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研究生:林欣瑜
研究生(外文):Hsin-Yi, Lin
論文名稱:口吃與焦慮之間的關係:口吃者在不同說話情境下的焦慮程度
論文名稱(外文):The relationship between anxiety and stuttering: anxiety levels of people who stutter in various speech conditions
指導教授:楊淑蘭楊淑蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Lan, Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立台北護理學院
系所名稱:聽語障礙科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:情境焦慮心跳成人口吃患者口吃嚴重度預測焦慮特質焦慮治療師研究者心跳表單變量
外文關鍵詞:stuttering adultstate anxietytrait anxietyspeech-related anxietystuttering severity
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本研究的主要目的在探討(1)成人口吃者和非口吃者在預測其說話焦慮時是否有顯著差異;(2)成人口吃者預測的說話焦慮是否和實際焦慮有顯著相關;(3)不同口吃嚴重度的受試者在不同說話情境的情境焦慮是否有顯著差異;(4)不同特質焦慮的口吃者在不同說話情境的情境焦慮是否有顯著差異。本研究之工具包括:說話焦慮自我評量表、情境—特質焦慮量表及Polar Vantage XL心跳表。研究者先以SLD(Yairi, 1997)加權計分公式篩選出中北部地區24位接受口吃治療少於五次之成人男性口吃者,並依SLD加權計分結果將口吃者分為嚴重與輕微口吃者兩組,每組各12人,再選取與成人口吃患者相同年齡層和性別的12位非口吃者為對照組,將資料進行獨立樣本t檢定、Pearson積差相關及二因子單變量重複量數共變數分析等統計分析,其結果如下:
成人口吃者預測的說話焦慮較非口吃者為高;成人口吃者預測的說話焦慮與實際焦慮有顯著中低相關,且其自陳情境焦慮和以心跳為指標的情境焦慮並無顯著相關,因此口吃者預測的說話焦慮尚未足以作為實際情境焦慮值之預測指標;不同口吃嚴重度、高低特質焦慮在不同說話情境之情境焦慮上皆無顯著差異;而受試者在不同說話情境下之心跳則有顯著差異。在不同說話情境成對比較時,全部受試者均顯示在打電話時之心跳均高於在知曉被錄音情況下打電話;而僅對成人口吃者之心跳來看,則打電話時高於被錄音情況下打電話,被錄音情況下打電話又高於獨白時。
最後說明本研究之限制,並提出相關建議,以供語言治療師及未來研究之參考。
The main purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) for speech conditions, does the predicted anxiety levels of stuttering group are higher than those of nonstuttering group? (2) In stuttering group, do the predicted anxiety levels of the three experimental conditions (monologue, phone call and rated phone call) correlate significantly to the anxiety level of actual conditions respectively? (3) For all the participants, do different stuttering severity and condition show significant difference on the state anxiety level for all the participants? (4) For the stuttering group, do different trait anxiety level and condition show significant difference on the state anxiety level? The research instruments include Speech-related Anxiety Questionnaire (SAQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Polar Vantage XL heart rate monitor (HR). The researcher recruited 24 male stuttering adults and 12 normal male adults, and the stuttering subjects were grouped into two stuttering severity groups using weighted SLD formula (Yairi, 1997). The data were analyzed by t test, Pearson product-moment correlation and two way repeated measure analysis of covariance.
The results showed that the predicted anxieties in SAQ were significantly higher in the stuttering group than those in the nonstuttering group. For the stuttering participants, except HR change in the monologue condition, the predicted anxiety in the SAQ was significantly related to the actual subjective and objective anxiety levels, SAI and HR change, in three experimental conditions. Stuttering severity level cannot differentiate the SAI and HR of all the participants in three experimental conditions. Trait anxiety level, like stuttering severity, also cannot differentiate the SAI and HR of the stuttering participants in three experimental conditions. However, all the participants showed significantly higher HR in the phone call condition than the rated phone call condition. Also the stuttering subjects had higher HR in the phone call condition than in the rated phone call condition, and higher HR in the rated phone call condition than the monologue condition.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………i
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………..iv
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES…………………………………………………..vi
INTRODUCTION
Motive……………………………………………………………………………1
Terminology……………………………………………………………………...5
Objectives……………………………………………………………………...…8
Hypotheses……………………………………………………………………….8
LITERATURE REVIEW
Theories regarding stuttering and anxiety.……………………………………...11
What is anxiety……………………………………………………………….....16
METHOD
Participant……………………………………………………………………….25
Instrumentation………………………………………………………………….27
Procedures............................................................................................................32
Statistical analysis………………………………………………………………38
RESULTS
Stuttering and nonstuttering groups in SAQ …………………………...………39
Impacts of stuttering severity and condition on anxiety levels………..………..46
Impacts of trait anxiety level and condition on anxiety levels………………….50
DISCUSSION
Higher SAQ in the stuttering group….................................................................56
Predicted anxiety level and actual anxiety level in corresponding conditions....58
Stuttering severity showed no impacts on SAI and HR for all participants..…...62
Trait anxiety level showed no impact on SAI and HR...………………………..67
Condition can differentiate the objective anxiety level but not subjective anxiety………………………………………………………………………………..70
Is SAI not sensitive enough for measuring anxiety level of stuttering people?...73
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………76
Clinical application……………………………………………………………..77
Research limitations………………………………….…………………………77
Suggestion for future studies……………………………………………………78
REFERENCE………………………………………………………………………...80
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………..90
Appendix A: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Mandarin ver.).....………………..91
Appendix B: Speech-related anxiety questionnaire (Mandarin ver.)..………….93
Appendix C: Consent form……………………………………………………..96
Appendix D: Case history form…………...……………………………………97
Appendix E: Ordering instructions……………………………………………..99











LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
Figure
Demonstration of how to wear heart rate monitor…………………………….31
The research concept of the present study…………………………………….36
The research design of the present study………..…………………………….36
Experimental procedures……………………..……………………………….37

Table
Age, education level and WSLD of the participants……………………….....27
Means, standard deviations (in parentheses) and t-test of each SAQ rating in nonstuttering and stuttering groups………………………………………………….40
Means and standard deviations (in paretheses) of SAI and HR of stuttering group in three experimental conditions………………………………………………43
Correlations of SAQ ratings and SAI and heart rate change in the monologue condition for stuttering group…………………..……………………………………44
Correlations of SAQ ratings and SAI and heart rate change of the phone call condition ……………………………………….……………………………………45
Correlations of SAQ ratings and SAI and heart rate change of the rated phone call condition………………………………………………………………………..45
Means (standard deviations) and estimated marginal means (standard errors) of SAI and HR of three groups with different stuttering severity in three conditions…47
Summary of analysis of covariance for SAI with variations of stuttering severity and condition…………………….……………………………………….. .49
Summary of analysis of covariance for HR with variations of stuttering severity and condition……..…………………………………………………………………50

Means (standard deviations) and estimated marginal means (standard errors) of SAI and HR of two trait anxiety level groups in all conditions..…………………....51
Summary of analysis of covariance for SAI with variations of trait anxiety level and condition……………..………………………………………………………….53
Summary of analysis of covariance: HR with variations of trait anxiety level.54
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