[12] 林哲民, “OFDM互補碼分碼多工系統之研究,” 國立中山大學電機工程學系研究所碩士論文, 2004
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